IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

May - June 2014Volume 16 - Issue 3

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 6 7 8 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Optimized Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Problems using Reference Graph
Country : India
Authors : Raktim Chakraborty ,Saubhik Paladhi ,Sankhadeep Chatterjee , Soumen Banerjee
: 10.9790/0661-16330107  logo
Abstract: In this paper a novel optimized graph referencing method is proposed to tackle combinatorial problems with greater ease. The proposed algorithm is a modification of the existing backtracking algorithm. It takes into account the advantage of backtrack algorithm while eliminating its disadvantages. Special care has been taken to reduce the time complexity in avoiding frequent unsuccessful searches and in providing accurate and fast solution to the targeted sub problem. The theoretical analysis and experimental results presented reveal the superiority of proposed algorithm over the conventional algorithms.
Keywords: Backtracking, Combinatorial problem, Graph Referencing algorithm, Optimization, Sudoku.
[1]. H. Xiao, Z. Tian and L. Ma, Design of stepwise enumerative algorithm based on rule about Sudoku, Computer Engineering and Design, 31(5), 2010, pp. 1035-1037.
[2]. Y. Liu and S. Liu, Algorithm based on genetic algorithm for Sudoku puzzles, Computer Science, 37(3), 2010, pp. 225-226.
[3]. J. Xu, Using backtracking method to solve Sudoku puzzle, Computer Programming Skills & Maintenance, 5, 2009, pp. 17-21.
[4]. Z. Zhang, Solve & generate Sudoku puzzle by programming in AutoCAD, Computer Programming Skills & Maintenance, 17, 2008 pp. 16-18.
[5]. Z. Zhao, J. Guo and L. Yang, Study of algorithm about Sudoku generation, Neijiang Science and Technology, 7, 2008, pp. 22-23.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Vampire Attacks: Wearing Out Life of Wireless Adhoc Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Aruna M.G , Nivedita G Y
: 10.9790/0661-16330813  logo
Abstract: Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are an exciting research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. More security work in this area has focused mainly on denial of service attack at the routing or medium access control levels. This paper explores resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly decreasing nodes' battery power.These "Vampire" attacks are not specific to any particular protocol, We evaluate in this paper the protocols are Vulnerable to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol compliant messages. In proposed framework we show simulation results quantifying the performance of several representative protocols in the presence of a single Vampire. Then, we modify an existing sensor network routing protocol to provably bound the damage from Vampire attacks during packet forwarding..
[1] Frank Stajano and Ross Anderson, The resurrecting duckling: security issues for ad-hoc wireless networks, International
workshop on security protocols, 1999.
[2] David R. Raymond, Randy C. Marchany, Michael I. Brownfield, and Scott F. Midkiff, Effects of denial-of-sleep attacks on
wireless sensor network MAC protocols, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 58 (2009), no. 1.
[3] Jing Deng, Richard Han, and Shivakant Mishra, Defending against pathbased Dos attacks in wireless sensor networks, ACM
workshop on security of ad hoc and sensor networks, 2005.
[4] ImadAad, Jean-Pierre Hubaux, and Edward W. Knightly, Denial of service resilience in ad hoc networks, MobiCom, 2004.
GergelyAcs, LeventeButtyan, and IstvanVajda, Provably secure ondemand source routing in mobile ad hoc networks, IEEE
Transactions on Mobile Computing 05 (2006), no. 11.
[5] Tuomas Aura, Dos-resistant authentication with client puzzles, International workshop on security protocols, 2001

