IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Jan. – Feb. 2016 Volume 18 - Issue 1

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : E-Tailing: The Shifting Visage of Retail Business in India
Country : India
Authors : Subhendu Kumar Rath || Bhagavan Behera || Rajani Trivedi

Abstract: E- Tailing has taken the business world by storm and mesmerized the psyche of the entire thumb generation entrepreneurs with a collection of viable business and commercial models. The indispensable motivating force on the flipside of the global economy is the vigor and ground-breaking panache of information technology and India is at the cusp of such a digital uprising. The drift of online shopping in India is set to see greater elevation in coming years because of the changes in the supporting ecosystem. The probable launch of 4G services is supposed to outstandingly bump up India's Internet user base. Venture capital investors, who were putting a ceiling on themselves to the tangential, are now enchanting a passionate interest in the country's e-tailing market.

[1]. E.Turban, J. Lee, D. King and H.M. Chung, Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. Prentice Hall, 1999
[2]. Herb Sorrensen ―E-Book- Inside the Mind of the Shopper‖, from the Garrick Lee

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Video Steganography: A Survey
Country : India
Authors : Bharti Chandel || Dr.Shaily Jain

Abstract: Recent advances in information technology have made quick delivery and sharing of multimedia information possible. But these advances in technology are leading breaches to information security and personal information. Digital Steganography provides capability to protect private communication that has become necessity in today's Internet era. Steganography is a technique to protect and conceal multimedia information in disguised manner or we can say it is the study of invisible communication. Steganography is a mixture of compression, encryption, watermarking and cryptography.

[1] F.A.P. Petitcolas, R.J. Anderson and M.G. Kuhn: Information Hiding-A Survey, Proc. IEEE, 1999.
[2] N. Provos and P. Honeyman, Hide and Seek: An introduction to steganography, IEEE Security and Privacy, 1(3), 2003, 32-44.
[3] K.G.Paterson, Cryptography from Painings: A snapshot of Current Research, Information Security Technical Report, 7(3), September 2002, 41-54.
[4] M. Bachrach, F.Y. Shih, Image Steganography and steganalysis, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, 3(3), 2011, 251-259.
[5] M. Jafar, K. Morteza, An adaptive scheme for compressed video steganography using temporal and spatial features of the video signal, International Journal of Imaging System and Technology,19, December 2009,306-315.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cyber Security in the Era of Networking: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Manjiri N. Muley

Abstract: Cyber security is an intricate issue, affecting many application domains and straddling many disciplines and fields. Securing the critical infrastructures entails protecting not only the physical systems but, just as important, the cyber portions of the systems on which they rely. Cyber attackers can disrupt critical infrastructures such as financial and air traffic control systems, creating effects that are similar to terrorist attacks in the physical space. They can also carry out individuality theft and financial fraud; steal commercial information such as intellectual property; recruit criminals and others to carry out carnal terrorist activities. What makes cyberspace even more attractive to criminals including non-state actors is that provenance in cyberspace is complex, especially given that cyberspace is borderless and cuts across authorities.

[1]. World Economic Forum report on Risk and Responsibility in a Hyper connected World. McAfee 2013 Threats Predictions Report, McAfee Labs.
[2]. Study of the Impact of Cyber Crime on Businesses in Canada.' International Cyber Security Protection Alliance (May 2013). The study was sponsored by Above Security, Blackberry, Lockheed Martin and McAfee.
[3]. Government of Canada Cyber Security Strategy(2010)
[4]. Deibert, Ron.Distributed Security as Cyber Strategy: Outlining a Comprehensive Approach for Canada in Cyberspace. Prepared for the Canadian Defense& Foreign Affairs Institute, August 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : News Classification and Its Techniques: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Gurmeet Kaur || Karan Bajaj

Abstract: Text mining has gained quite a significant importance during the past few years. Data, now-a-days is available to users through many sources like electronic media, digital media and many more. This data is usually available in the most unstructured form and there exists a lot of ways in which this data may be converted to structured form. In many real-life scenarios, it is highly desirable to classify the information in an appropriate set of categories.

