IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

May - June 2014Volume 16 - Issue 3

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 6 7 8 9

  • Citation
  • Abstract
  • Reference
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Virtual Teaching and Painting Platform for the Colour Blind
Country : India
Authors : Ananya Roy, Abhishek Rudra, Souvik Bhattacharya, Arnab Pal
: 10.9790/0661-16360109  logo
Abstract: Education involves perception of colour and unfortunately some of us are not blessed with this gift of proper vision. Lacking the ability to distinguish certain colours is commonly known as Colour Blindness. In schools and colleges, colour blind students are not supported much in the classroom, some lose confidence and struggle to cope. Often colour blind teachers are unable to distinguish important colours of pens or markers and for an efficient and interactive learning environment it is seen that the results are tilted in favour of classrooms where multiple colours are used on the board. The numbers corresponding to people having this disease(or its variations) are compelling enough to make it highly imperative for us to seek a solution for it. Hence, we propose a software which can be used as a virtual teaching and virtual painting platform by these differently abled people. Built on the Graphical User Interface Development Environment(GUIDE) in the numerical computing environment MATLAB, this system helps the user to identify the colour of the object (marker) withwhich he can teach virtually by moving it in air.These movementsget traced on the screen which serves as a virtual white board.

1. The id of the color with maximum probability is received.
2. The current color is set to the color with the value id.
3. Flip the video.
4. Display the video in the designated axes.
5. Find the area, centroid and bounding box properties of the black and white form of the extracted color
component of the image.
6. Find the region of the image with maximum area and assume a rectangular bounding box around that
region.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Structural Designs with Computer Programming in Building Construction
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Adu Michael K, Abe Omoloye E
: 10.9790/0661-16361016  logo

Abstract: The scope of civil engineering is wide and the application of computer is not put to use as expected even among professionals in developing nations. This paper is an attempt at revealing methods available for application of computer as a tool which can tremendously improve the qualities of delivery especially utilization of user developed packages that are customized to suit a particular problem at hand. It exposes how computer programming can be used in detail designs and quick process to calculate complex force stresses in structures. It further brings to the fore its application in automation of structural designs in concrete, elicits explicitly how computer can accept data through programming and uses the data to provide information in the final analysis on total design load, moment generated and areas of main and distributed reinforcements to stair-case, landing to stairs and Slabs. 'Customized Computer Package' in this context implies a completely interactive software system with considerable dialogue between the user and the system before a solution is obtained. This is implemented using Object-Oriented FORTRAN programming language.

Keywords: Complex Force Stresses, Civil Engineering, Customized Computer Package, Object-Oriented FORTRAN, Structural Designs

[1]. O. C Akinyokun, Computers and programming using FORTRAN (New Era Commercial Press, Alagbaka, Akure, 1994).
[2]. K. K Aggarwal and S. Yogesh, Software Engineering (Third Edition, New Delhi: New Age International Publishers Limited 2004).
[3]. Wikipedia, Civil Engineering Software, The free encyclopedia [4]. M. McCormick and G. Salvador. Numerical Methods in FORTRAN (Prentice Hall international Inc., London. 1990) [5]. H, Mosley and H, Bungay. Reinforced Concrete Design (McMillan Education Ltd., London. Fourth Edition,1990)
[6]. M. K. Adu. Computer Basis, Application and Programming (Onibonadura Publishers, Akure, 2004).
[7]. S.L. Pfleeger, Software Engineering, Theory and Practice (Prentice Hall, 2001).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improved Method for Pattern Discovery in Text Mining
Country : India
Authors : Rakhi A. Dixit, Prof. V.A.Chakrawar
: 10.9790/0661-16361722  logo
Abstract: The proposed technique uses two processes, pattern deploying and pattern evolving, to refine the discovered patterns in text documents. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms not only other pure data mining-based methods and the concept based model, but also term-based state-of-the-art models, such as BM25 and SVM-based models. PBTM firstly generates pattern based topic representations to model user's information interests with multiple topics; then PBTM selects quality patterns for estimating the relevance of documents. The proposed approach incorporates the semantic topics from topic modeling and the specificity of the representative patterns. The proposed model has been evaluated by using RCV1 and TREC topics for the task of information filtering. Comparing with the state-of-the-art models, PBTM demonstrates excellent strength on document modeling and relevance ranking.
Keywords: Pattern mining, Text mining, Text classification