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Embedded Vision System for Autonomous Face Recognizer Robot using Eigenface Detector-PCA Improved Face Detection for Largely Occluded Faces
Country : India
Authors : Mittal Chavhan, Sunita Jadhav
: 10.9790/0661-16331420  logo
Abstract: The problem is to propose a method for detecting the face and recognizing the face for a robot. This is a challenging problem because faces are non-rigid and have a high degree of variability in size, shape, colour, and texture. In this report, an embedded vision system is built to locate, recognize and track the faces. Three individual sub-systems are present. The first one is face detection based on Haar-like classifier and Viola-Jones object detector. The second one is face recognition system based on Eigenface detector using principal component analysis method. The third one is face tracking based on Haar Cascade Classifier. For fast and an efficient embedded vision system for an autonomous robot, the software used is OpenCV library. The system developed has improved performance and can also detect largely occluded faces.
Keywords: Haar-like classifier; Viola-Jones object detector; Eigenface; pricipal component analysis; Haar Cascade Classifier.
[1] M. H. Yang, D. J. Kriegman, and N. Ahuja," Detecting faces in images: a survey", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 34-58, January 2002.
[2] P. Viola and M. Jones, "Robust real-time face detection," International journal of computer vision, vol. 57, pp. 137-154, 2004.
[3] P. Viola and M. Jones, "Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features," in Proc. IEEE CVPR, 2001, pp. I-511-I-518 vol.1.
[4] OpenCV Wiki: Face Recognition available at
[5] G. Bradski and A. Kaehler, Learning OpenCV: Computer vision with the OpenCV library: O'Reilly Media, 2008.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Route maintenance and Scalability improvement of DSR, based on Relay node identification after locating Link-failure over MANET
Country : India
Authors : Sourish Mitra , Mounita Das , Rupa Mitra , Priyanka Maity , Alolika Banerjee
: 10.9790/0661-16332127  logo
Abstract: In Dynamic Source Routing, each source determines the route to be used in transmitting its packets to destination. Route Discovery determines the optimum path for a transmission between a given source and destination. Route Maintenance ensures that the transmission path remains optimum and loop-free as network conditions change, even if this requires changing the route during a transmission. Many protocols were proposed to maintain route from high data loss and transition delay due to frequent link failure but doesn't take the decision on basis of location of failure link in source route and also doesn't take advantages of Relay node identification in partitioned source route. From this point of view in our paper we propose an algorithm with the help of local link repairing and improvement strategy based on the location of link failure inside source route over mobile ad- hoc network. Through this paper we introduce our proposed approach based on DSR, which takes decision on the basis of the location of Relay node(where link failure is detected) in source route.We think our new approach can be able to improve packet salvaging, packet delivery ratio and reducing end to end delay to improve the scalability of Mobile Ad-hoc network.
Keywords: End to end delay, frequent link failure, packet delivery ratio, packet salvaging, relay node.
[1] "Implementation Of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) In Mobile Ad Hoc Network (Manet)", Thiyam Romila Devi,, Rameswari Biswa, Vikram Kumar, Abhishek Jena,International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308Volume: 02 Issue: 11 ,Nov-2013
[2] Genping Liu, Kai Juan Wong, Bu Sung Lee, Boon Chong Seet, Chuan Heng Foh, Lijuan Zhu, "PATCH: a novel local recovery mechanism for mobile ad-hoc networks", Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Fall. 58th. Page(s):2995 – 2999 Vol.5. IEEE, 2003.
[3] Junjie Chen, Chang'en Zhou, Deli Chen, Bin Huang, Jiajun Hong, Chao Zhou1, Xiao Yang, "A Novel Routing Algorithm for Ad hoc Networks Based on the Downstream Nodes Information", International Conference on Multimedia information Networking and Security, 2009. 978-0-7695-3843-3/09 IEEE 2009.
[4] I.Vijaya , Amiya Kumar Rath, Pinak Bhusan Mishra, Amulya Ratna Dash, "Influence of Routing Protocols in Performance of Wireless Mobile Adhoc Network", Second International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology. 978-0-7695-4329-1/11. DOI 10.1109/EAIT.2011.65. IEEE, 2011
[5] D.B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, Eds., Kluwer, 1996, pp. 153-81.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Conventional Diversity Combining Schemes in Rayleigh and Rician Fading Channels
Country : India
Authors : Medha Walia ,Arvind Mahindru
: 10.9790/0661-16332832  logo
Abstract: Diversity is the powerful technique used in wireless communication system to improve the performance over a fading radio channel [1] [2]. Here receiver is provided with multiple copies of the same information signal which are transmitted over two or more real or virtual communication channels. Basic idea of diversity is repetition or redundancy of information. In virtually all the applications, the diversity decisions are made by the receiver and are unknown to the transmitter. This paper deals with the different diversity techniques like Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC), Equal Gain Combining (EGC) and Selection Diversity (SC) and their performance evaluation over Rayleigh and Rician Channel under Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. The performance of MRC, EGC and SC is analysed in terms of Symbol Error Rate (SER) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by varying L diversity branches from 1 to 4.
Keywords: Diversity, MRC, EGC, SC, BPSK, SER, SNR
[1]. M.G. Shayesteh and Agha mohammadi, "On the error probability of linearly modulated signals on frequency-flat Rician, Rayleigh, and AWGN channels," in IEEE Transactions on Communication, Volume 43, April 1995.
[2]. A.Annamalai, C.Tellambura, and Vijay K.Bhargava, "A General Method for Calculating Error Probabilities Over Fading Channels", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume.53, May 2005.
[3]. DilipMandloi, Rajesh Kr. Nagar and Upasna Katare, "BER Performance Evaluation of Bpsk, Qpsk and Qam-16 for DS-CDMA system with MRC and EGC diversity techniques",in International Journal of Electrical, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Volume 2 October 2012.
[4]. Gayatri S. Prabhu and P. Mohana Shankar , "Simulation of Flat Fading using MATLAB for Classroom Instruction" in IEEE Transactions on Education, Volume 45, February 2002.
[5]. Soon H.Oh, Kwok H.Li and Wee S.Lee, "Performance of BPSK pre-detection MRC systems over Two-Wave with Diffuse power fading Channels", IEEE Transactions on wireless communications ,Volume 6 ,August 07.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Handwritten Bangla Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Azher Uddin
: 10.9790/0661-16333338  logo
Abstract: This paper presents a system for recognizing Bangla handwritten characters using Artificial Neural Network based on Multi Layer Perceptron classifier. The Bangla alphabets Sorborno and Banjonborno have been chosen to test the recognition System. Character is recognized by analyzing its shape and comparing its features that differentiates each character. The required images are acquired using a digital camera. The color images are then cropped, resized, and converted to binary images. Finally, Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used for recognition of candidate regions. Experimental results show the relatively high accuracy of the developed method on training and the test sets respectively.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Multi Layer Perceptron classifier, OCR, Feature Extraction
[1]. Mansi Shah & Gordhan B Jethava "A Literature Review On Hand Written Character Recognition", Vol -3, Issue –2, March 2013.
[2]. Liu Cheng-Lin, Nakashima, Kazuki, H, Sako, H.Fujisawa, "Handwritten digit recognition: investigation of normalization and feature extraction techniques", Pattern Recognition, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 265-279, 2004.
[3]. Izakian, H., Monadjemi, S. A., Ladani, B. T. and Zamanifar, K., "Multi-Font Farsi/Arabic Isolated Character Recognition Using Chain Codes," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 43, 2008.
[4]. S. A. Husain, Asma Sajjad, Fareeha Anwar, "Online Urdu Character Recognition System", MVA 2007 IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications, Tokyo, JAPAN, May 16-18, 2007.
