IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

April - 2015 Volume 17 - Issue 4

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Causal Relationship between financial sector development and economic growth: a case of Zimbabwe
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : David Chisunga

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the impact of financial sector development on economic growth in Zimbabwe, the reason being that no such research has been carried out in Zimbabwe. The research utilized secondary data for the period 1995 to 2008.Granger causality test is used to test the causality between economic growth and four financial sector development indicators. Johansen co-integration approach is used to test the long run relationship between economic growth and financial sector development indicators. The paper found out that granger causality runs from economic growth to financial sector development. The results support some empirical evidence that postulates that the granger relationship runs from economic growth to financial development and is there is a positive relationship in the long run. The study provides empirical evidence that economic growth granger causes financial sector development and there are positively related in the long run. Therefore, it is important that the government of Zimbabwe should implement policies that fosters economic growth and this will subsequently promotes financial sector development

Keywords: Economic growth, financial sector development, granger causality, ZIMBABWE.

[1]. Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1992). "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction". Econometrica, 60(2), 323-351.
[2]. Allen, D., & Ndikumana, L. (2000). "Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth in Southern Africa". Journal of African Economics, 9(2), 132-160.
[3]. Apergis, N., Filippidi, I., & Economidou, C. (2008). "Financial Depening and Economic Growth Linkages: A Panel Data Analysis". Review of World Economics, 143(1), 179-198.
[4]. Aziakapono, M. J. (2005a). "Financial Development and Economic Growth in Southern Africa". In M. Granders, & N. Pinaud (Eds.), Reducing Capital Cost in Southern Africa. Development Centre Studies.
[5]. Brooks, C. (2002). "Introductory Economics For Finance". Cambridge University Press.
[6]. Calderon, C., & Liu, L. (2002). "The direction of causality between financial development and economic growth". Central Bank of Chile.
[7]. De Gregorio, J., & Guidotti, P. E. (1995). "Financial Development and Economic Growth". World Development, 23(3), 433-448.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Issues and Challenges of Women Empowerment in India
Country : India
Authors : Dr. (Smt.) Rajeshwari M. Shettar

Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze the status of Women Empowerment in India and highlights the Issues and Challenges of Women Empowerment. Today the empowerment of women has become one of the most important concerns of 21st century. But practically women empowerment is still an illusion of reality. We observe in our day to day life how women become victimized by various social evils. Women Empowerment is the vital instrument to expand women's ability to have resources and to make strategic life choices. Empowerment of women is essentially the process of upliftment of economic, social and political status of women, the traditionally underprivileged ones, in the society. It is the process of guarding them against all forms of violence. The study is based on purely from secondary sources. The study reveals that women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spite of many efforts undertaken by Government. It is found that acceptance of unequal gender norms by women are still prevailing in the society. The study concludes by an observation that access to Education, Employment and Change in Social Structure are only the enabling factors to Women Empowerment.

Key Words: Women Empowerment, Education, Health, Socio-Economic Status. Crimes against women, Policy implications.

[[1]. Duflo E. (2011) Women's Empowerment and Economic Development, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge.
[2]. India: Women's Empowerment - IFAD / OE, 2000. The Republic of India; TamiluNadu Women's Development Project : Completion Evaluation, Report 340 – IN Rome, April.
[3]. Baruah B. (2013) Role of Electronic Media in Empowering Rural.
[4]. Goswami, L. (2013). Education for Women Empowerment. ABHIBYAKTI: Annual Journal, 1, 17-18.
[5]. Baruah, B. (2013). Role of Electronic Media in Empowering Rural Women Education of N.E. India. ABHIBYAKTI: Annual Journal, 1, 23-26.
[6]. Kadam, R. N. (2012). Empowerment of Women in India- An Attempt to Fill the Gender Gap. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 11-13


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Environmental Reporting by Indian Hospitality Industry
Country : India
Authors : Dr. (CA) Minaxi Rachch || Dr. S.T. Gadade