[1]. H. Lodhi, C. Saunders, J. Shawe-Taylor, N. Cristianini, and C. Watkins, "Text Classification Using String Kernels," J. Machine Learning Research, vol. 2, pp. 419-444, 2002.
[2]. A. Maedche, Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web. Kluwer Academic, 2003.
[3]. C. Manning and H. Schu¨ tze, Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. MIT Press, 1999.
[4]. I. Moulinier, G. Raskinis, and J. Ganascia, "Text Categorization: A Symbolic Approach," Proc. Fifth Ann. Symp. Document Analysis and Information Retrieval (SDAIR), pp. 87-99, 1996.
[5]. J.S. Park, M.S. Chen, and P.S. Yu, "An Effective Hash-Based Algorithm for Mining Association Rules," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. anagement of Data (SIGMOD '95), pp. 175-186, 1995


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Approaches to Amalgamate the Anti-Network Attacks Technologies in Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
Country : India
Authors : Aaruni Goel, Madhup Sharma, K.M. Pandey
: 10.9790/0661-16362327  logo
Abstract: A Network Intrusion Detection Prevention System (IDPS) is a mechanism that continuously monitors the network traffic and finds out the malicious, suspicious and undesired network activities. After identifying any illegitimate activity it simply blocks it and changes the security environment as per the rules set by policy maker(s). It should be noted that this task of monitoring is accomplished in real-time mode so that the only genuine network traffic is allowed to pass through the IPS without noticeable delay. Additionally, some organizations employ many other technologies on the place of IDPSs that present the same ability as IDPSs does and also match with the competencies of IDPSs. In this paper, we will focus on some of these matching technologies: network forensic analysis tools, anti-malware technologies (antivirus software) and firewalls and routers. Each of these technologies are now briefly explained giving the information how its use help in detecting intrusion and its avoidance stating relationship of these technologies with IDPSs. Suggestion will be added to appropriation telling how we should use these technologies along with IDPSs.
Keywords: Forensics Tools, Antivirus technologies, Firewalls, Routers, Host Intrusion Detection System (HIDS), Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS)

[1]. Denning and Dorothy, "An Intrusion-Detection Model", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 1987.
[2]. Lee W andStolfo S J. "A framework for constructing features and models for intrusion detection systems". ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 2000.
[3]. Alessandri D, Chichin C and Dacier M, "Towards a taxonomy of intrusion detection systems and attacks",2001.
[4]. Matthew Tanase, The Future of IDS, 2002. http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1518
[5]. Kayacik.G. and Zincir-Heywood A. N., "Evaluation of the Cisco 10.9 Firewall with Darpa 99 Dataset", Technical Report, Faculty of Computer Science, Dalhousie University, November 2002.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Rural Small and Medium Enterprise: Information and Communication Technology as Panacea
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Obadun Mathew Olukayode, Wan Rozaini Sheik Osman, Husam Abdulhameed Hussein, Ahmed Naser Ismael, Ahmed Abdulla Masoud, Abdul Ghafar Mansor
: 10.9790/0661-16362831  logo
Abstract: Though, there are variations in the definitions of small and medium enterprises but it can be generally accepted as business activities that employ the services of 150 or fewer people in its activities and attributed with no link to the public limited company. Among the challenges facing the prospect of small and medium enterprise in the rural areas is the lack of integrating information and communication technology skills or strategies into their practice. Therefore, this paper engages the exploration of previous literatures in finding the benefits of information and communication technology to the rural small and medium enterprise.
Keywords: ICT, Rural Areas, Rural SME, Small and Medium Enterprise