[5]. M Abdul Rahiman, M S Rajasree, ―OCR for Malayalam Script Using Neural Networks, IEEE, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel System of Fingerprint Recognition Approach for Immigration Control
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Fatai .O. Waheed , Awotunde .J. Bamidele , Matiluko .E. Opeyemi
: 10.9790/0661-16333942  logo
Abstract: Insecurity is a pressing and important issue that needs urgent attention in Nigeria. The dramatic increase in worldwide flow of people, goods, and ideas has created a new group of threats. These are global organized crimes such as smuggling, trafficking, terrorism; cross‐border crimes, illegal migration, amongst others. It has been noted that these foreigners device a means of beating security devices put in place at the border. The Nigerian Immigration uses Automated Fingerprint identification system (AFIS) minutiae base, which is the most popular and extensively used method for fingerprint identification. It show poor performance for real time authentication and it has less noise tolerant unlike the correlation base approach. The authors therefore proposes an hybrid fingerprinting method that combines two approaches namely minutiae and correlation methods that can help identify identity fraud. The sole idea behind this is that one technique makes up for the deficiency of the other by so doing we obtain a reliable and efficient result and provide a more secured environment where immigrants will not be able to beat the system with their fraudulent tactics or acts as currently experienced. Java programming language is used because of its platform independence, scalability, easy integration, implementation and upgrade.
Keywords: Security, Immigration, Control, Identity fraud, Fingerprint, Minutiae.
[1] Patric, Ebele and Chinedu, (2012). Terrorist activities and economic development in Nigeria: An early warning signal OIDA international Journal of sustainable development Vol 5, No.4, pp. 69-78, 2012.
[2] L. Hong, Y. Wan & A. Jain, (1998). Fingerprint Image Enhancement: Algorithm and Performance Evaluation, IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 8, pp.777-789.
[3] S. Prabhakar, A.K. Jain, J. Wang, S. Pankanti, & R. Bolle, (2000). Minutia Verification and Classification for Fingerprint Matching, In Proc. ICPR2000, 15th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition, Barcelona, Spain.
[4] Frank Laczko, Abye Makonnen (2009). Migration in Nigeria: Thematic Document 2009 National Security and Migration: towards an Effective Cross-border management in Nigeria, © 2009 International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland.
[5] ICAO, (2006). "Machine readable travel documents", Technical report, ICAO 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of Bitmap Index Compression using Data Pump in Oracle Database
Country : India
Authors : Shivam Dwivedi , Dr. Savita Shiwani
: 10.9790/0661-16334348  logo
Abstract: Bitmap index is most commonly used technique for efficient query processing and mostly in the Data warehouse environment. We review the existing technologies of Compression and introduce the bitmap index compression through data pump. According to conventional wisdom bitmap index is more efficient for minimum unique value. But through data pump it doesn't require either bitmap index is created on high degree of cardinality or low degree of cardinality. In this paper, we propose data pump utility for release the disk space in database after deletion of records. Bitmap index point the old location even after deletion of records from table, This utility doesn't release disk space. We have implemented data pump for compression, to release the space and change the index pointing location. Data pump which is often used for logical backups in oracle database. Finally we review the bitmap index which commonly used for industrial purpose and discuss open issues for future evolution and development.
Keywords: Bitmap Index, Compression, Data Pump, Query Performance
[1]. E. O'Neil, P. O'Neil, K. Wu, Bitmap index design choices and their performance implications, Research Report, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2007.
[2]. N. Koudas, Space efficient bitmap indexing, in: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 2000.
[3]. G. Navarro, E.S. de Moura, M. Neubert, N. Ziviani, R. Baeza-Yates, Adding compression to block addressing inverted indexes, Information Retrieval 3 (1) (2000) 49–77.
[4]. K. Wu, E.J. Otoo, A. Shoshani, Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations, in: Proceedings of International Confer- ence on Scientific and Statistical Database Management (SSDBM), 2002.
[5]. M. Stabno, R. Wrembel, RLH: Bitmap compression technique based on run-length and Huffman encoding, in: Proceedings of ACM International Workshop on Data Warehousing and OLAP (DOLAP), 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Analysis of Feature Extraction Methods for Optic Disc Detection
Country : India
Authors : Harsha Panchariya , Sangita Bharkad
: 10.9790/0661-16334954  logo
Abstract: Medical image analysis and processing has great significance in the field of medicine, especially in non-invasive treatment and clinical study. Normally fundus images are manually graded by specially trained clinicians in a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. A computer assisted fundus image analysis could provide an immediate detection and characterization of retinal features prior to ophthalmologist's inspection. Optic Disc (OD) or Optic Nerve Head (ONH) is relevant anatomical eye structure to diagnose various diseases such as Glaucoma, Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetic retinopathy in its advanced stages. Extraction of OD in retinal fundus image is also helpful in image registration and serves as landmark for other retinal feature localization like macula. This paper gives the brief survey of current OD detection methods with limitations and challenges.
Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, fundus images, Glaucoma, non-invasive, Optic disc
[1] Daniel D. Chiras. Human Biology. Jones and Bartlett Learning, 7th edition, 2011.
[2] H.Ying, M.Zhang and J.-C Liu.,―Fractal-based automatic localization and segmentation of optic disc in retinal images,‖ in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society(EMBS).,2007
[4] F. Haar, ―Automatic localization of the optic disc in digital colour images of the human retina,‖ M.S. thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands,2005.
[5] A.Youssif, A Ghalwsh, and A Ghoneim,―Optic disc detection from normalized digitl fundus images by means of vessels' direction matched filter,‖ in IEEE Trans. on Medical Imaging, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2008.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Handwritten Bangla Character Recognition Using Normalized Cross Correlation
Country : Bangladesh.
Authors : Md. Azher Uddin.
: 10.9790/0661-16335560  logo
Abstract: This paper presents a system for recognizing Bangla handwritten characters using template matching algorithm based on normalized cross-correlation. The Bangla alphabets Sorborno and Banjonborno have been chosen to test the recognition System. Character is recognized by analyzing its shape and comparing its features that differentiates each character. The required images are acquired using a digital camera. The color images are then cropped, resized, and converted to binary images. Finally, Template Matching algorithm based on normalized cross-correlation technique is used for recognition of candidate regions. Experimental results show the relatively high accuracy of the developed method. The work has valuable application in the development of an OCR system for handwritten Bangla text.
Keywords: Template matching, Normalized Cross-Correlation, OCR, Feature Extraction
[1]. Mansi Shah & Gordhan B Jethava "A Literature Review On Hand Written Character Recognition", Vol -3, Issue –2, March 2013.
[2]. Liu Cheng-Lin, Nakashima, Kazuki, H, Sako, H.Fujisawa, "Handwritten digit recognition: investigation of normalization and feature extraction techniques", Pattern Recognition, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 265-279, 2004.
[3]. Izakian, H., Monadjemi, S. A., Ladani, B. T. and Zamanifar, K., "Multi-Font Farsi/Arabic Isolated Character Recognition Using Chain Codes," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 43, 2008.
[4]. S. A. Husain, Asma Sajjad, Fareeha Anwar, "Online Urdu Character Recognition System", MVA 2007 IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications, Tokyo, JAPAN, May 16-18, 2007.
[5]. M Abdul Rahiman, M S Rajasree, ―OCR for Malayalam Script Using Neural Networks, IEEE, 2009