Abstract: Business has increased with massive technological changes, which led to a fall in the health of the natural environment. Environmental pressures have forced the organization to disclose the environmental impacts of its business activities to the interested parties in the stand-alone report or Annual Report. Environmental Impact of service industries is neglected in spite of its major share in economic development. Hence, the context for this study is Indian Hospitality Industry. The objective of the study is to analyse the status and level of environmental disclosure in Indian hospitality industry. The research method involves the exploration of the websites of a sample of companies and AR/SR/ER/CSR for 2010-11/2010/2011. The study uses the content analysis. The study indicates the presence of the 59 items information. The items of information are analysed on the basis of nature of disclosure - qualitative, quantitative, General, qualitative and quantitative, monetary disclosure and no disclosure. The sample initially included 185 companies. Following the extensive Internet search, 54 companies were found to have corporate websites. The sample of the study consists of 54 companies.

[1]. Belal, A. R., & Momin, M. (2009). Corporate Social Reporting (CSR) in Emerging Economies: A Review and Future Direction. 1st South American Congress on Social and Environmental Accounting Research – CSEAR. Brazil.
[2]. Branco, M. C., & Delgado, C. (2009). Research on social and environmental accounting in Southern European countries. REVISTA ESPAÑOLA DE FINANCIACIÓN Y CONTABILIDAD , XXXVIII (144), 663-675.
[3]. Dalmácio, Z., & De Paulo, F. M. (2004). Accounting Disclosure: Publication of Social/Environmental and Financial Aspects in Accounting Statements. Brazilian Business Review , 1 (2), 74-88.
[4]. Dutta, P., & Bose, S. (2008). Corporate Environmental Reporting on the Internet in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study. International Review of Business Research Papers , 4 (3), 138-150.
[5]. Gadenne, D., & Zaman, M. (2002). Strategic Environmental Management Accounting: An Exploratory Study Of Current Corporate Practice And Strategic Intent. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management , 4 (2), 123-150.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of Commercial Banks on Small and Medium Enterprises Financing In Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Oke, M.O. (Ph.D) || Aluko, O.A.

Abstract: This study examines the impact of commercial banks in financing small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria between 2002 and 2012. A sample of ten (10) commercial banks is drawn for the study and individual bank data and macroeconomic time series annual data were collected. Using panel data regression analysis, the results reveal that commercial bank has significant impact on SMEs' financing as deduced from the results of constant effect, fixed effect and random effect models which show that commercial banks credit to SMEs, the ratio of credit to SMEs to total credit in the economy and equity of commercial banks explain a substantial proportion of changes that arise in SMEs' financing. This study suggests that commercial banks are capable of making SMEs grow.

Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises, Commercial Banks, Financing, Panel Data Regression, Bank Equity

[1]. Afolabi, M.O. (2013). Growth Effect of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Financing in Nigeria. Journal of African Macroeconomic Review, 3(1), 193-205.
[2]. Ahiawodzi, A.K. &Adade, T.C. (2012). Access to Credit and Growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 6(2), 34-51.
[3]. Aliyu, S.M. & Bello, G.B. (2013). An Assessment of the Contribution of Commercial Banks to the Growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 2(4), 47-55.
[4]. Amonoo, E., Acquah, P.K. &Asmah, E.E. (2003). The Impact of Interest Rates on Demand for Credit and Loan Repayment by the Poor and SMEs in Ghana (IFLIP Research Paper 03-10). Geneva: International LabourOrganisation.
[5]. Chiou, J., Wu, P. & Huang, B. (2011). How Derivatives Trading Among Banks Impacts SME Lending. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(4), 1-11.
[6]. Mamman, A. &Aminu, K.S. (2013). Effect of 2004 Banking Reforms on Loan Financing of Small and Medium Scale Industries in Nigeria. International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 1(3), 44-53.
[7]. Nwosa, P.I. &Oseni, I.O. (2013). The Impact of Bank Loans to SMEs on Manufacturing Output in Nigeria. Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 4(5), 212-217.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility among Employees of Services Sector based on Gender
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Ali Asad || Hafiz Muhammad Ali || Muhammad Ali Raza || Muhammad Abdullah Shah