[1]. American Marketing Association (2006). Marketing Terms Dictionary. Retrieved from www.marketing power.com/index, May 10th, 2014.
[2]. Ariyo, D. (2008 ). Small firms are the backbone of the Nigerian economy. Africa Economic Analysis, Retrieved from www.africaeconomicanalysis.org/articles/gen/smallhtm.html, May 14th, 2014.
[3]. Cook, P., & Nixson, F. (2000). Finance and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Development.
[4]. Darren, L., & Conrad, L. (2009). Entrepreneurship and Small Business management in the Hospitality Industry. Jordan Hill, UK: Elsevier Linacre House.
[5]. Elumilade, D.O., Asaolu, T.O., & Adereti, S.A. (2006). Appraising the Institutional Framework for Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Vol. 3, pp. 66-77.
[6]. Gilmore, A., Carson, D., & Grant, K. (2001). SME Marketing in Practice. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 6-11.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Client Based Cache Consistency Scheme in Wireless Mobile Networks
Country : India
Authors : Aswathi.P, Abey Abraham
: 10.9790/0661-16363235  logo
Abstract: This paper proposes a client based cache consistency scheme for maintaining cache consistency in wireless mobile networks using a distributed cache invalidation method. This is implemented on top of a previously proposed architecture for caching data items in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), namely COCAS. We have also previously proposed a client and server based consistency scheme, named SSUM and DCIM. Client based cache consistency scheme is a pull-based algorithm that implements adaptive time to live (TTL), piggybacking, and prefetching, and provides strong consistency capabilities. We assign an adaptive TTL value to the cached data items in the data source depending on their update rates, where items with expired TTL values are grouped in validation requests to the data source to refresh them. But the unexpired ones with high request rates are prefetched from the server.
Index Terms: Cache consistency, Cache invalidation, Distributed cache invalidation method, time to live, wireless mobile networks.

[1]. Kassem Fawaz and Hassan Artail , DCIM: Distributed Cache In-validation Method for Maintaining Cache Consistency in Wireless Mobile Networks , IEEE Transactions on mobile computing,vol. 12,no. 4,April 2013.
[2]. H. Artail, H. Safa, K. Mershad, Z. Abou-Atme, and N. Sulieman , COACS: A Coop- erative and Adaptive Caching System for MANETS, IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput- ing, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 961-977, Aug. 2008 .
[3]. K. Mershad and H. Artail , SSUM: Smart Server Update Mechanism for Maintaining Cache Consistency in Mobile Environments, IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 9, no. 6 , pp. 778-795,June 2010.
[4]. G. Cao, A Scalable Low-Latency Cache Invalidation Strategy for Mobile Environ- ments, IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1251-1265, Sept./Oct. 2003.
[5]. J. Cao, Y. Zhang, G. Cao, and X. Li, Data Consistency for Cooperative Caching in Mobile Environments , Computer, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 60-66, 2007

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of Intelligent Traffic Light System Based On Congestion Estimation Using Fuzzy Logic
Country : India
Authors : Javed Alam, Prof. (Dr.) M. K. Pandey
: 10.9790/0661-16363644  logo
Abstract: Vehicular traffic is the major problem which every country faces because of the increase in number of vehicles throughout the world, especially in large urban areas. In a conventional traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at fixed time. It does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers implemented in current practice, are based on the 'time-of-the-day' scheme, which uses a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. A traffic light controller based on fuzzy logic can be used to optimize the control of unprecedented traffic volumes such as over saturated or unusual load conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the traffic controller for effective traffic management and better traffic flow. The efficiency of traffic flow through an intersection depends on the phases, sequence and the timing of the traffic signals installed to minimize the wait time of the vehicle in each queue. Fuzzy optimization deals with finding the values of input parameters of a complex simulated system which results in desired output. Fuzzy logic controller is used to execute fuzzy logic inference rules from a fuzzy rule base in determining the congestion parameters, getting the warning information and the appropriate action. This paper, describe the design and implementation of an intelligent traffic light system (ITLS) based on congestion estimation using fuzzy logic. In an intelligent traffic light system (ITLS) number of vehicles in each lane is measured using sensors. At the end of each phase these numbers are used as inputs to fuzzy controller. Fuzzy controller calculates the duration of green light as per the traffic situation. To simulate the situation of an isolated traffic junction based on congestion estimation, we use MATLAB. The results obtained show an improvement in the overall outcome of traffic management as compared to the conventional traffic controller, marking great feasibility and practicality of the current model.
Keyword: Simulation, Fuzzy logic, ITLS, Arrival, Queue, Right-Queue, and Extension time