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Bluetooth Messenger: an Android Messenger app based on Bluetooth Connectivity
Country : India
Authors : Amrita Deb , Swarnabha Sinha
: 10.9790/0661-16336166  logo
Abstract: The project discussed here is an Android messenger application which connects using Bluetooth. The main concepts discussed here are : i) Bluetooth connection between two or more android smart phones, whereby users can chat with each other ii) Bluetooth connection between a server and an android smart phone ,whereby the user can update and synchronise his/her chat records with the server from time to time. iii) Data structures used in storing and updating the data (messages) against respective usernames. iv) State machines and finite expressions used to achieve robustness, thereby delivering error free messages. This whole project has been designed using python programming language. This app doesn't require an internet connection rather uses the in-built Bluetooth facility in a phone. Hence it comes in handy for charge-free short distance communication between individuals within a certain range (30 or 150 ft, depending on the hardware).
Keywords: Android, Bluetooth, Messenger, Python, Short distance communication, sl4a

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Hybrid Push-Pull Based Protocol for VOD In Peer-to-Peer network
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Mohamed Ghettas , Putra Sumari
: 10.9790/0661-16336773  logo
Abstract: Video-on-Demand is a service where movies are delivered to distributed users with low delay and free interactivity. The traditional client-server architecture experiences scalability issues to provide video streaming services. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) techniques for video on demand (VOD) have been shown to be a good enhancement to the traditional client/server methods when trying to reduce costs, increase robustness and solve the scalability issues. Various challenges arise when building a resilient P2P video on demand systems, such as long waiting time to receive the video segments and the quality of service. A new proposed data exchange schema is called Efficient Hybrid Push-Pull based Protocol (EHP3) can reduce the initial playback delay and improve the quality of service. The downstream peer has to accelerate the downloading process of the urgent segments, i.e. those missing segments which are near their playback time. The range of the urgent segments is referred to as the priority region. The upstream peers give a strict priority to segments within the priority region. If the downstream peer has sufficient download bandwidth, it should be able to completely receive these urgent segments before playback time. If there are no missing segments in the priority region, the downstream peer uses the pull protocol to download the missing segments which are outside the priority region. The simulation result shows that the proposed data exchange schema (EHP3) can reduce the initial play back delay and reduce the burden on the server side by increasing the number of caching segments in the playback buffer. Moreover, the proposed schema improves the quality of service by reducing the number of skipped segments during the playback.
Keywords: Video-On-Demand; Peer-to-Peer Network, Interactive videos; Video Streaming, P2P Streaming
[1]. Padmanabhan, V.N., H.J. Wang, and P.A. Chou, Supporting heterogeneity and congestion control in peer-to-peer multicast streaming, in Peer-to-Peer Systems III2005, Springer. p. 54-63.
[2]. Castro, M., et al. SplitStream: high-bandwidth multicast in cooperative environments. in ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review. 2003. ACM.
[3]. Tran, D.A., K.A. Hua, and T. Do. Zigzag: An efficient peer-to-peer scheme for media streaming. in INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications. IEEE Societies. 2003. IEEE.
[4]. Banerjee, S., B. Bhattacharjee, and C. Kommareddy, Scalable application layer multicast. Vol. 32. 2002: ACM.
[5]. Deshpande, H., M. Bawa, and H. Garcia-Molina, Streaming live media over a peer-to-peer network. Technical Report, 2001