[1] Punitha, S. C., and M. Punithavalli. "Performance evaluation of semantic based and ontology based text document clustering techniques." , Procedia Engineering, 30, 2012,100-106. [2] Chen, Chun-Ling, Frank SC Tseng, and Tyne Liang. "An integration of WordNet and fuzzy association rule mining for multi-label document clustering." , Data & Knowledge Engineering, 69(11),2010,1208-1226. [3] Hassan, Malik Tahir, et al. "CDIM: Document Clustering by Discrimination Information Maximization." , Information Sciences, 316,2015,87-106.
[4] Li, Yanjun, Soon M. Chung, and John D. Holt. "Text document clustering based on frequent word meaning sequences." ,Data & Knowledge Engineering,64(1),2007,381-404. [5] Luo, Congnan, Yanjun Li, and Soon M. Chung. "Text document clustering based on neighbors." ,Data & Knowledge Engineering, 68(11),2009,1271-1288.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Predicting software aging related bugs from imbalanced datasets by using data mining techniques
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : Amir Ahmad

Abstract: Software aging bugs are related with the life-span of the software. Rebooting is one of the solutions of this problem, however, it is time consuming and causes resources loss. It is difficult to detect these bugs during the time-limited software testing process. Data mining techniques can be useful to predict whether a piece of software has aging related bugs or not. The available datasets of software aging bugs present a challenge as they are imbalanced datasets. In these datasets, the number of data points with bugs is very small as compared to the number of data points with no bugs.

[1]. S. L. Pfleeger and J. M. Atlee, Software Engineering: Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall; 4 edition, 2009.
[2]. Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering, Pearson; 9 edition, 2010.
[3]. M. McDonald, R. Musson and R. Smith, The Practical Guide to Defect Prevention, Microsoft Press, 2007.
[4]. M. Dowson, The Ariane 5 Software Failure, Software Engineering Notes 22 (2): 84. 1997.
[5]. D. Huizinga, Dorota and A. Kolawa, Automated Defect Prevention: Best Practices in Software Management. Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press. 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Input Cumulative Cryptosystem for Scalable Information Contribution in Cloud
Country : India
Authors : Kamma Madhavi || Venkatasivasankara Reddy

Abstract: In Cloud computing, data storing and sharing is a capable methodology. This study illuminates secure, powerful, and versatile system to give data to different people in Cloud storage structure. This review, depict novel open key cryptosystems. This structure create relentless size figure messages such that compelling assignment of unraveling rights for any course of action of figure works are possible. This improvement arrangement can add up to any course of action of riddle keys and make them as a decreased single key .The
power of the significant number of keys being gathered in a lone key.

[1] "Key-Aggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data sharing in Cloud Storage" Cheng-Kang Chu, Sherman S.M Chow, Wen-Guey
Tzen, Jianying Zhou, Robert H. Deng IEEE, 2014
[2] "A Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Intrusion Detection System" Chenfeng Vincent Zhou, Shanika Karunasekera and Christopher Leckie
National ICT Australia Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering.
[3] University of Melbourne, Australia 2005 [3] Q. Zhang and Y. Wang, "A Centralized Key Management Scheme for Hierarchical
Access Control," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 04). IEEE, 2004, pp. 20672071.
[4] M. J. Atallah, M. Blanton, N. Fazio, and K. B. Frikken, "Dynamic and Efficient Key Management for Access Hierarchies," ACM
Transac ormation and System Security (TISSEC), vol. 12, no. 3, 2009tions on Inf.
[5] A. Sahai and B. Waters, "Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption," in Proceedings of Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 05, ser.
LNCS, vol. 3494. Springer, 2005, pp. 457473.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review of Evolutionary Algorithms in Wsn
Country : India
Authors : Amanjot Kaur || Gaurav Mehta

Abstract: Diverse issues related to wireless sensor networks like energy minimization (optimization), compression schemes, network algorithms which are self-organizing, routing protocols, management of quality of service, security etc., have been broadly investigated. Among these, energy efficiency, quality of service and management of security are the most indispensable issues. To get the best feasible results in one or more of these issues in wireless sensor networks optimization is vital. In classical algorithms, energy consumption is very high due to random selection of CH (cluster head).