[1]. Javed Alam and Prof. (Dr.) M. K. Pandey "Advance Traffic Light System Based On Congestion Estimation Using Fuzzy Logic" in International Journal of Emerging Technology & Advanced Engineering (IJETAE) ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014, PP 870-877.
[2]. Javed Alam, Prof. (Dr.) M.K. Pandey and Husain Ahmed "Intelligent Traffic Light Control System for Isolated Intersection Using Fuzzy Logic" International conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems 2013 (CAC2S 2013) DIT University Dehradun, India, ISBN-978-90-78677-66-6, 6-8th April 2013, PP 209-215
[3]. Javed Alam and Prof. (Dr.) M.K. Pandey "Development of Traffic Light Control System for Emergency Vehicle Using Fuzzy Logic" International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, IIT- BHU Varanasi, India 7-9 December-2012.
[4]. Pappis, C. P., and E. H. Mamdani. "A Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Traffic Junction". IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC-7, No. 10, October 1977, pp. 707-717.
[5]. Chiu, S. "Adaptive Traffic Signal Control Using Fuzzy Logic". Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 1992, pp. 98-107.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Algorithms for Various Biological Networks
Country : India
Authors : BhartiTalukdar
: 10.9790/0661-16364555  logo
Abstract: Biological networks are the networks which are used to represent different biological entities and relationship between the different entities. But due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life science their size and complexity is steadily increasing. For understanding biological networks several algorithms for lying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore various algorithms are required for representing different types of networks. This paper present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome

[1]. Appel, A. Bairoch, and D. F. Hochstrasser. A new generation ofinformation retrieval tools for biologists: The example of the ExPASyWWW server. Trends Biochemical Sciences, 19:258–260, 1994.
[2]. W. Basalaj. Incremental multidimensional scaling method for databasevisualization. In R. F. Erbacher, P. C. Chen, and C. M. Wittenbrink,editors, Visual Data Exploration and Analysis VI (Proc. SPIE), volume
[3]. ofProceedings of SPIE, pages 149–158, 1999.3[Bax03] A. D. Baxevanis. The molecular biology database collection: 2003 update.Nucleic Acids Research, 31(1):1–12, 2003.
[4]. C. Bachmaier, U. Brandes, and B. Schlieper. Drawings of phylogenetictrees (extended abstract). In X. Deng and D. Du, editors, Algorithmsand Computation, Proc. ISAAC 2005, volume 3827 of LNCS, pages 1110–1121. Springer, 2005.
[5]. G. D. Bader, D. Betel D, and C. W. Hogue. BIND: the biomolecularinteraction network database. Nucleic Acids Research, 31(1):248–250,2003.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Chip Implementation of Text Encryption and Decryption Algorithms
Country : India
Authors : Vishwa Deepak Badoni ,Mr. Arpit jain
: 10.9790/0661-16365661  logo
Abstract: Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. It enables to store sensitive information or transmit it across insecure networks so that it cannot be read by anyone except the intended recipient. While cryptography is the science of securing data, cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking secure communication. A common goal of cryptographic research is to design protocols that provide a confidential and authenticated transmission channel for messages over an insecure network. A cryptographic algorithm is considered to be computationally secured if it cannot be broken with standard resources, either current or future and apart from the algorithm distribution of keys also more important is to make an efficient cryptosystem. TACIT Encryption Algorithm can produce best possible results if key size is the size of the packet expected to pass through the network is small. This paper gives the comparison of the various algorithms with TACIT Encryption Algorithm on the basis of parameters like key length, block size, type and features. The paper is based on the chip designing of the algorithm using VHDL programming language.
Keywords: Encryption and Decryption, SoPC (System on Programmable chip),Very High Speed integrated Circuit Hardware Description language (VHDL).

[1]. Ashwini M. Deshpande, Mangesh S. Deshpande and Devendra N. Kayatanavar, "Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption" International Conference on "Control, Automation, Communication and Energy Conservation -2009, (page 1-5)
[2]. Beerel P, Roncken "Low power and energy efficient asynchronous design". Journal of Low Power Electron Vol.3, No. 3, pp (234–253), Dec. 2007.
[3]. C. J. Glass and L. M. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive routing," Journal of the ACM, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 874–902, 1994.
[4]. D. Park, C. Nicopoulos, J. Kim, N. Vijaykrishnan, and C. R. Das, "Exploring fault-tolerant network-on-chip architectures," in Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, (DSN ‟06), pp. 93–104, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, June 2006.
[5]. Hiroaki Morino Thai Thach Bao Nguyen Hoaison Hitoshi Aida Tadao Saito "A Scalable Multistage Packet Switch for Terabit IP Router Based on Deflection Routing and Shortest Path Routing" © 2002 IEEE, pp (2179-2185)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Cluster Head Selection Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network Using Deterministic Protocol
Country : India
Authors : Sandeep Singh Meelu, Mamta Katiyar
: 10.9790/0661-16366267  logo
Abstract: The Wireless Sensor Networks are emerging Technology of 21st Century and It is estimated that by the coming years more and more wireless sensors will be deployed for applications as diverse as environmental monitoring, agricultural monitoring, machine health monitoring, surveillance, and medical monitoring. These networks, which connect the physical world with the digital world, provide us with a richer understanding of our environment and with the ability to more accurately control our surroundings. However, there are many challenges that must be addressed before the full potential of these networks are realized. In this paper we introduced improved DEC (I-DEC) protocol which is capable of improving stability as well as lifetime of the WSN network over other existing protocols. An overview of existing protocols with their advantages, limitations and existing improvements is also presented in this paper. The results obtained from proposed DEC shows better performance with respect to energy consumption over existing protocols.
Keywords: Cluster Head Selection, Clustering Protocol, Deterministic Clustering, Energy Efficient, WSN lifetime.

