IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

May - June 2014Volume 16 - Issue 3

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 6 7 8 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement Caesar Cipher for Better Security
Country : Iraq
Authors : Programmer Enas Ismael Imran, Programmer Farah abdulameerabdulkareem
: 10.9790/0661-16350105  logo
Abstract: Cryptography is an art and science of converting original message into non readable form. Fast progression of digital data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming much more important in data storage and transmission. Cryptography has come up as a solution which plays a vital role in information security system against malicious attacks. In this project, encryption will be implemented information that makes it hard to be readable and secure. For that matter, encryption method known as Caesar cipher, one of the simplest and most widely used encryption techniques. In this encryption, it uses the three methods in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by some fixed number of position down the alphabet. The result from this project is a data which is encrypted and be decrypted to its readable form. As a conclusion, Caesar cipher algorithm can be implemented in many encryption projects to make data secure and better.
Keywords: Cryptography, Encryption, Decryption, Plaintext, Ciphertext

[1]. SomdipDey, JoyshreeNath and AshokeNath, "An Advanced Combined Symmetric Key Cryptographic Method using Bit Manipulation, Bit Reversal, Modified Caesar Cipher (SD-REE), DJSA method, TTJSA method: SJA-I Algorithm", International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA). Vol. 46, No. 20. Pp. 46-53, May, 2012.
[2]. Gaurav Sharma, Ajay Kakkar, "Cryptography Algorithms and approaches used for data security", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Vol. 3, Issue 6, 2012.
[3]. Hamdan.O.Alanazi, B.B.Zaidan and A.A.Zaidan, "New Comparative Study Between DES, 3DES and AES within Nine Factors", JOURNAL OF COMPUTING. Vol.2 , Issue 3. Pp.152-157, MARCH, 2010.
[4]. S G Srikantaswamy, Dr. H D Phaneendra, "Improved Caesar Cipher with Random Number Generation Technique and Multistage Encryption", International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS). Vol. 2, No.4. pp. 39-49, December 2012.
[5]. "CRYPTOGRAPHY", https://en//

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Pre-Processing Method for Extraction of Pectoral Muscle and Removal of Artefacts in Mammogram
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ojo J. A., Adepoju T. M., Omdiora E. O., Olabiyisi O. S. , Bello O. T
: 10.9790/0661-16350609  logo
Abstract: Mammography is an effective imaging modality used by radiologists for detection of breast cancer and effective suppression of pectoral muscle as well as removal of noise in form of artefacts aids accurate detection. In existing methods, either over-segmentation or under-segmentation, have been reported resulting in less accurate results. In this work, an algorithm was developed that effectively removed artefacts and pectoral muscle from mammograms, it uses a region description method, which uses splitting and merging technique to extract pectoral muscle and remove unwanted noise from the original mammograms. Digital mammograms from MIAS database were used to test the algorithm. The algorithm achieved (92.24%), acceptable results (4.04%), unaccepted results (3.10%), and discarded 0.62% of the whole mammograms. Experimental results obtained indicate that the breast regions extracted accurately.
Keywords: Mammograms, Pre-processing, Region of Interest (ROI).