Abstract: The aim of this study is to perception of corporate social responsibility among employees of services sector based on gender in Pakistan. The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Pakistan is at very beginning stage. It needs awareness and change in the behavior of corporations and government. A structured questionnaire was used to explore the five dimensions of CSR in three sectors of the services industry i.e. Telecom, Education and Banking organizations. The data was entered into SPSS 16.0 for analysis. The results indicate that employees' agreement reflects the highest scores as compared to other dimensions of CSR. Findings reveal a moderate response from the employees regarding selected dimensions of CSR in services sector in Pakistan. It is concluded that females employees of the service sector having more understanding about the concept of CSR as compare to male employees of the service sector of Pakistan. The study enables the different stakeholders to enhance their understanding by providing a direction for more research regarding CSR in developing countries like Pakistan.

Key words: CSR, Service Sector, Employees, Gender

[1]. Anderson, C. J. (1993). Corporate Social Responsibility and Worker Skills: An Examination of Corporate Responses to Work Place Illiteracy, Journal of Business Ethics, 281-292.
[2]. Albinger, H. S., & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate Social Performance and Attractiveness as an Employer to Different Job Seeking Populations, Journal of Business Ethics, 243-253.
[3]. Bowen, G. L. (1988). Corporate Supports for the Family Lives of Employees: A conceptual Model for Program Planning and Evaluation, Family Relations, 37, 183-188.
[4]. Carroll. (1979). A Three Dimensional Model of Corporate performance. Academy of Management review, 497-505.
[5]. Clarkson. (1988). corporate social performance in candana 1976-1986, research in corporate social performance and policy, 241-265.
[6]. Dahl , R (1985) A preface to economic democracy Berkeley University of California Press.
[7]. Fuentes-Gnarcia, F. & Veroz-Herrado, J. (2007). Applicability of Corporate Social Responsibility to human Resources Management: Perspective from Spain. Journal of Business Ethics, 27-44.
[8]. Friedman, M. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. Times Magazine .


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Challenges to Technology Innovation in Italy
Country : Italy
Authors : Francesco Ruberto

Abstract: Italy is an economy with few incentives for technology innovation, due to the social, cultural, and economic consequences of a society that is based on privilege rather than merit. The lag in innovation in Italy vis-à-vis the other main industrial countries is one of the effects of the fragmentation of the production system into many small firms that have trouble bearing the high cost of R&D and taking the related risks. Most people have little incentive to create innovative companies, as they perceive that those with privileges have an unfair business advantage and consequently many entrepreneurs are wary to invest in innovation. The mainstay of this paper is to list and understand the challenges that affect technology innovation in Italy. The paper suggests the necessary involvement of all members of the society in the process of design public policies and socio-technical infrastructures in order to overcome this existing innovation gap. In particular, Italian entrepreneurs should work together to transform the network of pernicious institutions that perpetuate the lack of a meritocracy, as well as the corruption that hinders the development of Italy.

Keywords: Higher education, Justice system, Meritocracy, Privilege-based society, Technology Innovation.

[1]. Baccaro, L. and Pulignano, V. (2009). Employment Relations in Italy. International and Comparative. Employment Relations (5th edition). G. Bamber, R. Lansbury and N. Wailes. London, Sage.
[2]. Baccaro, L. (2002). Negotiating the Italian pension reform with the unions: lessons for corporatist theory. Industrial and labor relations review 55(3): 413-431.
[3]. Banfield, E. (1958). The Moral Basis of a Backward Society. New York: The Free Press.
[4]. Bogaards, M. (2005). Power Sharing in South Africa. From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided So-cieties. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, pp.164-183.
[5]. Bugamelli, M., Cannari, L., Lotti, F. and Magri, S. (2012). The innovation gap of Italy‟s production system: Roots and possible solutions. Bank of Italy, occasional paper, no. 121.
[6]. CNEL - CESOS (2009). Le Relazioni Sindacali in Italia e in Europa 2008-2009.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effect of Market Orientation on Product Innovation
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Abbas S. Salman