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hybrid Algorithm combining Genetic algorithms and CSP approach to plane an Optimized path for a Mobile Robot moving under Time Window
Country : Tunisia
Authors : Hayet Tlijani, Tlijani Hatem, Knani Jilani, M'sirdi NacerKouider
: 10.9790/0661-16337483  logo
Abstract: The problems of optimization are considered as a type of a constraint satisfaction problem: COP (Constraint Optimization problem). In this frame goes our first works which are interested in the optimization of a reference trajectory of a mobile robot used for the surveillance (Surveyor Robot). Indeed, in the previous work we have focused on the minimization of the length of this trajectory by using the approach of the genetic algorithms. At the level of our present researches we shall add temporal windows to limit the time delayed in the passage between one surveyed site and the following one. The consideration of temporal aspects requires a modelling of problem with a satisfaction of constraints. So that, a hybridization of the algorithm of optimization already developed at the previous work by the approach of CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem), is indispensable for our case. The new algorithm which will be developed and feigned at this work is a genetic algorithm allowing minimizing the length of a trajectory crossed by a mobile robot of surveillance by respecting the time fixed to take during the passage through two successive sites.
Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problem, Genetic algorithms, Meta-heuristics, Mobile Robot, Neighbourhood method, Optimization, Path Tracking.
[1] H. Tijani, J. Knani, Optimization of the mobile robot's track using Genetic algorithm. In 10th International conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic control & computer engineering – STA'2009, Hammamet-Tunisia, 2009.
[2] D.E Smith, (2004). Choosing objectives in over-subscription planning, Proc. the Fourteenth International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS 2004), Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, June 3-7 2004, 393-401.
[3] S. Essayie, Politique de sélection dans les algorithmes génétiques – Application au Voyageur de commerce, Université de Havre, France, 2010.
[4] E. Chanthery, Planification de Mission pour un Véhicule Aérien Autonome, L'École Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, France, 2006.
[5] Y. Lassoued, Etude de paramétrage d'un algorithme d'optimisation hybride, France, 2008.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Network Traffic Load Balancing In Gateways
Country : India
Authors : Jopxon P J, Arun Soman
: 10.9790/0661-16338487  logo
Abstract: Load balancing is the practice of evenly distributing work among multiple devices. This technique provides several important benefits. Load Balancing in Gateways is a very important in today's emerging world. All the traffic of the computer network flows through the gateways of its network. A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two networks that use different base protocols. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a combination of both. Network has great importance in gateway load balancing mechanism. The gateway node plays an important role as a bridge between different networks domains. The traffic load in gateways is a crucial part of the network which needs to be resolved and are important in order to reduce the load imbalance and to maximize the total network throughput. Such gateway load balancing is considered to improve the network performance more effectively than multipath load balancing. In this seminar, I am trying to show the network traffic, importance of traffic management in network especially in the gateways and point out that performing gateway load balancing is vital in order to take full advantage of the resources available and thereby improve the performance. A research study in this area and methodology to identify gateway load-balancing and characterize load-balanced paths is performed.
Keywords: GLBP,OSPF, Emulator, Interface tracking, Network optimization.
[1]. Yukitaka Yoshida and Masatoshi Kawarasaki, "Relay-Node Based Proactive Load Balancing Method in MPLS Network with Service Differentiation",Third IEEE Workshop on User-Centric Networking, 2012.
[2]. Camellia Askarian and Hamid Beigy, "A Survey for Load Balancing in Mobile WiMAX Networks",Advanced Computing: An International Journal, Vol.3, No.2, March 2012.
[3]. Chengjie Gu, Shunyi Zhuang, Yanfei Sun, Chao Liu and Nan Sun "Pricing Incentive Mechanism Supporting Load Balancing for QoS-Enabled Networks ,"July 31 2008-Aug. 1 2008.
[4]. Cisco papers "Quality of Service Networking ,"August 26, 2012.
[5]. Cisco Network Academy Explorations, CCNA Guides.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Mobile Telecom Network Traffic Using Mobility Pattern
Country : India
Authors : K.Ramya, Ms. R.Asmetha Jeyarani, M.TECH
: 10.9790/0661-16338891  logo
Abstract: In the present the Gradient Adaptive protocol is to efficiently maintain a sequence at a particular geographic location in a light network of highly mobile nodes without using infrastructure networks. To keep information about the particular device, each mobile device passing that location will forward the information for a short while. This approach can become difficult for out-of-the-way locations around which only few nodes (device) pass by. To lecture this challenge, the mobile computing procedure that parallel to delay-tolerant communication in the mobile entry that transmit packets away from one to another position of derivation and periodically returns them to the secure location. A Single feature of this protocol is that it records the routing information while moving away from the origin and exploits the recorded moving devices to time accurately the return path. Simulations using protocol that particularly fetch the Gradient Adaptive protocol that improves packet rate compare to a baseline through path map-reading protocol. This performance gain can become even more significant when the highway map is a reduced amount of connected. To conclude, it looks at adaptive protocols that can return information inside specified time limits.
Index Terms: Gradient Adaptive protocol, routing information, time limit

[1]. Yi-Bing Lin, Fellow, IEEE, Chien-Chun Huang-Fu, and Nabil Alrajeh" Predicting Human Movement Based on Telecom's Handoff in Mobile Networks" ieee transactions on mobile computing, vol. 12, no. 6, june 2013.
[2]. M.C. Gonzalez, C.A. Hidalgo, and A.L. Barabasi, "Understanding Individual Human Mobility Patterns," Nature, vol. 453, pp. 779-782, 2008.
[3]. Salathe.M, M. Kazandjieva, J.W. Lee, P. Levis, M.W. Feldman, and J.H. Jones, "A High-Resolution Human Contact Network for Infectious Disease Transmission," Proc. Nat'l Academy of Science of the United States of Am., vol. 107, no. 51, pp. 22020-22025, 2010.
[4]. Y.-C. Lai, P. Lin, and S.-M. Cheng, "Performance Modeling for Application Level Integration of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, "IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 2426-2434, June 2009