[1] M.A.Adnan, M.A.Razzaque, I.Ahmed and I.F.Isnin, Bio-Mimic Optimization Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, Sensors 2014, 14, 2014, 299-345.
[2] Y. K. Tan and S. K. Panda, Energy harvesting from hybrid indoor ambient light and thermal energy sources for enhanced performance of wireless sensor nodes, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 58(9), Sep. 2011, 4424-4435.
[3] Y. K. Tan and S. K. Panda, Self-autonomous wireless sensor nodes with wind energy harvesting for remote sensing of wind-driven wildfire spread, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 60(4), 1367–1377.
[4] Y. K. Tan and S. K. Panda, Optimized wind energy harvesting system using resistance emulator and active rectifier for wireless sensor nodes, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 26( 1), Jan. 2011, 38–50

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Sentiment Mining and Related Classifiers: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Rehee Mehta || Dr. Shaily Jain

Abstract: Brokers trading goods on the Web often seek for their customer's reviews and feedbacks of their products and the associated services. With the growing popularity of e-commerce, the number of customer opinions that a product receives expands rapidly. This makes it difficult for both the customers as well as the manufacturers to extract an accurate decision or outcome regarding the product's quality.

[1] Bongsug (Kevin) Chae, Insights from hashtag #supplychain and Twitter Analytics: Considering Twitter and Twitter data for supply chain practice and research, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 165, July 2015, pp. 247–259.
[2] Gerald Petz, Michał Karpowicz, Harald Furschus, Andreas Auinger, Vaclav Stritesky Andreas Holzinger, Reprint of: Computational approaches for mining user's opinions on the Web 2.0, Information Processing and Management, Vol. 51, Issue 4, 2015, pp. 510-519.
[3] Ms. Priyanka Patel, Ms. Khushali Mistry, A Review: Text Classification on Social Media Data, IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, Vol. 17, Issue 1, Jan – Feb 2015, pp. 80-84.
[4] Haiqing Zhang, aichasekhari, yacineouzrout, abdelazizbouras, Jointly identifying opinion mining elements and fuzzy measurement of opinion intensity to analyze product features, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 29 June 2015.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review of Mac Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks
Country : India
Authors : Praveshika Sinval || Ajay Kumar Rangra

Abstract: This paper represents broad study of MAC protocols built-up for wireless body area networks. In Today's world data is constantly evolving to process larger data sets and maintain higher degree of connectivity. At same time, advances in efficiency allow for amplified mobility and openness. Body Area Networks signify the liable union among connectivity and smartness. A Body Area Network (BAN) is defined officially as a scheme of devices in close proximity to a person's body that collaborate for the benefit of the user. The enhancement in average lifetime and fitness cost in many developed nations are the main reasons for innovation in health care. Various applications and requirements of the WBAN are discussed in his paper. Also, the strengths and weakness of the protocols have been discussed.

Keywords: Wireless body area networks (WBAN), Collision, Energy consumption, medium access control (MAC), Sensor networks.

[1] Javaid N, Israr I, Khan MA, Javaid A, Bouk SH, Khan ZA. Analyzing medium access techniques in wireless body area networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1304.1047. 2013 Apr 3. [2] Singh V, Gupta M and Sharma M, Data Dissemination with Dynamic Timeline in Wireless Body Area Network. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Advanced Research in Computer Science Engineering & Technology (ICARCSET 2015) 2015 Mar 6 (p. 22). ACM. [3] Chen M, Gonzalez S, Vasilakos A, Cao H, Leung VC. Body area networks: A survey. Mobile networks and applications. 2011 Apr 1;16(2):171-93.. [4] Hassan S, Yaqoob MM. Examination of Energy Efficiency for MAC Protocol in Wireless Body Area Networks. International Journal of Computer Applications. 2014 Jan 1;108(20). [5] Ullah S, Khan P, Ullah N, Saleem S, Higgins H, Kwak KS. A review of wireless body area networks for medical applications. arXiv preprint arXiv:1001.0831. 2010 Jan 6.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey on Crowd-Source Video Sharing Systems
Country : India
Authors : A. S. Kadam || R. V. Dagade