[1] Boucher, A., Jouve, P.E., Cloppet, F. and Vincent, N., Segmentation du muscle pectoral sur une mammographie, Congrès des jeunes chercheurs en vision par ordinateur, ORASIS'09, 2009, Trégastel, France.
[2] Ponraj, D.Narain, Jenifer, M.Evangelin Poongodi, P., and Manoharan, J.Samuel, A Survey on the Preprocessing Techniques of Mammogram for the Detection of Breast Cancer, Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, 2(12), 2011, ISSN 2079-8407.
[3] Bandyopadhyay, Kumar, Samir, pre-processing of Mammogram Images, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(11), 2010, 6753-6758.
[4] Gupta, R., and Undril, P.E., The use of texture analysis to delineate suspicious masses in mammography", Phys.Med.biol. 40, 1995, 835-855.
[5] Suckling, J., Dance, D., Moskovic, E., Lewis, D. and Blacker, S., Segmentation of mammograms using multiple linked self-organizing neural networks", Med. Phys, 22, 1995, 145-52.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Approach for Security Testing of Client Server Based Applications using Misuse Deployment Diagrams, Misuse Cases and Threat Trees
Country : India
Authors : Biswajit Ghosh, Arup Abhinna Acharya
: 10.9790/0661-16351017  logo
Abstract: Security testing is one of the most important security practices today. To secure an application it's important to go for a security testing phase during the development life cycle. Many useful enhancements are done using UML diagrams to model security like Misuse cases, Mis-sequence diagrams and Misuse deployment diagrams etc. Misuse deployment diagrams can be used to model a client server environment with security aspects. Since in client server environment it is important to know where to apply your security, it's better to use Misuse Deployment diagrams which can give an overall view of the system in a single model. Based on this fact, an approach is proposed in this paper by combining Misuse deployment diagrams and Misuse Case diagrams with threat trees to generate security test cases. The approach is demonstrated with a case study where Misuse deployment diagrams, Misuse Cases are used to show that possible security defects can be identified using these diagrams and combined those with threat trees. Finally the threat trees are traversed to generate test sequences. This approach is suitable for detecting threats that need to be tested in location specific manner in client-server applications.
Index Terms: Security testing, Misuse deployment diagrams, threat trees, Misuse cases, test sequence

[1]. Open Web Application Security project (OWASP)
[2]. Susan J Lincke, Timothy H. Knautz and Misty D.Lowery, " Designing System Security with UML Misuse Deployment Diagrams ", in 2012 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Software Security and Reliability Companion, 978-0-7695-4743-5/12 IEEE, pp 57 – 61.
[3]. Frank Swiderski and Window Snyder, Threat Modeling: Microsoft Professional, 2004.
[4]. Charles B. Haley, Robin Laney, Jonathan D Moffett and Bashar Nuseibeh, " Security requirements engineering: A Framework for Representation and Analysis," in IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 34, No. 1, 0098-5589/08 IEEE, Jan.-Feb, 2008, pp 133 – 153.
[5]. Fabricio A Braz, Eduardo B Fernandez, and Michael Van Hilst, " Eliciting Security requirements through Misuse activities " in 19th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Application, 1529-4188/08 IEEE, 2008, pp 328 – 333.
[6]. Percy A. Pari Salas, Padmanabhan Krishnan, and Kelvin J. Ross, "Model-based Security Vulnerability Testing", in Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC'07), 0-7695-2778-7/07, IEEE, 2007. pp 284 – 296.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Use of Data Mining in Various Field: A Survey Paper
Country : India
Authors : Smita, Priti Sharma
: 10.9790/0661-16351821  logo
Abstract: Data mining is extracts the knowledge/ information from a large amount of data which stores in multiple heterogeneous data base. Knowledge /information are conveying the message through direct or indirect. This paper provides a survey of various data mining techniques. These techniques include association, correlation, clustering and neural network. This research paper also conducts a formal review of the application of data mining such as the education sector, marketing, fraud detection, manufacturing and telecommunication. This paper discusses the topic based on past research paper and also studies the data mining techniques.
Keywords: Association, Clustering, Data mining, data mining application, knowledge discovery database

