IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

May - June 2014Volume 16 - Issue 3

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 6 7 8 9

  • Citation
  • Abstract
  • Reference
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Quantitative Measurement of Software Requirement Factors using Goal Question Metric (GQM) Approach
Country : India
Authors : S Raju, Dr G V Uma
: 10.9790/0661-16380115     logo
Abstract: Every application software that we propose to develop can be thought of a group or collection of related requirements specified by the user and these requirements are the foundation from which the quality of the software is measured. Until now there is no concrete measurement methodology for measuring the requirements of any application software. A new value driven quantitative measurement approach is presented in this research work. These values associated with each of the requirements are collectively called as Requirement Factor Values (RFV). This new measurement method uses the Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) approach and it is one of the most powerful approaches available for metrics measurement. In this work, seven factors - customer priority of requirements, implementation complexity, changes in requirements, fault impact of requirements, completeness traceability and execution time are considered to be the primary ingredients of every requirement of the software and every requirement is characterized by the numerical values of these factors. A Java based application system has been developed that takes questionnaires, various parameters/values associated with each of the requirements and generates these factor values for each requirement of the software. These requirement factor values can be used in many ways such as measuring the quality of the software, test case design and optimization, test case prioritization.
Keywords: GQM. Software Metrics, Requirement Factor values, Software requirements.

[1] Gibbs, W W., Software Chronics Crises, Scientific American, 1994.
[2] Basili, V., Caldiera, G., Rombach, H.D.: The Goal Question Metric Approach, Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, New York,1994, ISBN 0-471-54004-8
[3] Basili, V.R., Rombach, H.D.: The TAME Project: Towards Improvement-Oriented Software Environments, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 6, June 1988.
[4] Dominik Richter, Michael Hohenstein, Stefan Templin and Gero Zimmer, "GQM Best Practice, Technical report"
[5] Peter Hantos, Xerox Corporation ," Strengths and Weaknesses of the GQM Approach in Developing Software Size Metrics", 13th International Forum On COCOMO And Software Cost Modeling.
[6] Aziz Deraman, Jamaiah H. Yahaya, Zaiha Nadiah Zainal Abidin and Noorazean Mohd Ali (2014), "Software Ageing Measurement Framework Based on GQM Structure", Journal of Software and Systems

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Test Exude: Approach for Test Case Reduction
Country : India
Authors : Vaibhav Chaurasia, Thirunavukkarasu K.
: 10.9790/0661-16381623     logo
Abstract: Software development is a planned and structured process includes research, new development, modification, re-engineering results in software products. The structure of development of software is SDLC. It contains various process and activities to accomplish the task of the software product. In SDLC, testing is the most expensive phase. It is used to validate the software with all possible combinations. Exhaustive testing is impossible task in software testing, as, it is impractical with large software products. Now, automation is applied to generate the test cases for various applications, but the selection and reduction of test cases by automation is the main problem. This target only be achieved, when test cases is contained in large test suites. The technique we propose for test case reduction, called TestExude. It is a technique which gives test cases needed and discard other test cases from the Test Suite. It reduces the redundant test cases and its corresponding elements. This technique works on frequency of test cases in test suite and accepts largest frequency occurred in test suites and discard test cases on the base of frequency selected. Storage is well managed in this technique by reducing the test cases drastically in test suite. Test Suites size, user time, organization cost, storage cost are reduce efficiently. Ultimately, it improves and generate effective test case. This technique is more advantageous than any other techniques as it reduces the cost and time to its minimum extent.
Keywords: Delegate Set, SDLC, Test Case, Test Case Reduction, TestExude, Test Suite

[1] Antonia Bertolino, Software Testing Research: Achievements, Challenges, Dreams Future of Software Engineering, IEEE, 2007, 0-7695-2829-5/07.
[2] Juha Itkonen, Nika V. Mantyla and Casper Lassenius, The Role of the Tester's Knowledge in Exploratory Software Testing, IEEE Computer Society, vol. 39, no. 5, 2013, 707-724.
[3] (2014) The Wikipedia website. [Online]. Available:
[4] (2014) The Wikipedia website. [Online]. Available:
[5] (2014) The Wikipedia website. [Online]. Available:

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A New Travel Time Prediction Method for Intelligent Transportation System
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Lutfun Nahar, Zinnia Sultana
: 10.9790/0661-16382430     logo
Abstract: Travel time prediction is an indispensable for numerous intelligent transportation systems (ITS) including advanced traveler information systems. The main purpose of this research is to develop a dynamic travel time prediction model for road networks. In this study we proposed a new method to predict travel times using Artificial Neural Network model because artificial neural network has exhibited high accuracy and speed when applied to large databases. In addition, we compare the proposed method with such prediction methods as link-based prediction model and time varying coefficient linear regression model. It is shown from our experiment that ANN predictor can reduce mean absolute relative error significantly rather than the other predictors. We illustrate that ANN is suitable and performs well for traffic data analysis.
Keywords: ATIS (Advanced Travellers Information Systems), Chain Average (CA), Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), K-means Clustering, Naïve Bayesian (NBC), Successive Moving Average (SMA)

[1] M. Chen and S. Chien. "Dynamic freeway travel time prediction using probe vehicle data:Link-based vs. Path-based". J. of Transportation Research Record, TRB Paper No. 01-2887, Washington, D.C. 2001
[2] C. H. Wei and Y. Lee. "Development of Freeway Travel Time Forecasting Models by Integrating Different Sources of Traffic Data". IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.Vol. 56, 2007
[3] W. Chun-Hsin, W. Chia-Chen, S. Da-Chun, C, Ming-Hua and H. Jan-Ming. "Travel Time Prediction with Support Vector Regression". IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, 2003
[4] J. Kwon and K. Petty. "A travel time prediction algorithm scalable to freeway networks with many nodes with arbitrary travel routes". Transportation Research Board 84th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. 2005
[5] D. Park and L. Rilett. "Forecasting multiple-period freeway link travel times using modular neural networks". J. of Transportation Research Record, vol. 1617, pp.163-170. 1998

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Prospective Utilization of Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Security: Authentication, Encryption and Decryption
Country : India
Authors : Shabnoor Qureshi, Prof. Somesh Dewangan
: 10.9790/0661-16383135     logo
Abstract: Public key cryptography is typically used in the field of mathematical, which consist of factors decomposition problem of huge numbers and discrete logarithm problem in finite field. For huge numbers in public key cryptography, factors decomposition problems RSA cryptography is generally used, but in the field of hardware and high-performance computing technology RSA has encountered some difficulties. To overcome such type of difficulties the elliptic curve discrete logarithm is introduced, which provides advantages, whose public key is short, network bandwidth is small and ability to defend against to attack is strong. This paper presents the design principles of elliptic curve public key cryptography, Authentication, Encryption and Decryption with shorter key of RSA.
Keywords: Elliptic curve, RSA key generation, Elliptic curve cryptography, Diffie-Hellman key exchange, Authentication, Encryption, Decryption.

[1] Bai Qing-hai, Zhang Wen-bo, Jiang Peng, Lu Xu1, "Research on Design Principles of Elliptic Curve Public Key Cryptography and Its Implementation" IEEE 2012
[2] Sonali Nimbhorkar, Dr.L.G.Malik, "Prospective Utilization of Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Security Enhancement", International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2013.
[3] Whitfield Diffie and Martin E. Hellman, "New directions in cryptography", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 22(1976), no.6, 644-654.
[4] Miller V. "Use of Elliptic Curves in Cryptography". In Cryptology Springer-Verlag, 1986, 417-426.
[5] Koblitz N. "Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems". Mathematics of computation, 1987, 48(177):203-209.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Aodv, Dsdv, Dsr and Lar Routing Protocols In Manet- A Review
Country : India
Authors : Ruchi Aggarwal, Amanpreet Kaur
: 10.9790/0661-16383642     logo
Abstract: Mobile ad Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other using wireless links. A routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes in order to facilitate communication within the network area. An ad Hoc network routing protocol helps to maintain correct and efficient route establishment between nodes so that messages may be delivered timely. This review paper describes the characteristics of ad Hoc routing protocols AODV, DSDV, DSR and LAR. And then provides a comparison and discussion of their respective merits and drawbacks.
Keywords: Manet, Aodv, Dsdv, Dsr, Lar