[1]. Giuseppe Anastasi, Marco Conti, Mario Di Francesco, Andrea Passarella, Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: A survey, Computer Networks, Elsevier, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 537–568, May 2009.
[2]. Luis Ruiz-Garcia, Loredana Lunadei, Pilar Barreiro and Jose Ignacio Robla, A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends, Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2009.
[3]. Gang Zhao, Davis, Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Process Monitoring and Control: A Survey, Macrothink Institute, Network Protocols and Algorithms, ISSN 1943-3581, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011.
[4]. Cholatip Yawut and Sathapath Kilaso, A Wireless Sensor Network for Weather and Disaster Alarm Systems, International Conference on Information and Electronics Engineering, IPCSIT IACSIT Press, Singapore, vol.6 2011.
[5]. Mr. Puneet Garg, Mr. Kuntal Saroha, Mrs. Ruchika Lochab, Review of Wireless Sensor Networks -Architecture and Applications, IJCSMS International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies, Vol-11, Issue 01, May 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Next Generation Genetic Algorithm for Maximum Clique Problem
Country : India
Authors : Savita, Sudha
: 10.9790/0661-16366871  logo
Abstract: Given a graph, in the maximum clique problem, one desires to find the largest number of vertices, any two of which are adjacent. A branch-and-bound algorithm for the maximum clique problem—which is computationally equivalent to the maximum independent (stable) set problem—is presented with the vertex order taken from a coloring of the vertices and with a new pruning strategy. The algorithm performs successfully for many instances when applied to random graphs and DIMACS benchmark graphs.
Keywords: Maximum clique problem,planner graphs,Heuristics ,Genetic Algorithm,NP hard

1]. Cazals & karande(2008);Eppstein & Strash(2011).

[2]. Eppstein;Loffler & Strash (2010).

[3]. Regin (2003)

[4]. Tomita & Kameda (2007);Konc & Janezic (2007)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on User-Interface Architectures
Country : India
Authors : K.Nirmala, A.V.Sriharsha
: 10.9790/0661-16367277  logo
Abstract: This paper is a outcome of a detailed examination of tools, systems and notation used in software architectures. Modeling software architecture for a system is not as easy as one can understand tools, applying the appropriate tool essentially varies its efficiency and demands. In the background of Software Architecture analysis, design there is a profound influence of design and specification tools that tend to develop models for even challenging systems is a more systematic and predictable manner. This survey reveals various directions of research in software architectures.
Keywords: Architecture description languages, Architecture knowledge, User interface architectures

[1]. Roger Pressman, "Software Engineering: A Practitioner Approach", (C) Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2010.
[2]. Ian Somerville, "Software Engineering", (C) Pearson Education, 2007
[3]. Mary Shaw, David Garlan, "Software Architecture: Perspectives on Emerging Discipline", (C) Prentice Hall, 1996.
[4]. Lenn Bass, Paul Clements, Rick Kazman, "Software Architecture in Practice", Carnegie Melon Software Engineering Institute, (C) Pearson, 2003.
[5]. Wilbert O Galitz, "The Essential Guide to User Interface Design", (C) John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[6]. Shneiderman Ben, "Designing the User Interface", Addison-Wesley Longman, Limited, © 1997.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detecting Outliers Using Classifier Techniques and Discovering Their Behaviours
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. S. Nithya, Ms.M.R.Kavia
: 10.9790/0661-16367883  logo
Abstract: An outlier is an observation that lies an abnormal distance from other values in a random sample from a given population. In given population consider the problem of discovering attributes or properties ,accounting for the previous stated abnormality of a group of anomalous individuals . we are using different types of classifiers like Support vector Mechanism, RBF Network, Bayes network etc to detect the outliers and find the behavior of outliers. For that we are using EXPREX Algorithm, for efficiently discovering exceptional properties and discover the attributes of which induces the outliers.
Index Terms: Knowledge Discovery, anomaly characterization, Machine Learning, Data Mining, WEKA, Classification