[5]. Y.-B. Lin and A.-C.Pang, Wireless and Mobile All-IP Networks. JohnWiley and Sons, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Applied Method of Gaussian Noise by Fuzzy Filter
Country : India
Authors : Anita Pati Mishra, Sangita Gupta ,Vini Malik
: 10.9790/0661-16339296  logo
Abstract: The world has witnessed a major change in the way computing systems are used, especially to process images. DIP is a prominent area of research in the field of information technology that helps in processing digital images captured through various modalities using computing algorithms. Image processing has revolutionized greately thanks to its versatile applications and scalability. It not only helps to enhance images for better human interpretation but also allows processing images for storage and retrieval to be used for different representation and analysis. DIP techniques are generally versatile, reliable and accurate and additional benefit of being easier to implement than analog forms. The application of DIP pervades through various domains such as biology , Robotics. DIP uses size, color, shape and texture of objects under consideration for knowledge discovery. Respective domain knowledge is an important aspect when studying DIP. Image processing methods are numerous and varied and are used as per requirement in every field it is applied in. Techniques that were computationally prohibitive are now becoming reasonable within a DIP environment. Detection of edges in an image is very important step towards understanding image features. Edges are often considered as object boundaries at image locations. So edge detection is extensively used in image segmentation when images are divided into areas corresponding to different objects. This can be specifically used for enhancing tumor area in mammographic images. Different methods are available like laplacian & Gaussian edge operator. Breast boundaries, pectoral region and tumor location can be seen clearly by this method. Image noise suppression is highly demanding approach in DIP. Impulse noise is one which creates problem in acquisition transmission and processing of images. When image is restored filter act on 2 major roles .(1) Classification or detection and (2) Reconstruction of images which is filtering. Reconstruction involves replacing of corrupted pixels by certain approximation technique
Keywords: Additive noise, moving window, fuzzy inference rule, peak signal to noise ratio
[1]. E. Kerre and M. Nachtegael, ed, Fuzzy techniques in image processing, New York: Springer,verlog, vol-52,2000.
[2]. H.K.Kwan and Y. Cai,"Fuzzy filtering for image filtering,' presented in proc.MWSCAS,pp 672-675,2002.
[3]. Gonzalez and Woods,Digital Image Processing, Third Edition,Pearson Education 2008.
[4]. M. S. Alani, Digital Image Processing using Matlab university Bookshop,sharqa,USA 2008
[5]. S.Mohapatra, P. K. Sa and B Majhi,Impulsive noise Removal Image Enhancement Tech, 6th WSE As (ICCSE,control & signal processing (CSE CS 2007) 2007,Cairo,Egypt.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study of vampire Attack to Avoid the Intruders without Backtracking Method
Country : India
Authors : M.Mohana Priya , Ms.J.Emi Karmichael M.Tech
: 10.9790/0661-163397101  logo
Abstract: In a Wireless sensor network, every hub gathers the information and transmits all the information parcels to the sink hub utilizing any directing conventions. The directing Protocols are intended to be secure and absence of insurance from the different assaults. The vampire ambushes are not particular to any particular conventions and additionally exceptionally troublesome to catch and keep the assaults. Another plan to deactivate them by effectively distinguishing all assaulter hubs. A versatile force multicast calculation strategy can fill in as a requisition layer administration and profit numerous existing receptive sticking safeguarding plans. DDos ambush administration system for questionable remote sensor systems. It furnishes an enhanced calculation concerning two complex ambushes models, with a specific end goal to upgrade its power for different system situations. What's more additionally give a no Backtracking technique to evade the bundle misfortune.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Vampire attack, Adaptive power multicast, DDOs
[1]. Eugene Y. Vasserman and Nicholas Hopper, In 2013, Vampire Attacks: Draining Life from Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.
[2]. I. Aad, J.-P. Hubaux, and E.W. Knightly, "Denial of Service Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2004.
[3]. G. Acs, L. Buttyan, and I. Vajda, "Provably Secure On-Demand Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1533-1546, Nov. 2006.
[4]. T. Aura, "Dos-Resistant Authentication with Client Puzzles," Proc. Int‟l Workshop Security Protocols, 2001.
[5]. J. Bellardo and S. Savage, "802.11 Denial-of-Service Attacks: Real Vulnerabilities and Practical Solutions," Proc. 12th Conf. USENIX Security, 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Watermarking Relational Database Using Hindi Phonemes and Hill Cipher Technique
Country : India
Authors : Rajneeshkaur K. Bedi , Dr. V. M. Wadhai
: 10.9790/0661-1633102107  logo

Abstract: Digital watermarking now-a-days become more and more important due to tremendous availability of digital data on internet. The use of databases in various internet base applications has increased tremendously and theft of the data from database is a main concern for the database owners. Therefore, it is crucial to protect the piracy of the database. Most important technique in watermarking is its secret key and insertion location. In this paper, a new relational database watermarking method for non-numeric data is proposed based on nonnumeric attributes. A mark is computed based on the hill cipher technique. The position where mark is to be inserted is taken by the user. Our method is effective as it is robust and secure against different forms of malicious attacks.

Keywords: Copyright, Digital Watermarking, Hill Cipher, Phonemes, Relational Database.

[1]. Potdar, V. M., Han, S., and Chang, E., A survey of digital image watermarking techniques, in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN ‟05), Peth, Australia.IEEE Press, 2005, pages 709–716.

[2]. R. Agrawal and J. Kiernan, Watermarking Relational Databases, Proceeding of the 28th VLDB Conference, VLDB Endowment Press, 2002, pp. 155-166.

[3]. Radu Sion , Mikhail Atallah , Sunil Prabhakar, Rights Protection for Categorical Data, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 7(7), July 2005,p.912-926.


[5]. Forouzan B.A. and Mukhopadhyay D., Cryptography and Network Security, McGraw Hill, Second Edition

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis and Implementation of Selective Image Encryption Technique Using Matlab
Country : India
Authors : Upendra Bisht , Shubhashish Goswami
: 10.9790/0661-1633108111  logo
Abstract: Encryption plays a very significant role in secure transmission of digital images from one place to another. There are a number of encryption algorithms available which perform the task of encryption. However some algorithms are fully layered which perform the encryption of the whole content of the images. But sometimes there is a requirement of partial image encryption so that there is reduced execution time and hence increases in performance. This type of partial image encryption can be achieved through Selective image encryption technique. This paper aims to propose an analysis and implementation of Selective image encryption technique using Matlab.
Keywords: encryption, partial image encryption, selective image encryption, matlab
[1]. Nidhi S Kulkarni, Balasubramanian Raman, and Indra Gupta, "Selective encryption of multimedia images", NSC 2008, December 17-19, 2008.
[2]. Gaurav Bhatnagar , Q.M. Jonathan Wu, Selective image encryption based on pixels of interest and singular value decomposition, Digital Signal Processing 22 (2012) 648–663.
[3]. Priyanka Agrawal and Manisha Rajpoot A Fast and Secure Selective Encryption Scheme using Grid Division Method, IJCA vol.51 no.4,pp 29-33, Aug -2012.
[4]. Panduranga H T et al. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) "Selective Image encryption for medical and satellite images".
[5]. Marc Van Droogenbroeck and Raphaël Benedett "Techniques for a selective encryption of uncompressed and compressed images".
[6]. Rafael_C._Gonzalez,_Richard_E._Woods,_Steven_L._E "Digital image processing