[1]. Basu Dev Shivahare, Charu Wahi, Shalini Shivhare, ―Comparison Of Proactive And Reactive Routing Protocols In Mobile AdHoc Network Using Routing Protocol Property,‖ IJETAE, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 356-359, March 2012.
[2]. C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, ―Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,‖ SIGCOMM, Oct. 1994, pp. 234–44.
[3]. Davesh Singh Som, Dhananjaya Singh, ―Performance Analysis and Simulation of AODV,DSR and TORA Routing Protocols in MANETs,‖ IJRTE, Volume-1, Issue-3, August 2012, pp 122-127.

[4]. David Oliver Jörg, ―Performance Comparison Of MANET Routing Protocols In Different Network Sizes,‖ 2003.
[5]. Basu Dev Shivahare, Charu Wahi, Shalini Shivhare, ―Comparison Of Proactive And Reactive Routing Protocols In Mobile AdHoc Network Using Routing Protocol Property,‖ IJETAE, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 356-359, March 2012.
[6]. C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, ―Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,‖ SIGCOMM, Oct. 1994, pp. 234–44.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Identification of common parameters for classifying malwares with decision tree
Country : India
Authors : Aparna Verma, Dr. M.S.Rao, Dr. A.K.Gupta
: 10.9790/0661-16384346     logo
Abstract: Malware analysis is a very tedious and time consuming process. It is the process of determining the behavior and purpose of a given malware sample created by the hacker. Every day new malware sample is being created and released on a large scale by malware authors. Anti-virus companies also requires its database to be updated to protect the victims and organizations. So, this clearly states each one of us to have the tools to analyse the malware. The purpose of this paper is to help Information security professionals, students and peoples, forensic investigator to understand the nature of malwares, and classify them according to the parameters developed by our model with the help of Matlab.
Keywords: malware, anti-virus, matlab

[1]. Mitchell T M, Machine learning,Singapore,Mc Graw Hill,1997
[2]. Distler,Malware analysis:An introduction,SANS institute,2007
[3]. Michael Hael Ligh, Steven Adair, Blake Harstein & Matthew Richard, Malware analyst's cookbook & DVD:Tools and techniques for fighting malicious code(Wiley Publishing Inc.,Indianapolis,Indiana,2011) 90-92
[4]. Michael Hael Ligh, Steven Adair, Blake Harstein & Matthew Richard, Malware analyst's cookbook & DVD:Tools and techniques for fighting malicious code(Wiley Publishing Inc.,Indianapolis,Indiana,2011) 288-290
[5]. Egele M,Scholte T,Kirda E,Kruegel C,A survey on automated dynamic malware analysis techniques and tools,ACM computing,Vol 44(2),Article6.2012,42

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modulo Search Trees (Plain and Z-Overlapped)
Country : India
Authors : Prasad V Chaugule
: 10.9790/0661-16384751     logo
Abstract: This paper exploits the modulo division operation to construct a tree which is termed as Modulo search tree with two versions out of which one is coined as Plain Modulo Search Tree and the other is termed as Z-Overlapped Modulo search Tree . The use of the term Modulo search tree implicitly implies the plain version of the tree. Searching Data in Modulo search tree will have better complexity as compared to the Binary Search tree. But the plain Modulo search tree structure requires more storage space to implement. Albeit, in contrast to the plain version of the Modulo search tree, Z-Overlapped version addresses the issue of extra storage and minimizes the storage requirement. And hence provides a flexibility (with the value of Z) to the implementer to choose a mid path between search time and storage space as and when required.
Keywords: Modulo search tree, Overlapping constant, Z-Overlapped Modulo search tree