[1] Yongjian Fu " data mining: task, techniques and application"
[2] Er. Rimmy Chuchra "Use of Data Mining Techniques for the Evaluation of Student Performance:A Case Study" International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research Vol 1 Issue 3 October 2012
[3] J. Han and M. Kamber. "Data Mining, Concepts and Techniques", Morgan Kaufmann, 2000.
[4] Aakanksha Bhatnagar, Shweta P. Jadye, Madan Mohan Nagar" Data Mining Techniques & Distinct Applications: A Literature Review" International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 9, November- 2012
[5] Brijesh Kumar Baradwaj, Saurabh Pal "Mining Educational Data to Analyze Students Performance" (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011
[6] Data mining white paper,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Securing IPv6's Neighbour and Router Discovery, using Locally Authentication Process
Country : India
Authors : Simanta Sarma
: 10.9790/0661-16352231  logo
Abstract: Internet Protocol version six (IPv6), the next generation Internet Protocol (IP), exists sparsely in today's world.Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), in IPv6, allowed nodes to Auto configure using neighbour discovery protocol. Neighbour Discovery (ND) and Address auto-configuration mechanisms may be protected with IPSec Authentication Header (AH). However, as it gains popularity now a day, it will grow into a vital role of the Internet and communications technology in general. IPv6, the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), is intended to replace IPv4, which still carries the vast majority of Internet traffic as of 2014. Protecting all traffic will include Address Resolution Protocol. To protect this, IPSec will need agreed Key. For Key setup, UDP packet is sent, which requires IPSec for secure communication. So IPSec requires Agreed Key and for Key setup IPSec is needed, this creates a loop. To solve this problem Locally Authentication Process is presented in this paper and we provide a taxonomy for the IPv6 Neighbor and Router Discovery threats, describe two new cryptographic methods, Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA) and Address Based Keys (ABK), and discuss how these new methods can be used to secure the Neighbor and Router discovery mechanisms. In this process will provide a certificate of ownership of IP address on network Interface card and Public key to provide authorization. On the other hand, it will also reduce the network load.
Keywords : Stateless Address Auto-configuration, Neighbour Discovery, Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA), MYSEA, IPsec, MLS, IP next generation, Multilevel security, Router Discovery, Secure Neighbour Discovery (SEND), Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Digital Certificate, Security Attacks in IPv6.

[1]. Al-Radhi, A, A. 2011. IPv6 Promised Role in Mitigating Cyber Attacks: Really it's Time!.Swiss Cyber Storm-International IT Security Conference, Switzerland.
[2]. Fundamental Benefits of IPv6,
[3]. Minoli, D. Kouns, J. 2009. Security in an IPv6 Environment. CRC Press, USA.
[4]. T. Aura; Request for Comments: 3972; March 2005; Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)
[5]. S. Thomson, T. Narten and T. Jinmei; Request for Comments: 4862; September 2007; "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration "
[6]. Stefano M.Faccin and Franck Le ; ―A Secure and Efficient solution to the IPv6 address ownership problem‖; 0-7803-7605-6/02 ,2002 IEE Page : 162 -166

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey of various routing approaches based on quality-of-service (QoS) criteria in MANET
Country : India
Authors : Prof. Sunil J. Soni, Dr. J. S. Shah
: 10.9790/0661-16353234  logo
Abstract: Now a day, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) gained a lot of popularity in the research community. People realized that there is a commercial value in MANETs with the successful solutions of the most basic but important problems in network layer. Mostly all the applications that attracted interest in traditional wired networks (e.g. Audio/Video Transfer, Video Conferencing, Watching Online Movies/Sports, Camera-enabled Messenger, Online Gaming etc.) would attract interest for MANETs as well. Since real-time multimedia communications will be common in MANETs, there has been an increasing motivation on the introduction of QoS in such networks. But, many characteristics of MANETs make QoS provisioning a difficult problem. In MANETs, providing QoS guarantees is very difficult and challenging than in traditional wired networks, mainly due to multihop communications, contention for channel access, node mobility and a lack of central coordination. However, in the last few years, much research attention has focused on providing QoS guarantees in MANET routing protocols. QoS routing protocol/mechanism is key issue in provision of QoS in MANETs. There are number of QoS routing approaches have been proposed in literature, focusing on different QoS metrics but no particular protocol/mechanism provides overall solution. There are some major open research issues in this area such as QoS metric selection and cost function design, Multi-class traffic, Scheduling mechanism at source, Packet prioritization for control messages, QoS routing that allows preemption, and QoS in Heterogeneous networks. There are still many open questions that must be solved to improve the performance of QoS-aware routing protocols such as bandwidth/delay estimation, route discovery, resource reservation, route maintenance, cross-layer design, energy consumption, multicast QoS routing etc.
Keywords: Cross-layer Design, Quality-of-Service, MANETs, routing, QoS routing, QoS framework, multicast QoS