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Alignment of TEM Image using ECC
Country : India
Authors : Garima Goyal
: 10.9790/0661-1633112115  logo
Abstract: TEM images are rapidly gaining prominence in various sectors like life sciences, pathology, medical science, semiconductors, forensics, etc. Hence, it is important to analyse the methods which are available to improve and extend the information obtainable from TEM images of particulate samples. This paper analyses the Enhanced Correlation coefficient algorithm on nanoscopic TEM images. Here, for performance criteria, correlation coefficient is taken as a parameter. By aligning several similar images to each other so they are in register and then averaging them, an image with higher signal to noise ratio can be obtained.
Index Terms: TEM Image, Alignment, ECC, Information, Signal to Noise Ratio

[1]. R. Szeliski, H andboo k of Mathematical Models of Computer Vision, N. Paragios, Y. Chen, and O. Faugeras , eds., chapter 17. Springer, 2005.
[2]. G.D. Hager and P.N. Belhumeur, "Efficient Region Tracking with Para metric Models of Geo metry and Illumination," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1025-1039,M Oct. 1998

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[5]. H. Shum and R. Szeliski, "Construction of Panoramic Image Mosaics with Global and Local Alignment," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 101130, 2000.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Wavelet Based Features for Defect Detection in Fabric using Genetic Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Prajakta A. Jadhav , Prof.M.S.Biradar
: 10.9790/0661-1633116120  logo
Abstract: In this paper a new scheme is proposed for Fabric defect detection in textile industry. For this purpose, wavelet transformer is used as feature extractor of coefficients of fabric. These coefficients can defect main fabric image & indicate defects of fabric textile by optimal subset of these coefficients. For finding a suitable subset Genetic Algorithm is used defect detector. The Shannon entropy is used as evaluation function in Genetic Algorithm. By using two separable sets of wavelet coefficients for horizontal and vertical defects, it was seen that we get better results for defect detection. The advantage of this approach it improves accuracy of fabric defect detection as well decrease computation time.
Keywords: Fabric defect detector, Genetic Algorithm, Subset of fabric, Wavelet transformer
[1] Mahajan P. M., Kolhe S. R and Patil P.M"A review of automated fabric defect detection".
[2] Narges Heidari, Reza Azmi & Boshra Pishgoo "Fabric Textile Defect Detection, By Selecting A Suitable Subset of Wavelet Coefficients, through Genetic Algorithm", International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP), Volume (5): Issue (1): 2011
[3] Z. Michalewicz, "Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs", AI Series.Springer-Verlag, New York, 3rd edition, (1996)
[4] Lijing Wang, Zhongmin Deng and Xungai Wang "Application of Wavelet Transform Method for Textile Material Feature Extraction".
[5] B.V. Ramana Reddy1, A. Suresh2, M. Radhika Mani3, and V.Vijaya Kumar4 "Classification of Textures Based on Features Extracted from Preprocessing Images on Random Windows", International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Volume 9, August, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Integrated Test Frame Work for defect free Embedded Product delivery
Country : India
Authors : A.chandra suresh ,Dr. Kvnm.Prasad
: 10.9790/0661-163312128  logo
Abstract: Now a days, the industries are looking for zero defect embedded products.Of late the companies are recalling the products due to the non functioning and performance of the products up to their expectations as per the design conditions and estimations. So many uncovered defects are highlighted even their operation which eventually triggers the products recall later times. Recently M/s Toyota recalled 60 lacks vehicles globally for non functioning wheel cable.With this we can get a question that "Are all delivered products are defect free?" Probably, answer would be Not. Even Though organizations spending lot off investment during product life cycle .
Due to this embedded product margin being minimized to the manufacturing Industries and is going to be a non profit product.Hence there is immense need to deliver defect free product by the manufacturers .There is a need to maintain or adopt sophisticated/test Proven test process, test coverage techniques.This paper proposes an integrated test frame work which fills the gap among Test levels,process,Testcoverage,Prototype testing, Virtual testing model based testing etc,… to deliver defect free embedded product
Keywords: Test process,proto type testing, test iterations, test coverage, test levels, virtual testing
[1] L. Baresi and M. Young. Test oracles. Technical report,Dept. of Comp. and Information Science, Univ. of Oregon,2001.˜ ichal/pubs/oracles.html.
[2] E. Bayse, A. R. Cavalli, M. N´u˜nez, and F. Za¨ıdi. A passivetesting approach based on invariants: application to the wap.Computer Networks, 48(2):235–245, 2005.
[3] B. Beizer. Software Testing Techniques (2nd ed.). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY, USA, 1990.
[4] A. Belinfante, L. Frantzen, and C. Schallhart. Tools for test case generation. In [21].
[5] S. Berner, R.Weber, and R. Keller. Observations and lessons learned from automated testing. In Proc. 27th Int. Conf. onSw. Eng., pages 571–579. ACM, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement in Extraction of Top-K List
Country : India
Authors : Dipali Patil , Nitin Dhawas
: 10.9790/0661-1633129133  logo
Abstract: In today's busy schedule finding proper information within less time is important need. When user fires top-K list or any other query, user get multiple links as output. User has to visit sites and have to search the proper result manually. But one more problem is there all data available on web is not in same format. These two problems are solved by using proposed enhanced top-k list extraction system. It will give user direct top-k list as result when user fire top-k list as query. This top-k list extraction system depends upon top-k list extraction algorithm. This system handles all web pages that may be structured, unstructured or semi-structured. Also it consumes user time to find proper information.
Keywords: Candidate picker, parser,ranker, top-k list, title classifier
[1] Soumen Chakrabarti Mining The Web: Discovering Knowledge From Hypertext Data".
[2] Zhixian Zhang, Kenny Q. Zhu , Haixun Wang , Hongsong Li ,"Automatic Extraction of Top-k Lists from the Web",, IEEE , ICDE Conference, 2013, 978-1-4673-4910-9.
[3] G. Miao, J. Tatemura, W.-P. Hsiung, A. Sawires, and L. E. Moser,"Extracting data records from the web using tag path clustering".
[4] Z. Zhang, K. Q. Zhu, and H. Wang, "A system for extracting top-k lists from the web," in KDD, 2012
[5] C.-H. Chang and S.-C. Lui, "Iepad: information extraction based on pattern discovery," in WWW, 2001, pp. 681–688.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Method to Prevent Information Leakage in Cloud
Country : India
Authors : Nina Pearl Doe , Sumaila Alfa , V. Suganya
: 10.9790/0661-1633134139  logo
Abstract: Cloud Computing is storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet instead of personal computers. It is a computing paradigm shift where computing is moved away from personal computers or an individual server to a cloud of computers. Its flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and dynamically re-allocation of resources as per demand make it desirable. As desirable as it is, it has also created security challenges such as information leakage, account hijacking and denial of service. The proposed work is to develop a Software as a Service application to prevent information leakage by providing multifactor authentication, risk assessment, encryption using enhanced elliptic curve cryptography where a cryptographically secure random number generation is used to make the number unpredictable, data integrity, key management and secure disposal of information. The platform for deployment of the application is Google App Engine.
Keywords: Authentication, Cloud Security Issues, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, MD5, Risk Assessment, Role Based Access Control, Secure Disposal
[1] Cloud Security Alliance, The Notorious Nine: Cloud Computing Top Threats in 2013, February 2013.
[2] IEEE CloudCom 2012, 4th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science Advances in Computer Science and its Applications , vol. 1, No. 1, World Science Publisher, United States, March 2012.
[3] V. Gampala, et al., Data Security in Cloud Computing with Elliptic Curve Cryptography, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), vol 2, Issue 3, July 2012.
[4] R. Sridevi and V. Bande, Comparative Study Of Various Existing Security Scenarios In Cloud Computing Environment, Journal of Global Research in Computer Science, vol 3, No. 9, September 2012.
[5] R. Sunita and G. Ambrish, Cloud Security with Encryption using Hybrid Algorithm and Secured Endpoints, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, vol. 3, pp. 4302 – 4304, 2012