[1]. Kenneth H Rosen, Discrete Mathematics and its Application with Combinatorics and Graph Theory (India, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited New Delhi, 2007).
[2]. C. L. Liu, Elements of Discrete Mathematics (McGraw Hill International Edition, 1985).
[3]. Seymour Lipschutz, G A Vijaylakshmi Pai, Data Structures (India, Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited New Delhi, 2006)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Ranking Algorithm of Web Documents using Ontology
Country : India
Authors : Gurdeep Kaur, Poonam Nandal
: 10.9790/0661-16385255     logo
Abstract: Internet has become the most important part of everyone's life where the large amount of information is stored in the form of text, audio, video etc. The Web information retrieval is a technique which helps to match the query provided by the user on the web search engine with the documents stored on the web. The next generation web called the Semantic Web will help the user to retrieve the useful data that is stored on the web in the form of ontology and make the data visible to the user which is hidden behind the web. The aim of the proposed ranking algorithm is to provide users the result set of relevant data .For this purpose, we have stored the information of the web documents in the form of ontology which is an explicit specification of a conceptualization and will help us to retrieve the relevant information for the user stored in web documents. The proposed ranking algorithm in conjunction with search engine will display the relevant web pages that best match the user query on the top of the result set provided by the search engine.
Keywords: Semantic Web, ranking algorithm, ontology, relevant data.

[1] A.Kemafor, A. Maduko, and A. Sheth. "SemRank: Ranking Complex Relationships Search Results on the Semantic Web." Proceeding WWW '05 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web. 117-27, 2005.
[2] A. Pisharody and H.E. Michel, "Search Engine Technique Using Keyword Relations," Proc. Int'l Conf. Artificial Intelligence (ICAI '05), pp. 300-306, 2005.
[3] B. Aleman-Meza, C. Halaschek, "A Context-Aware Semantic Association Ranking," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Semantic Web and Databases (SWDB '03), pp. 33-50, 2003.
[4] C. Junghoo, H. Garcia-Molina, and L. Page, "Efficient Crawling through URL Ordering," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 161-172, 1998.
[5] Cohen, S., J. Mamou, "A Semantic Search Engine." Proc. of Proc. 29th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases. 45-56, 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Validation Experimentations ofLocal Alignment Parameters for ComparingDNA and Protein Sequences
Country : Malaysia
Authors : ManhalElfadilEltayeeb Elnour, Muhammad ShafieAbd Latif, Ismail Fauzi Isnin
: 10.9790/0661-16385661     logo

Abstract: A basic issue in aligning DNA and protein sequences is to find similar characters between two or more sequences in order to detect relations between newly defined sequences and well-known sequences stored in genetic databanks. Local Sequences Alignment (LSA) algorithmshave been developedto reveal similar regions between compared sequences. LSA algorithms produced optimal alignment using similarity matrix with scoring scheme. Match, mismatch, and gap penalties are identified using substation matrix and affine gap function. The accuracy of the results relies on selecting the best values for these parameters. This paper mainly set out to validate statically parameters for calculating possible alignments.Estimated values are tested using real dataset and the optimal alignment was recorded as well as the parameters. Perfect symmetric results were obtained, when comparing mathematically and statically estimation for the LSA parameters.

Keywords: Local Sequences Alignment, DNA, Protein, Substation Matrix, Scoring Scheme.

[1] S. B. Needleman and C. D. Wunsch, "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins," Journal of molecular biology, vol. 48, pp. 443-453, 1970.

[2] T. Smith and M. Waterman, "Identification of common molecular subsequences," J. Mol. Bwl, vol. 147, pp. 195-197, 1981.

[3] D. Díaz, F. J. Esteban, P. Hernández, J. A. Caballero, G. Dorado, and S. Gálvez, "Parallelizing and optimizing a bioinformatics pairwise sequence alignment algorithm for many-core architecture," Parallel Computing, vol. 37, pp. 244-259, 2011.

[4] Y. Zhang, S. Misra, D. Honbo, A. Agrawal, W. Liao, and A. Choudhary, "Efficient pairwise statistical significance estimation for local sequence alignment using GPU," in Computational Advances in Bio and Medical Sciences (ICCABS), 2011 IEEE 1st International Conference on, 2011, pp. 226-231.

[5] S. Brenner, "Optimal Pairwise Alignment," in Introduction to computational biology: an evolutionary approach, B. Haubold and T. Wiehe, Eds., ed: Springer, 2006, pp. 11-42.

Researcher can also search IOSR published article contents through

IOSR Xplore