[1] Subir KS, TG Basavaraju, C Puttamadappa. "Adhoc Mobile Wireless Networks, Principles, Protocols and Applications" Auerbach Publications, 2008
[2] S. Lohier, Sidi MS, Yacine GD, et al. "QoS routing in adhoc networks", 2003
[3] Quin Zhang, Ya-qin Zhang. "Cross-Layer Design for QoS Support in Multihop Wireless Networks", Vol.96, No.1, Jan 2008, IEEE Proceedings.
[4] Ghalib A. Shah, Weifa Liang, et al. "Cross-Layer Design for QoS Support in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks",Globecom, 2010, IEEE Proceedings.
[5] Maria Canales, Jose Ramon Gallego, et al. "Cross-layer proposal for QoS routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks", WPMC, Denmark, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Approach for Code-Base Fault Localization Technique
Country : India
Authors : Suvajit Mandal, Arup Abhinna Acharya
: 10.9790/0661-16353538  logo
Abstract:The relationship between testing and debugging is intimate one. Finding the location of a fault is a central task of debugging. Typically, a developer employs an interactive process for fault localization. To improve the quality we have to remove as many defect as possible in it without introducing new bugs at the same time. However localizing a fault is a complex and time consuming process. There is many different procedure to resolve the problem to locate the exact fault in a program. We can use the model-base and codebase scenario using Slicing and SAFL. Finding a fault in a program is a complete process which involves understanding the program's purpose, structure, semantics and the relevant characteristics of a failure producing tests.
Index Terms: Testing, Debugging, Slicing, SAFL

[1]. W. Eric Wong, Vidroha Debroy, Yihao Li, and Ruizhi Gao. Software Fault Localization Using DStar (D). In IEEE Sixth International Conference on Software Security and Reliability (2012), vol. 2.
[2]. Yu-Min Chung,Chin-Yu-Huangg. A Study of Modified Testing-Based Fault Localization Method, vol. 2. 2008.
[3]. ]Jirong Sun, Zshu Li, J. N. F. Y. Software Fault Localization Based On Testing Requirement and Program Slice. In International Conference On Network- ing,Architechture and Storage, IEEE (2007), vol. 1.
[4]. Nimit Singhania. Survey Of Software Fault Localization. In IBM India Research
Laboratory, New Delhi,110070,India (2012).
[5]. ] Dan Hao, Lu Zhang, H. M. J. S. Towards Interactive Fault Localization Using Test Information. In XIII ASIA PACIFIC SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CONFER- ENCE,IEEE (2006), vol. 2.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improved Technique for Gait Reconigition & Performing Feature Extraction Using Videos of Different Forms
Country : India
Authors : Ashutosh Batta, Chirag Sharma
: 10.9790/0661-16353943  logo
Abstract:This paper describes the importance of GAIT Recognition where identification of human being from far distance without any sort of co-operation from his side is performed. Motive to develop automatic identification of human being using GAIT recognition method that to find an application which provide high security in places such as banking sector, military, parking slots. Work is performed on videos of different formats. In which extraction of frames from inputted video is done & matched with trained database. Background subtraction is done to concentrate on particular object rather than complete frame & irrelevant part is neglected. Feature extraction is done by taking an account of various parameters applied on the input and database to compare them. The significant part of this work is recognition in which we match the trained data with inputted data and then testing the result to check the accuracy of the applied technique.
Keywords: Gait recognition, Gait recognition approaches, multiple discriminant analysis, neural network, outermost contour, support vector machine.