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Approach to Secure Data Sharing for Dynamic Groups in the Cloud
Country : India
Authors : Gagan Jain G C, Venkataravana Nayak K, Krishna Gudi
: 10.9790/0661-1633140145  logo
Abstract: As the low maintenance, cloud computing supply an capable solution for sharing group resource within cloud users. Sharing data with the two or more owners while preserving data and identity privacy from an un-trusted cloud is still an issue, due to the frequent change of the membership. In this paper, we propose a secure data sharing scheme for dynamic subgroups in the cloud. By using group signature and dynamic broadcast encryption techniques, only privileged cloud user can store and share data. Meanwhile, the storage overhead and encryption computation cost of our scheme are independent with the number of revoked users.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Data sharing, Access control, Privacy preserving, Dynamic subgroups
[1]. M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A.D. Joseph, R.H. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D.A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, "A View of Cloud Computing," Comm. ACM, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 50-58, Apr. 2010.
[2]. S. Kamara and K. Lauter, "Cryptographic Cloud Storage," Proc. Int'l Conf. Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC), pp. 136149, Jan. 2010.
[3]. S. Yu, C. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Achieving Secure, Scalable, and Fine-Grained Data Access Control in Cloud Computing," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 534-542, 2010.
[4]. M. Kallahalla, E. Riedel, R. Swaminathan, Q. Wang, and K. Fu, "Plutus: Scalable Secure File Sharing on Untrusted Storage," Proc. USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, pp. 29-42, 2003bservations and lessons learned from automated testing. In Proc. 27th Int. Conf. onSw. Eng., pages 571–579. ACM, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Security Analysis of a Single Sign-On Mechanism For Distributed Computer Networks
Country : India
Authors : C. Ramakrishnan , S. Dhanabal
: 10.9790/0661-1633146149  logo
Abstract: Single sign on mechanisms allow users to sign on only once and have their identities automatically verified by each application or service they want to access afterwards. There are few practical and secure single sign on models, even though it is of great importance to current distributed application environments. Most of current application architectures require the user to memorize and utilize a different set of credentials (eg username/password or tokens) for each application he/she wants to access. However, this approach is inefficient and insecure with the exponential growth in the number of applications and services a user has to access both inside corporative environments and at the Internet. Single sign on (SSO) is a new authentication mechanism that enables a legal user with a single credential to be authenticated by multiple service providers in distributed computer networks. Recently, Chang and Lee proposed a new SSO scheme and claimed its security by providing well organized security arguments. In this paper, however, it is shown that their scheme is actually insecure as it fails to meet security during communication, in order to provide a secure authentication digital signature with hash function is researched for future work.
[1]. X. Li,W. Qiu, D. Zheng, K. Chen, and J. Li, "Anonymity enhancement on robust and efficient password-authenticated key agreement using smart cards," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 793–800, Feb. 2010.
[2]. W. Juang, S. Chen, and H. Liaw, "Robust and efficient password authenticated key agreement using smart cards," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2551–2556, Jun. 2008.
[3]. M. Cheminod, A. Pironti, and R. Sisto, "Formal vulnerability analysis of a security system for remote fieldbus access," IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Feb. 2011.
[4]. A. Valenzano, L. Durante, and M. Cheminod, "Review of security issues in industrial networks," IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf., vol. PP, no. 99, 2012,DOI 0.1109/TII/2012.2198666.
[5]. A. C. Weaver and M. W. Condtry, "Distributing internet services to the network's edge," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 404–411, Jun. 2003.

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