Abstract: Nowadays video capturing from mobile and sharing it is common. Consider it be any event, function, performance by an artist, any surprising event. For example, if any famous speaker addressing huge number of people, then this event there may be many people who capture the event in their mobile phones and uploaded it on the video sharing applications (VSA) such as YouTube, Twitter, Facebook. Same event is captured by the hundreds of the devices and uploaded on VSA. This leads to some issues like, huge amount of the bandwidth and battery is use by this activity of uploading videos of the same event and it might also cause the problem while retrieving that video..

[1] X. Bao and R. Roy Choudhury, "MoVi: Mobile phone based videohighlights via collaborative sensing," in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Mobile Syst.,Appl., Services (MobiSys), 2010, [2] X. Liu, M. Corner, and P. Shenoy, "SEVA: Sensor-enhanced videoannotation," ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput., Commun., Appl., vol. 5,no. 3, Aug. 2009. [3] S. Greenhill and S. Venkatesh, "Distributed query processing formobile surveillance," in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Multimedia (MM), 2007. [4] S. A. Ay, R. Zimmermann, and S. Kim, "Relevance ranking in georeferencedvideo search," Multimedia Syst., vol. 16, no. 2, 2010. [5] J. Hao, S. H. Kim, S. A. Ay, and R. Zimmermann, "Energy-efficientmobile video management using smartphones," in Proc. 2nd Annu. ACMConf. Multimedia Syst. (MMSys), 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Object Removal Using Super-Resolution-Based In-Painting
Country : India
Authors : M. D. Sarode || R. V. Dagade

Abstract: In-painting is the process of reconstructing lost or deteriorated part of images based on the background information. Image in-painting fills the missing or damaged region in an image, utilizing information of its neighboring region. In-painting algorithm has numerous applications. Such as, it can be used for restoration of old films and object removal in digital photographs. The user select a specific region (target region) to be removed from the image. Super resolution reconstruction algorithm produces high resolution image from sequence of low resolution images. The main aim of super resolution is to improve visual quality of available low resolution images using exemplar based in-painting method.

Keywords: In-painting, Image Processing,Examplar-based in-painting, super-resolution.

[1] FaouziBenzarti, Hamid Amiri, TSIRF (ENIT)-TUNISIA (2012). "Repairing and In-painting Damaged Images using Diffusion Tensor" IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol 9, Issue 4, No 3, July 2012 ISSN 1694-0814.

[2] Efros, A.A., Leung, T.K. "Texture synthesis by non-parametric sampling" IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, Corfu, Greece, September 1999.

[3] M. Bertalmio, L. Vese, G. SapiroAnd S. Ocher, "Simultaneous Structure and Texture Image In-painting" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 12, NO. 8, AUGUST 2003 UclaCam Report 02-47,2003

[4] SheetalBadgujar and N. M. Shahane. "Examplar-based Image In-painting and Approaches to Improve the Performance" International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887),2013

[5] Sreelekshmi Das and Reeba R. "Robust Exemplar based Object Removal in Video" International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER), ISSN (Online): 2347 - 3878, Volume 1 Issue 2, October 2013. [6] Criminisi, A., Perez, P., Toyama, K. "Region filling and object removal by exemplar based image in-painting" IEEE Trans. On Image Processing 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Self Assured Deduplication System for Authorized Deduplication
Country : India
Authors : Anudeep Para || Mahesh N

Abstract: hybrid cloud is a coalescence of public and private clouds bound together by either standardized or proprietary technology that alters information plus application movability. Proposed method aiming to expeditiously resolving ye quandary from deduplication on derivative favors in remote location computing. A hybrid remote location structure lying of a populace remote location plus a individual remote location plus ye information owners simply source their information storage by utilizing public cloud while the information operation is managed in private cloud. To build information management scalability in cloud computing, deduplication has been a very well-kenned technique recently is use. Deduplication reduces your bandwidth requisites, expedites the data transfers, and it keeps your cloud storage needs to a minimum. Proposed method demonstrate respective incipient deduplication expressions fortifying sanctioned duplicate assure inside hybrid remote location structure.

