IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Sep. – Oct. 2015 Volume 17 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Combating against Byzantine Attacks in MANET using Enhanced Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (ECBDS)
Country : India
Authors : Anuj Mehta || Ravina Saini

Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc(MANET) is an accumulation of versatile, decentralized, and self composed nodes. The distributive nature, base less & element structure make it a simple prey to security related dangers. The security dangers may change from dynamic mimic threats to passive eves-dropping. Actualizing Security & alleviating dangers in MANET has Significant difficulties on the grounds that its dynamic properties make it harder to be secured than alternate sorts of static systems. Implementing Security & mitigating threats in MANET has Significant challenges because its dynamic properties make it harder to be secured than the other types of static networks. We are using Enhanced CBDS technique here, so that we can save our network from the Byzantine attacks.

[1]. Chin-Feng Lai, Han-Chieh Chao, Jian-Ming Chang, Isaac Woungang, and Po-Chun Tsou, Member,"Defending Against Collaborative Attacks by Malicious Nodes in MANETs:A Cooperative Bait Detection Approach", IEEE, DOI:10.1109/JSYST.2013.2296197,ISSN:1932-8184, Volume:9, Issue:1,Page(s):65- 75,March 2015
[2]. BabakHosseinKhala, HamidrezaBagheri, Marcos Katz, Mohammad JavadSalehi, Mohammad Noor mohammadpour, and Seyed Mohammad AsghariPari. "A Self- Organizing Approach to Malicious Detection in Leader-Based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks", Wireless Days (WD), 2013 IFIP, Valencia,DOI: 10.1109/WD.2013.6686475, ISSN:2156-9711, Page(s):1 – 3, 13-15 Nov. 2013
[3]. Richard Yu, Helen Tang, Minyi Huang and Yanwei Wang, Member," A Mean Field Game Theoretic Approach for Security Enhancements in Mobile Ad hoc Networks",Wireless Communications, IEEE ,ISSN:1536-1276, Volume:13, Issue:3, Page(s):1616-1627, January 2014
[4]. Durgesh Kumar Mishra (Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, India),Mahakal Singh Chandel (Arjun Institute of Advaced Studies and Research Centre, Indore, India),Rashid Sheikh,"Security Issues in MANET: A Review", Wireless And Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Colombo,DOI: 10.1109/WOCN.2010.5587317, Page(s):1 – 4,sept. 2010.
[5]. Li Shi-Chang, Yang Hao-Lan, Zhu Qing-Sheng College of Computer Science Chongqing University Chongqing, China," Research on MANET Security Architecture design", Signal Acquisition and Processing, Bangalore, DOI: 10.1109/ICSAP.2010.19, Page(s):90-93, Feb 2013.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Brain Tumor Detection through MR Images: A Review of Literature
Country : India
Authors : Ritu Rana || Parvinder Singh

Abstract:A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain or central spine that can disrupt proper brain function and creates an increasing pressure in the brain. This paper is intended to present a comprehensive review of the methods of brain tumor detection through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique used in different stages of Computer Aided Detection System (CAD). It also provides a brief background on brain tumor in general and non-invasive imaging of brain tumor in order to give a comprehensive insight into the field. Lastly, the paper concludes with a concise discussion and provides a direction toward the upcoming trend of more advanced research studies on brain image segmentation and tumor detection.
Keywords: Brain Tumor, Central Nervous System (CNS), Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Segmentation.

[1] Cancer Support Community, "Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors", National Brain Tumor Society, New York, Final Rep. June 2013.
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[4] Louis D.N., Ohgaki H., Wiestler O.D, Cavenee W.K. (Eds.), WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, 2007.
[5] Jan C. Buckner, et al., ―Central Nervous System Tumors, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 10, pp. 1271-1286. 2007.
[6] Damadian, R., Goldsmith, M. & Minkoff, L. NMR in Cancer: XVI. FONAR Image of the Live Human Body. Physiological Chemistry and Physics, Vol.9, No.1, pp.97- 100, ISSN: 0031-9325. 1977.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An innovative scheme for representation of signed numbers employing ternary logic and method of development of semiconductor optical amplifiers based wavelength encoded optical ternary half adder
Country : India
Authors : Parimal Ghosh || Pathik Kumbhakar

Abstract:In binary logic, two different logical states are used to represent signed as well as unsigned numbers. In case of signed numbers one bit, usually the Most Significant Bit is solely devoted to represent the sign and thereby losing large amount of information storage capacity of a channel. In this communication, the authors use ternary logic comprising of 1, 0 and 1 to represent the number without any dedicated sign bit, so that the information storage capacity will increase to a large extent. Again it is also established that tri-state or ternary logic operations have the basic advantages of higher capacity and superior quality over its binary counterpart. In optics, multiple-valued logic can very easily be accommodated utilizing intensity, polarization, phase and also the wavelength of the wave as well.