[1]. Liu, Yilong Yin, Wei Qin & Ying Li: "Gait Recognition Based on Outermost Contour", International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, 4:5, 1090-1099 (2011).
[2]. Amit Kale, Aravind Sundaresan, A. N. Rajagopalan, Naresh P. Cuntoor, Amit K. Roy-Chowdhury, Volker Kruger, and Rama Chellappa "Identification of Humans Using Gait"(IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004):.
[3]. S John C. Russ.‑‑ Russ, John C, The image processing handbook 5th ed. (2007).
[4]. ChewYean Yam, Mark S. Nixon, John N. Carter: "A Model-Based Approach Gait" Gait Recognition by Walking and Running: (January 2002,)
[5]. Sanjeev Sharma, Ritu Tiwari, Anupam shukla and Vikas Singh (2011): "Identification of People Using Gait Biometrics International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing", Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2011

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Segmentation to Sound Conversion
Country : India
Authors : Anindita Chatterjee, Himadri Nath Moulick
: 10.9790/0661-16354448  logo
Abstract: Our motive, the task of unsupervised topic segmentation of speech data operating over raw acoustic information. In contrast to existing algorithms for topic segmentation of speech, our approach does not require input transcripts. Our method predicts topic changes by analyzing the distribution of reoccurring acoustic patterns in the speech signal corresponding to a single speaker. The algorithm robustly handles noise inherent in acoustic matching by intelligently aggregating information about the similarity profile from multiple local comparisons. Our experiments show that audio-based segmentation compares favorably with transcript based segmentation computed over noisy transcripts. These results demonstrate the desirability of our method for applications where a speech recognizer is not available, or its output has a high word error rate. Also, this paper describes methods for automatically locating points of significant change in music or audio by analyzing local self-similarity. This method can find individual note boundaries or even natural segment boundaries such as verse/c hours or speech/music transitions, even in the absence of cues such as silence. This approach uses the signal to model itself, and thus does not rely on particular acoustic cues nor requires training. Here present a wide variety of applications, including indexing, segmenting, and beat tracking of music and audio. The method works well on a wide variety of audio sources.
Keywords: Segmentation, sound, acoustic pattern, speech recognizer, signal

[1]. H. M¨uller, N. Michoux, D. Bandon, and A. Geissbuhler,―A Review of Content-Based Image Retrieval Systemsin Medical Applications Clinical Benefits andFuture Directions,‖ International Journal of MedicalInformatics, vol. 73, pp. 1–23, 2004.
[2]. R.H. Choplin, J.M. Boehme, and C.D. Maynard,―Picture archiving and communication systems: anoverview,‖ RadioGraphics, vol. 12, pp. 127–129,1992.
[3]. Y. Liua, D. Zhang, G. Lu, and W.Y. Ma, ―A survey ofcontent-based image retrieval with high-level semantics,‖Pattern Recogntion, vol. 40, pp. 262–282, 2007.
[4]. [W. Hsu, S. Antani, L.R. Long, L. Neve, and G.R.Thoma, ―SPIRS: a Web-based Image Retrieval SystemFor Large Biomedical Databases,‖ InternationalJournal of Medical Informatics, vol. 78, pp. 13–24,2008.
[5]. H. M¨uller, T. Deselaers, E. Kim, C. Kalpathy, D.Jayashree, M. Thomas, P. Clough, and W. Hersh,―Overview of the ImageCLEFmed 2007 Medical Retrievaland Annotation Tasks,‖ 8th Workshop of theCross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF 2007),Proceedings of LNCS, vol. 5152, 2008.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement of Security Levels Using a Secure Intrusion Detection System in Manets
Country : India
Authors : Lakshmi. S. M, Bhavana. S, Sujata.Terdal
: 10.9790/0661-16354954  logo
Abstract: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self-organize in arbitrary and temporary network topologies .A Security is an important issue for ad hoc networks, especially for those security-sensitive applications .Since there is no centralized infrastructure, MANET's are vulnerable to attackers .Prevention and detection mechanisms should be focused before an attacker can damage the structure of the system..First this paper gives an overview of IDS architecture for enhancing security level of MANETs based on security attributes and various algorithms, namely RSA and DSA. Then a hybrid cryptography IDS to reduce the network overhead caused by digital signature is indicated. General Terms: SIDS architecture, DSA and RSA algorithm, Hybrid cryptography IDS.
Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), Secure Intrusion- Detection Systems (SIDS), Malicious Nodes.