[1] OpenSSLProject. ttp://

[2] P.Anderson and L. Zhang. Fast and secure laptop backups with encrypted de-duplication.In Proc. of USENIX LISA, 2010.

[3] M.Bellare,S. Keelveedh , and T. Ristenpart . Dupless: Server aided encryption for deduplicated storage. In USENIX SecuritySymposium, 2013.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey of the Internet of Things
Country : India
Authors : Sumita Dey || Dr. S. D.Joshi || Shruti Patil || Dr. Barun Kumar || Dr. Vishwal Ajit Kagi

Abstract: This paper studies the state-of-art of Internet of Things (IoT). By enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves, IoT would add a new dimension to the world of information and communication just as Internet once did. In this paper, IoT definitions from different perspective in academic communities are described and compared. The main enabling technologies in IoT are summarized such like RFID systems, sensor networks, and intelligence in smart objects, etc. The effects of their potential applications are reviewed. Finally the major research issues remaining open for academic communities are analyzed. Keywords: Internet of Things, RFID, sensor networks, survey

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[7]. L. Atzori, A. Iera and G. Morabito, The Internet of Things: A survey, Computer Networks, doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2010.05.010, 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving the Security Layer logic for a Health Care Information System
Country : Morocco
Authors : Abdelghani El malhi || Mohamed Ahd || Abdelrhani Mokhtari || Rachida Soulaymani Bencheik || Adil Echchelh || Abdelmajid Soulaymani

Abstract: In a previous paper we suggested an information system to store, manage and treat millions of the gathered patient's information. We were able to propose a reliable application, which is able to fulfill the most important criterions, mainly measurement, monitoring, guidance, Data management and their analysis. The introduction of the Internet and the related technologies are offering countless opportunities to build an efficient healthcare system, but in the same time, Software-applications are facing adoption and securities challenges.In the software development, end users often lack knowledge of vulnerabilities, attacks and threats. Application designers, developers and testers are discovering and fixing constantly bugs, defects and flaws.The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of integrating and adding a high level of security to the previously developed application by advocating a reliable and protected information system. To this end, we examine first the several possible sources of vulnerability. Secondly, we will present a viewpoint explaining the fundamentals principles that a secured health care system should possess.

[1] Abdelghani El Malhi, Adil Echchelh, Nesma Nekkal, Rassam Ahmed, Abdelrhani Mokhtari, Rachida Soulaymani Bencheikh, Abdelmajid Soulaymani "Modeling of actions to take after a scorpion sting and developing a web based information system to track the different indicators systematically". ESJ - April 2014.

[2] Rakesh Agrawal and Christopher Johnson "Securing electronic health records without impeding the flow of information" International journal of medical informaticsVolume 76, Issues 5-6, Pages 471–479 May–June, 2007

[3] Riccardo Focardi & Roberto Gorrieri "Foundations of Security Analysis and Design" ISBN: 978-3-540-42896-1 - Springer - 2001

[4] Simon Rogerson "The Chinook Helicopter Disaster" ETHIcol in the IMIS Journal Volume 12 No 2 (April 2002)

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fault Discovery Probability Analysis for Software Reliability Estimation
Country : India
Authors : K.Venkata SubbaReddy || Prof.I.Ramesh Babu

Abstract: Software reliability approximation and testing gauge how efficiently software works and meet up the end-user necessities. Software reliability assurance that users can enter the correct information on a day-to-day basis, errors can be correctly reprocessed and appropriate action will be taken on software reports. Herein this publication an effectual beta distribution dependent probability study is anticipated to test the consistency of software .This paper also examines the testing efficiency for the proposed model and accomplishes a preceding distribution assessment.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Beta distribution, Flaw Identification, Reliability.