Abstract: The research was conducted in Pakistan's market, addressing the core issues for the top management how market orientation effects product innovation, survey was conducted in respect to highlight the core variables which can affect the market response.1-The bigger the customer orientation of a business or a firm, Additional line extensions is established to support, 2-The larger the competitor orientation of a business or a firm, more me-too products is launched in respect, 3-The larger the inter-functional coordination of a business, the added new-to-the-world products is launched

[1]. Bouranta, N., Mavridoglou, G., Kyriazopoulos, P. (2005), ―The Impact of Internal Marketing to Market Orientation Concept and their Effects to Bank Performance‖, An International Journal, Vol.5, No.2, 349-362.
[2]. Coelho, Filipe Jorge , Augusto, Gomes, M., Coelho, Fernandes, A., Sa, Moura, P. (2010),‖Climate perceptions and the customer orientation of frontline service employees‖, The Service Industries Journal, 30, 8,1343 — 1357.
[3]. Frasquet, Marta , Cervera, Amparo and Gil, Irene. (2008), ―The impact of IT and customer orientation on building trust and commitment in the supply chain‖, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18, 3, 343 — 359.
[4]. Grinstein, A.(2008),‖ The effect of market orientation and its components on innovation consequences: a meta-analysis J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci‖. , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 166-173.
[5]. Hadcroft, Philip and Jarratt, Denise. (2007), ―Market Orientation: An Iterative Process of Customer and Market Engagement‖, Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 14, 3, 21 — 57.
[6]. Ha, Youl, H., John, Joby. (2009), ―Role of customer orientation in an integrative model of brand loyalty in services‖, The Service Industries Journal, First published on: 20 November 2009.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of service value on service satisfaction and behavioral intentions: Mediating role of switching barrier
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Muhammad Usman Babar

Abstract: This study investigates to find the impact of service value on service satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The study was cross sectional and causal in nature. Data was collected from the passengers of Daewoo Bus Service, Faisal Movers and Skyways. 250 questionnaires were got filled and data was analyzed through correlation, regression and mediated regression analysis. Questionnaires were adopted from already developed questionnaires. It was concluded that service value is an important variable and has direct and positive influence on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Moreover, the service value also reduces the switching behavior of the customers and stops them to select another competitor. Switching behavior also mediates the relationship of service value and customer satisfaction. Higher the service value lower will be the switching intentions of the passengers of bus services. All bus services must focus on creating more service value to retain the customers for a longer run to increase the profitability. Bus services must not ignore the importance of switching behavior and must focus on increasing the satisfaction and behavioral intentions and try to reduce the switching behavior.

[1]. Mittal S., and Gera R. (2012). Relationship between Service Quality Dimensions And Behavioural Intentions: An SEM Study Of Public Sector Retail Banking Customers In India. Journal of Services Research, Volume 12, Number 2
[2]. Greenland, S., Coshall, J., Combe, I. (2006) "Evaluating service quality and customer satisfaction in emerging markets‟, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30: 6, pp. 582-90.
[3]. Molinari L.K , Abratt, R. and Dion, P. (2008) "Satisfaction, quality, value and effects on repurchase and word of mouth behavioural intentions in a B2B services context, Journal of Services Marketing, 22:5, pp.-363-373
[4]. Yim, C.K., Cjan, K.W., Hung, K. (2007). Multiple reference effects in service evaluations: Roles of alternative attractiveness and self-image congruity. J. Retail. 83(1), 147–157
[5]. Park, J.W., Robertson, R., Wu, C.L. (2006). Modelling the impact of airline service quality and marketing variables on passengers‟ future behavioral intentions. Transp. Plan. Technol. 29(5), 359–381
[6]. Lin, J.H., Lee, T.R., Jen, W. (2008). Assessing asymmetric response effect of behavioral intention to service quality in an integrated psychological decision-making process model of intercity bus passengers: a case of Taiwan. Transportation 35(1), 129–144