[1]. EAACK – A Secure Intrusion Detection System for MANETs Elhadi M. Shakshuki, Senior Member, IEEE, Nan Kang and Tarek R. Sheltami, Member, IEEE
[2]. Investigating Intrusion and Detection Systems in MANET and Comparing IDSs for Detecting Misbehaving Nodes Marjan Kuchaki Rafsan,Ali Movaghar and Faroukh Koroupi,World Academic of Science Engineering and Technology 44 2008.
[3]. Mishra Amitabh, Nadkarni Ketan M., and Ilyas Mohammad,2003."Chapter 30:Security in wireless ad- hoc networks, the handbook of Ad hoc wireless network". CRC PRESS Publisher
[4]. S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, "Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. 6th Annu. Int. Conf. Mobile Comput. Netw., Boston, MA, 2000, pp. 255–265.
[5]. "A study of different types of attacks on multicast in mobile ad hoc networks" Hoang Lan Nguyen, Uyen Trang Nguyen, Elsevier AdHoc Networks(2008) 32-46. [7] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in ad hoc wireless networks," in Mobile computing. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1996, ch. 5, pp. 153–181.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Accessing Private Network via Firewall Based On Preset Threshold Value
Country : India
Authors : Shobharani Patil, Bhavana. S, Dr Jayashree. Agarkhed
: 10.9790/0661-16355560  logo
Abstract: Many of the private services are made readily available to the users publically from emerging technologies such as web services, cloud computing, service-oriented architecture in an more effective and efficient manner. However, the users still suffer from security leakages by unauthorized one. Firewalls are the vital elements in network security. The worthiness of the firewall mainly depends on the quality of policies deployed in the firewall. Deploying and configuring firewall policies are more tedious and error-prone. In this Paper, we present an effective policy anomaly management framework for firewalls, anomalies are identified using rule-based segmentation technique and are derived effective anomaly resolution .In certain, we also make use of grid-based visualization technique, providing an intuitive cognitive sense about policy anomaly. User's requests are allowed to access the private network based on preset threshold value. In particular, we also demonstrate how effectively our approach can identify and overcome anomalies in firewall policies through various experiments.
General Terms: Firewall, Policy anomaly management framework, Segmentation, Threshold value

[1]. E. Al-Shaer and H. Hamed, "Discovery of Policy Anomalies in Distributed Firewalls," IEEE INFOCOM '04, vol. 4, pp. 2605-2616, 2004.
[2]. A. Wool, "Trends in Firewall Configuration Errors: Measuring the Holes in Swiss Cheese," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 14, no. 4,
pp. 58-65, July/Aug. 2010
[3]. L. Yuan, H. Chen, J. Mai, C. Chuah, Z. Su, P. Mohapatra, and C. Davis, "Fireman: A Toolkit for Firewall Modeling and Analysis," Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, p. 15, 2006.
[4]. L. Yuan, C. Chuah, and P. Mohapatra, "ProgME: Towards Programmable Network Measurement," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 37, no. 4, p. 108, 2007.
[5]. A. El-Atawy, K. Ibrahim, H. Hamed, and E. Al-Shaer, "Policy Segmentation for Intelligent Firewall Testing," Proc. First Workshop
Secure Network Protocols (NPSec '05), 2005