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[7]. Liang Zhao," A new approach for software testability analysis ", ICSE, May-2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancing Security Of Publish/Subscribe System Using Identity Based Encryption Model
Country : India
Authors : Shital S. Biradar || Prof. Sushilkumar N. Holambe

Abstract: In a content based publish subscribe system providing security related to the events or messages and subscriptions is very difficult. This paper presents approach to provide security in a Broker-less Publish/Subscribe system by using identity based encryption (IBE) model. The main concept of such systems is to share the secured data on any distributed systems. Identification is very important mechanism in content based publish/subscribe system. Here we provide 1) idea of identity base encryption (IBE) 2) Provision of security in the content based publish/subscribe system . 3) Creation of public and private keys for the users of the systems that is for the publishers and subscribers.

Keywords: content based, Identity Based Encryption, publish/subscribe system, security

1]. D. Boneh and M.K. Franklin, "Identity-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing," Proc. Int'l Cryptology Conf. Advances in Cryptology, 2011.
[2]. Muhammad Adnan Tariq, Boris Koldehofe, and Kurt Rothermel" Securing Broker-Less Publish/Subscribe Systems Using Identity-Based Encryption" IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 25, no. 2, February 2014.
[3]. V. Goyal, O. Pandey, A. Sahai, and B. Waters, "Attribute-Based Encryption for Fine-Grained Access Control of Encrypted Data,"Proc. ACM 13th Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), 2010.
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[5]. Legathaux Martins and Sergio Duarte "Routing Algorithms for Content based publish/subscribe system"IEEE commm-unications and tutorials first quarter 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Threats and Security using Trust Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Vaishali Gupta || Manik Gupta

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are implementing on large scale in real time environments due to its incredible uses in real life. Wireless Sensor Networks don't need human interference for its working so they can place where human cannot reach easily. As sensor nodes are placed in an open and insecure environment, they are prone to security attacks by adversaries. So, the security is an important issue in sensor networks. Traditional security mechanisms like cryptography, intruder detection, routing protocols were implemented to provide security in wireless sensor networks. These mechanisms are capable to detect and remove internal attacks but fail to detect compromised nodes in a network.

[1]. Culler, D. E and Hong, W., Wireless Sensor Networks, Communication of the ACM, Vol. 47, No. 6, June 2004, pp. 30-33.
[2]. Dai, S, Jing, X, and Li, L, Research and analysis on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, Proc. International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems, Volume 1, 27-30 May, 2005, pp. 407-411

[3]. Shah, R.C. and Rabaey, J.M.. Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks. Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002. WCNC2002. 2002 IEEE ,Vol. 1, pp. 350-355, 2002, March. IEEE.

[4]. Meesookho, C., Narayanan, S., and Raghavendra, C. S., Collaborative classification applications in sensor networks. Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop Proceedings, 2002, 2002, August, pp. 370-374. IEEE.

[5]. Kintner-Meyer, Michael, and Michael R. Brambley, Pros & cons of wireless. ASHRAE journal 44.11, 2002, pp. 54-56.

[6]. Mainwaring, A., Culler, D., Polastre, J., Szewczyk, R., and Anderson, J., Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring, Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications, 2002, September, pp. 88-97, ACM. [7]. Biagioni, Edoardo S., and K. W. Bridges, The application of remote sensor technology to assist the recovery of rare and endangered species, International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 16.3, 2002, pp. 315-324.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "The Impact Of Incentives To Indigenous Farmers (A1 And A 2) In Maize Production In Zimbabwe" A Case Of Mashonaland East Province, Macheke, Zimbabwe.
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Charles Mavhunga (MBA)

Abstract: The current study was concerned with the need to establish incentives for farmers to boost production of maize in Macheke, Mashonaland East Province, in Zimbabwe. This study was motivated by an observation that there was a serious disparity between government `s expectation to guarantee food security in the country, and the activities of New Farmers in the area of Macheke. The full production capacity of the Grain Marketing Board of Macheke is 72 000 metric tonnes per year but for the past five years since 2010, the GMB is receiving a mere 1000 tonnes of maize deliveries or less. The research design was mainly descriptive and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to capture the data. Questionnaires and interviews were employed as the main research instruments and the response rate was very high. Questionnaires and interviews were the main instruments for data collection.

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