[1]. F. Angiulli, F. Fassetti, and L. Palopoli,
[2]. "Detecting outlying properties of exceptional objects," ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 34, no. 1, 2009.
[3]. K. Pearson, "On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arised from random sampling," Philosophical Magazine Series 5, vol. 50, pp. 157–175, 1900.
[4]. T. W. Anderson, "On the distribution of the two-sample cram´ervon mises criterion," The Annals of Mathematical Statistics (Institute of Mathematical Statistics), vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 1148–1159, 1962.
[5]. G. Passarino, A. Montesanto, S. Dato, S. Giordano, F. Domma, V. Mari, E. Feraco, and G. D.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation and Comparison of a New Wormhole Detection Technique with Existing Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Gauri Mathur, Raj Karan Singh, M. Vijaya Raju
: 10.9790/0661-16368491  logo
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc networks are increasingly popular these days as they function without major requirements of state of the art infrastructure and the fact that they can function without the need for a central controlling authority. The widespread usage of the MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc networks) also poses some serious problems in them. Because of the high availability of MANETs and improper security measures make the MANETs a ready target for attackers which adopt both active and passive approach to attack the MANET. A classic attack on a MANET is a DOS attack of which wormhole attack is most noteworthy as it is easy to deploy and can cause great damage to the network. In the wormhole attack, an adversary connects two distant points in the network using a direct low-latency communication link in the MANET which is called as wormhole link. Once a wormhole is established, the adversary captures the wireless transmissions on one end and send them through the wormhole link and replays them on the other end. There are many methods available for wormhole detection which include in some cases the use of sophisticated hardware and in other cases makes some modification to the already present information in the MANET. The presence of a wormhole may also be detected in some cases by the use of time delays or geographical locations. A wormhole can be detected when the network has already been set up and wormhole nodes try to penetrate at a later time and secondly when the wormhole nodes were already present in the time of network setup. In this paper, we adopt a new approach which is different from the already existing approaches of wormhole detection. The approach adopted by us has the benefit of saving memory and processing which is an improvement over the other techniques of wormhole detection. It also advocates the use of a modified routing table wherein the routing table will be modified to have an extra consisting of full paths of each node next to the hop. Using this approach of modified routing table, we can identify suspicious links long before the attack takes place and starts disturbing the network. This approach is implemented on various routing protocols with the help of NS3 and a comparative analysis has been made for the same. A comparison of this approach with some other techniques of wormhole detection is also carried out to highlight the effectiveness and efficiency of this approach.
Keywords: wormhole, detection, hop count, routing table

[1]. Viren Mahajan, Maitreya Natu, and Adarshpal Sethi, Nov. 2008 "Analysis of wormhole Intrusion Attacks In MANETS",IEEE Military Communications Conference,MILCOM 2008.
[2]. Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig, David B. Johnson, 2003 "Packet Leashes : A Defence against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks", Twenty-Second ANNUAL Joint Conference of IEEE Computer and Communications , pp. 267-279.
[3]. Chiu, HS; Wong Lui KS, 2006 "DELPHI: Wormhole Detection Mechanism for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks",In Proceeding of International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, pp. 6-11.
[4]. Srdjan Capkun, L.evente Buttyan, and Jean-Pierre Hubaux, 2003 "SECTOR: Secure Traking of Node Encouters in Multi-hop Wireless Networks,"In Proceedings of 1st ACM Workshop on Security of Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (ACM SANS), pp. 21-32.
[5]. Lingxuan Hu and David Evans, Feb. 2004 "Using Directional Antennas to Prevent Wormhole Attack ",In Proceedings of the Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, pp. 131-141.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An encrypted mechanism for securing cloud data from data mining attacks
Country : India
Authors : Priyadarshini Adyasha Pattanaik
: 10.9790/0661-16369294  logo
Abstract: Cloud Computing is a vast infrastructural and rising pool which provides huge storage of data in one sphere. Organizations nowadays are in the marathon of equipping the whole system in a cloud form. In this paper we are concern for providing a greater security to the cloud data from data mining attacks. Time complexity and security issue is taken into consideration. Data security and privacy protection issues are associated with cloud computing have been enhanced and modernised in this paper. We have proposed an architecture comprising of various components and network designs which provides a high level of security to the data. The rate of growth of cloud computing is so fast that it has already put its head in the mortar and is spread as the most durable untiring technology now. As cloud computing is a store house of data which might get affected by data mining attacks so we have launched this architecture.