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : How The Corporate Governance Affects Organizational Strategy: Lessons From Jordan Environment.
Country : Jordan
Authors : Zeyad Al-Azzam || Atif Al-Qura'an || Hazem Al-Mohameed

Abstract: Business corporations have been created to address objectives which are much more than creating products and services, it has to serve the larger purpose of satisfying multilevel needs of the society. These corporations have always faced the tug of war of protecting the interests of the shareholders ―the legal owners‖ or the stakeholders which includes suppliers, customers, creditors, government and communities. Therefore, corporations work on corporate governance (CG) which has been gaining importance ever since the economic turmoil caused by collapsed of many business corporations in last two decades such as WorldCom, Enron, and Tyco International.

[1]. Abadi, Hossein Rezaei Dolat. (2012). ―Analyzing the Impact of Corporate Governance and Organizational Learning on Strategic Planning Effectiveness (An Empirical practice among some industrial companies in Iran)‖. International Journal of Learning & Development, 2(3): 283 – 293.
[2]. Abu-Tapanjeh, Abdussalam Mahmoud. (2006). ―Good corporate governance mechanism and firms' operating and financial performance: insight from the perspective of Jordanian industrial companies‖. Journal of King Saud University (Administrative Science), 19(2):101–21.
[3]. Abu-Tapanjeh, Abdussalam Mahmoud. (2009). ―Corporate Governance from the Islamic Perspective: A Comparative Analysis with OECD Principles‖. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 20: 556–567.
[4]. Al-Beshtawi, Suleiman Hussein, Zraqat, Omar Mohammed, and Al–Hiyasat, Hamdan Moh'D. (2014). ―The Impact of Corporate Governance on Non Financial Performance in Jordanian Commercial Banks and Islamic Banks‖. International Journal of Financial Research, 5(3): 54-67.
[5]. Al-Faki, M. (2006). ―Transparency and Corporate Governance for Capital Market Development in Africa: The Nigerian Case Study‖. Securities Market Journal, 9-28.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Soybeans: E-tailing of Agro-product
Country : India
Authors : Shipra Shahi || Dr. Kushendra Mishra

Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of e-tailing in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh after the introduction of e-tailing by ITC India Pvt. Ltd for procurement of Soya products. The successful implementation of this programme resulted in increased of Soy price for the farmers and better quality for the procurers and also obliterating the middlemen in the process. This paper will try to understand the impact of the new paradigm shift in the procurement of agro products in India through e-tailing. Beginning in October2000, the e-tailing has successfully changed the pattern of seller and buyer relations in the Soy farming in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Keywords: e-tailing, multi-channel, e-choupal, soy farming, strategy

[1]. http://www.slideshare.net/sauravarora91/agriculture-it-ecommerce
[2]. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jEw7BAAAQBAJ&pg=PA352&lpg=PA352&dq=e+tailing+of+agriculture+product&source=bl&ots=rmzhNHSKoR&sig=5EzuKwlztz6N8a6be27ktpNRIXg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0Mp5VLa5E4eTuATEqIGgBg&ved=0CCAQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=e%20tailing%20of%20agriculture%20product&f=false [3]. http://cab.org.in/ICTPortal/Lists/Knowledge%20Bank/Attachments/50/ITC%20e-choupal%20case%20study_21_12_2007.pdf
[4]. http://www.sibm.edu/FacultyResearch/pdf/itc.pdf
[5]. http://gedaref.com/ADBCP/recov/newone/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=139%3Ae-agriculture-project&catid=38%3Arokstories-samples&lang=en
[6]. http://www.researchersworld.com/vol3/issue2/vol3_issue2_3/Paper_05.pdf
[7]. http://www.altius.ac.in/pdf/24.pdf.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Investigation into Selected Factors Hindering Access to Mortgage Finance in Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Dr.Fredrick Mukoma kalui || Mr. Husborn Osoro Kenyanya