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study of Various Spoofing Attacks and Attackers in Wireless Networks
Country : India
Authors : Miss.Shweta, Asst. Prof Bhavana.S, Asst. Prof Shailaja Shastri
: 10.9790/0661-16356165  logo
Abstract: Wireless spoofing attacks are easy to launch and can significantly impact the performance of networks. Although the identity of a node can be verified through cryptographic authentication, conventional security approaches are not always desirable because of their overhead requirements. In this paper, we propose to use spatial information, a physical property associated with each node, hard to falsify, and not reliant on cryptography, as the basis for detecting spoofing attack;determining the number of attackers when multiple adversaries masquerading as the same node identity; and localizing multiple adversaries. We propose to use the spatial correlation of received signal strength (RSS) inherited from wireless nodes to detect the spoofing attacks. We then formulate the problem of determining the number of attackers as a multiclass detection problem. Cluster-based mechanisms are developed to determine the number of attackers. We evaluated our techniques through two testbeds using both an 802.11 (WiFi) network and an 802.15.4 (ZigBee) network in two real office buildings. Our experimental results show that our proposed methods can achieve over 90 percent Hit Rate and Precision when determining the number of attackers.
Keywords: Wireless network security, spoofing attack, attack detection, localization

[1]. Jie Yang, Yingying Chen, and Jerry Cheng, ―Detection and Localization of Multiple Spoofing Attackers in Wireless Networks‖ in IEEE 2012.
[2]. J. Bellardo and S. Savage, ―802.11 denial-of-service attacks: Real vulnerabilities and practical solutions,‖ in Proceedings of the USENIX Security Symposium, 2003, pp. 15 – 28.
[3]. F. Ferreri, M. Bernaschi, and L. Valcamonici, ―Access points vulnerabilities to dos attacks in 802.11 networks,‖ in Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004.
[4]. D. Faria and D. Cheriton, ―Detecting identity-based attacks in wireless networks using signalprints,‖ in Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe), September 2006.
[5]. Q. Li and W. Trappe, ―Relationship-based detection of spoofing-related anomalous traffic in ad hoc networks,‖ in Proc. IEEE SECON, 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Examining basic probabilistic, time-to-live, kill time and Passive Cure problems in flooding
Country : India
Authors : S.I.S.Jaffarvalli, Gunasekhar
: 10.9790/0661-16356670  logo
Abstract: Mobile adhoc networks are dyanamic in nature hence it is difficult to predict the toplogy of manets. basically in manets flooding is simple routjng algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent through every outgoing link except except the one it arrived on. The broadcast storm problem is so common in flooding algorithms that it has engendered a whole area of research flooding schemes over large-scale, sparse mobile networks. Traditional flooding suffers from the problem of redundant message reception, once per neighbour. Even in a reasonably connected network, the same message is received multiple times by every node, which is inefficient, wastes valuable resources, and can create contention in the transmission medium. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of different controlled messages.
Keywords: MANET, flooding, Delay Tolerant Networking

[1]. Johnson, D., Maltz, D.: Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In:Mobile Computing. Volume 353. (1996)
[2]. Perkins, C.: Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, New Orleans, LA (1999) 90
[3]. Haas, Z., Pearlman, M.: The Performance of Query Control Schemes for Zone Routing Protocol. In: ACM SIGCOMM, Vancouver, Canada (1998)
[4]. Royer, E., Toh, C.: A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-hoc Mobile Wireless Networks. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine 6 (1999)
[5]. Perkins, C., Bhagwat, P.: Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers. In: ACM SIGCOMM, London, England (1994)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Tutorial of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (Manet) Routing Protocols
Country : India
Authors : Palki Dhawan
: 10.9790/0661-16357174  logo
Abstract: In mobile adhoc network nodes dynamically forms networks, there is no any central infrastructure, thus routing becomes a very important issue. Routing protocols used in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) must adapt to frequent or continual changes of topology, while simultaneously limiting the impact of following these changes on wireless resources. This paper presents a comprehensive report and a comparative study of the different MANET routing protocols. The performance of such communication between nodes depends on various protocols. we have tendency to survey variety of the recent analysis results in routing space. In the following sections we have a tendency to present various existing routing protocols with their merits and demerits
Keywords: MANET, routing, network, communication