[1]. Secure and Efficient Data Storage in Multi-clouds, Veena Khandelwal -2013
[2]. Database system concept, Abraham Silbersschtz, Henry F. Korth.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Content Based Image Retrieval System
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Meenakshi Sharma, Anjali Batra
: 10.9790/0661-163695104  logo
Abstract: Content based image retrieval is an active research issue that had been famous from 1990s till present. The main target of CBIR is to get accurate results with lower computational time. This paper discusses on the comparative method used in color histogram based on two major methods used frequently in CBIR which are; normal color histogram using GLCM, and color histogram using KMeans. A set of 9960 images are used to test the accuracy and the precision of each methods. Using Euclidean distance, similarity between queried image and the candidate images are calculated. Experiment results shows that color histogram with K-Means method had high accuracy and precise compared to GLCM. Future work will be made to add more features that are famous in CBIR which are texture, color, and shape features in order to get better results.
Keywords: CBIR, Euclidean distance, GLCM, KMeans, Quadratic distance

[1]. N. S. Chang, and K. S. Fu, "A relational database system for images," Technical Report TR-EE 79-82, Purdue University, May
1979.
[2]. A.M.W. Smeulders, M. Worring, S. Santini, A.Gupta, and R. Jain, "Content-based image retrieval at the end of early years, "IEEE
Trans. On Pattern Analysis and machine intelligence, vol. 22, no. 12, December 2000.
[3]. C. Carson, M. Thomas, S. Belongie, J. M. Hellerstein, and J. Malik, "Blobworld: A system for region-based image indexing and
retrieval," In D. P. Huijsmans and A. W. M. Smeulders, ed. Visual Information and Information System, Proceedings of the Third
International Conference VISUAL‟99, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 1999, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1614.
Springer, 1999.
[4]. J. Assfalg, A. D. Bimbo, and P. Pala, "Using multiple examples for content-based retrieval," Proc. Int'l Conf. Multimedia and Expo,
2000.
[5]. S. K. Chang, C. W. Yan, D. C. Dimitroff, and T. Arndt, "An intelligent image database system," IEEE Trans. on Software
Engineering, Vol.14, No.5, pp. 681-688, May 1988.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : On Combined Approach for mining FSG in Transactionized Graph Datasets
Country : India
Authors : K.Rajendran, Dr. T. Venugopal, A.V.Sriharsha
: 10.9790/0661-1636105113  logo
Abstract: Graph Data mining has ushered into new era with advanced data mining techniques. Mining Frequent Sub Graphs is the crucial area which appeals the ease of extracting the patterns in the graph. Typical graph data like Social Networks, Biological Networks (for metabolic pathways) and Computer Networks needs analysis of virtual networks of a category. Such graphs need be modeled as layered to distinguish the categories of relationships. Traditional Market Basket Analysis of Data mining has proven its elegance of mining Frequent Itemsets. Combining the techniques of Apriori with Collaborative Mining discriminates a new concept of mining FSG.
Keywords: Graph Data Mining, Link Analysis, FSG

[1]. www.wikipedia.com
[2]. Agrawal, R. and Srikant, R. 1994. Fast algorithms for mining association rules. In Proc. 20th Intl. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 487-499.
[3]. Aristides Gionis, Mining the graph structures of the web, © 2008, Yahoo! Research, Barcelona, Spain, and University of Helsinki, Finland.
[4]. Bettina Berendt, The semantics of frequent subgraphs: Mining and navigation pattern analysis, © 2005, ACM/WebKDD'05, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
[5]. Martin J Wainwrigh, Michael I. Jordan, "Graphical Models, Exponential Families, and Variational Inference", Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning, Vol. 1 No.s 1 -2, ©2008.


Researcher can also search IOSR published article contents through

IOSR Xplore