Abstract: The Kenyan mortgage market has been experiencing slow growth despite the upsurge of housing prices over the last few years. All commercial banks offer mortgage finance but still only a small percentage of Kenyans have used mortgages. Only about 11% of the urban population has used mortgage finance and this rate is very low given the high demand for housing units in Kenya as provided by the UNHABITAT research. This study involved a census survey of all the 44 commercial banks in Nairobi as published by the Central Bank of Kenya. The study used primary data which was collected through questionnaires issued to the credit analysts in these banks at their head offices in Nairobi. Credit analysts have more information about access to mortgages as they are involved in appraisal of all applications before any approvals are made.

[1]. Banking in Kenya, (2012). Mortgage Finance. Retrieved on 13th July 2013 from <http://bankinginkenya.com/393/mortgage-finance>.
[2]. Champy, J. (1995) Theory of interest rates. Harper Business: London.
[3]. Chisnall, P. (2005). Marketing Research: Seventh Edition. United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill
[4]. Clayton, F. (2007). The history of mortgage concept. Harper: New York.
[5]. Cooper, R. & Kaplan, R. (2011). The Rise of House Prices in Kenya, Englewood: Cliffs
[6]. Green, R. & White, M. (2012). Measuring the benefits of homeowning: Effects on children. Chicago: Center for the Study of the Economy and the State.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : How Does Matter Lost and Misplace Items Issue and Its Technological Solutions in 2015 -A Review Study
Country : India
Authors : Saleem Ahmad || Muhammad Ziaullah || Leena Rauniyar || Meng Su || Yue Zhang

Abstract: At present, the world's population has reached the 7.2 billion; life has become more fast and challenging. Time get more importance than ever before, we need to do multiple task every day. As the life becoming busier the issue of lost and misplaced items is also increase significantly. Today the human life surrounding with machines and technological advancement reshapes the lives. There is need to resolve the lost and misplaced item issue technologically. However, the various studies show the importance of the issue. In recent years number of researchers and small firms work on the technological solution of this issue and offer some good and effective propose solutions and products. Theoretically it's proved that Bluetooth based Devices are the optimal solution for tracking via Smartphone. This regard many small firms offer products. These products are effective, cheap and free of cost to operate. But all these small firms are not able to gain consumers attention. This paper recommends the small companies and the big cellular manufacturers like Apple and Samsung to make the collaboration and offer these products as essential part of Smartphone buying package.

1]. Ensure Home Insurance Study "We‟re a bunch of losers" [OL]. http://www.esure.com/media_centre/archive/wcmcap_100800.html. October 13, 2013
[2]. Newswire PR (Aug, 2013) 'P-touch® Means Business' Survey Reveals Offices Waste More Than $177 Billion Per Year Looking for Lost Items. Available at: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/p-touch-means-business-survey-reveals-offices-waste-more-than-177-billion-per-year-looking-for-lost-items-101465149.html(accessed 21 October, 2013)
[3]. Smith A (2012), Article title. In : 46% of American adults are smartphone owners. Pew Research Center‟s Internet & American Life Project. Available at: http://pewinternet.org/~/media /Files/Reports/2012/Smartphone%20ownership%202012.pdf (accessed 23 October, 2013).
[4]. Ahmad Saleem, Rouyu Lu, and Hussain Muhammad. (a) "Never Lose! Smart Phone based Personal Tracking via Bluetooth." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 4, no. 3 (2014): 528-545.
[5]. Ahmad Saleem, Lu Rouyu, Zhang Yue, Ziaullah Muhammad. (b) "AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SMARTPHONE BASED TRACKING DEVICES AND ANALYSIS OF Its DEMAND & MARKET". International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management 2, no. 12 (2014): 1-13.


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