[1] Miguel Luis, Luis Bernardo, Rui Dinis, Paulo Pinto Rodolfo Oliveira, "The Impact of Node's Mobility on Link-detection based on Routing Hello Messages," in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Sydney, NSW, 18-21 April 2010, pp. 1 - 6.
[2] Ingrid Moerman, Bart Dhoedt and Piet Demeester Jeroen hoebeke, "An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Applications and Challenges," JOURNAL OF THE COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK, vol. 3, pp. 60-66, july 2004.
[3] M.B.,Al-Dubai, A.Y. and Buchanan, W. Khalaf, "A new adaptive broadcasting approach for mobile ad hoc networks," in Wireless Advanced (WiAD), 2010 6th Conference on, London, 27-29 June 2010, pp. 1 - 6.
[4] V.C, Singhal, M Giruka, "Hello protocols for ad-hoc networks: overhead and accuracy tradeoffs," in World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2005. WoWMoM 2005. Sixth IEEE International Symposium on a, 13-16 June 2005, pp. 354 - 361.
[5] Aashish Choudhary, "Modified Adhoc on Demand Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad hoc Network," National Institute of Technology , Rourkela, Odisha, 769008, India, Thesis in Master of Technology July,2013

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : PARS: Position based Anonymous Routing Scheme in MANETs
Country : India
Authors : Remya S, Lakshmi K S
: 10.9790/0661-16357582  logo
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) comprises of self-organizing autonomous mobile nodes. MANETs are open and decentralized. Therefore they are vulnerable to malicious entities. MANETs are multi-hop wireless network where all nodes supportively maintain network connectivity without a centralized infrastructure. Since MANETs are infrastructure less and independent, the secure communication is the main issue. Therefore they are vulnerable to malicious entities. Here the location identity and traffic can be traced out by an outside observer. Anonymity means secure communications by hiding node identities and preventing traffic analysis attacks by outside observers. This paper proposes Position based Anonymous Routing Scheme in MANETs (PARS).Here the routing is based on Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol. The objective is an anonymous routing protocol for the network. The proposed one is a zone based anonymous GPSR based protocol that can provide source, destination and route anonymity. Performance of the proposed system is compared with that of GPSR and AODV using Network Simulator.
Index Terms: Anonymous routing, position-based routing, random forwarder, zone partition

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Topology Search Mechanism for Unstructured Peer-To-Peer Networks
Country : India
Authors : B. Vijayanandh, P.K.Yogeshwaran, R. Sivanesan, M.New Begin
: 10.9790/0661-16358386  logo
Abstract: Unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing networks are popular in the mass market. As the peers participating in unstructured networks interconnect randomly, they rely on flooding query messages to discover objects of interest and thus introduce remarkable network traffic. Empirical measurement studies indicate that the peers in P2P networks have similar preferences, and have recently proposed unstructured P2P networks that organize participating peers by exploiting their similarity. The resultant networks may not perform searches efficiently and effectively because existing overlay topology construction algorithms often create unstructured P2P networks without performance guarantees. Thus, I propose a novel overlay formation algorithm for unstructured P2P networks. Based on the file sharing pattern exhibiting the power-law property, our proposal is unique in that it poses rigorous performance guarantees. Theoretical performance results conclude that in a constant probability, 1) searching an object in our proposed network efficiently takes N hops (where c is a small constant), and 2) the search progressively effectively exploits the similarity of peers. In addition, the success ratio of discovering an object approximates 100 percent. We validate our theoretical analysis and compare our proposal to competing algorithms in simulations. Based on the simulation results, my proposal clearly outperforms the competing algorithms in terms of 1) the hop count of routing a query message, 2) the successful ratio of resolving a query, 3) the number of messages required for resolving a query, and 4) the message overhead for maintaining and formatting the overlay.5.) Resultant set of finite N hops for data sharing in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks.
Keywords: Topology structures, Search, Load Sharing, unstructured P2P networks

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