[1] S Mukhopadhyay, Role of optics in super-fast information processing, Indian J. Phys. 84(8), pp 1069-1074 (2010)
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demultiplexing in lab trial of 640 Gb/s OTDM transmission over 50-km fibre link, In Proc ECOC 2007, pp 57 - 58, paper PD 1.2.
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interconnection network, J Light wave Technol., 23(10), pp 3060- (Oct '2005)
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Topics in Quantum Electron. Vol. 10, pp. 1079 - 1092 (2004)
[5] M S Alam, Efficient trinary signed digit symbolic arithmetic, Opt. Lett., 19 (5), pp. 353- (1994)
[6] P Ghosh, S Mukhopadhyay, Implementation of tristate logic based all-optical flip-flop with nonlinear material, Chin. Opt. Lett., 3,
8, (2005)
[7] S K Garai, A Pal, S Mukhopadhyay, All optical frequency encoded inversion operation with tristate logic using reflecting
semiconductor optical amplifiers, Opt. Int. J. Light Electron. Opt., 121 (16) pp 1462-(2010)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gauging the Performance of Re-routing in VANET Using Moments
Country : India
Authors : Dr. G. JayaSuma || R. V. S. Lalitha

Abstract: Conventional routing protocols are not applicable for VANETs due their specific network characteristics i.e. frequent network topology and frequent disconnections. Data Fusion techniques are combined with localization techniques to provide robust localization information. In Location-aware VANET applications the location of the vehicle information is displayed on the map by installing GPS receivers on the OBU to provide driver assistance in critical positions. Geographic forwarding forwards packets based on their geographic location. While exploiting data, the time to reach destination requires estimation. In this paper, re-routing is optimized using Ant-Colony algorithm and is estimated analytically using moments to carry out intermediate step analysis. The estimation of intermediate points improves the accuracy of re-routing.

Keywords: Ant-Colony algorithm, GPS, Location Information, Moments, VANET and WSN.

[1]. Vettah Pathayapurayil Harigovindan, Anchare V Babu and Lillykutty Jacob," Ensuring fair access in IEEE 801.11p-based vehicle-to-infrastructure networks", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking,2012,2012:168 ©SpringerOpen Journal. [2] Hsia-Hung Ou,Min-Shiang Hwang and Jinn-Ke Jan,"The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transpotation Systems", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking,Volume 2009,Article ID 267283,12 pages doi:10.1155/2009/267283 ©SpringerOpen Journal. [3] Marco Graaglia,Carlos J Bernardos,Ignacio Soto,Maria Calderon and Roberto Baldessari,"IPv6 address auto configuration in geonetworking-enabled VANETs:characterization and evaluation of the ETSI solution", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking,2012,201219 ©SpringerOpen Journal. [4] Marco Graaglia,Carlos J Bernardos,Ignacio Soto,Maria Calderon and Roberto Baldessari,"IPv6 address auto configuration in geonetworking-enabled VANETs:characterization and evaluation of the ETSI solution", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking,2012,201219 ©SpringerOpen Journal.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Role of Information Communication Technology (Ict) In the Management of Schools: A Case Study of Primary and Secondary Schools in the Zimbabwean Harare Province (2006)
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Dr Farai Choga,

Abstract: The study covered schools in the province of Harare. A representative stratified sample was carried out in coming up with the number of both the primary and secondary schools. Ninety-four schools were sampled and this represented one third of all Harare schools. These comprised of 18 government secondary schools, eight non-government secondary schools, 36 government primary schools, and 32 non-government primary schools. A quantitative methodology was employed. The main instrument used was a questionnaire and telephone interview was used to follow-up and clarify unclear issues. The heads of schools were used as the research subjects.

[1]. Akinyokun O.C. and Uzoka F.M.E., A Prototype of Information Technology Based Human Resources System, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Impact of E-marketing on Commercial Banks in Harare, Zimbabwe (1994 -2014).
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Rumbidzai Kachembere || Dr Farai Choga

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of e-marketing on commercial banks between 1994 and 2014. The researchers dwelt on the adoption of e-marketing services in the commercial banks. The adoption of e-marketing was examined with a special focus on perceived ease of use and usefulness, perceived cost and trust. Data from this study was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interview guide. There was however a very remarkable response from participants with a response rate of 77%.

[1]. Christopher. M, Payne. A. and Ballantyne. D, (1991), Relationship Marketing: Bringing Quality, Customer Service, and Marketing Together, Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
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[3]. Dobbs J. H, Training and Development, Vol 47 No 2.
[4]. Feeny D, (2000), The CEO and CIO in the Information Age, Moving to E-business, L. Wilcock and C. Saver, London.
[5]. Fraser J. N. And McDonald F. (2000), The strategic challenge of electronic commerce, supply chain management, An International Journal, Vol 5, No 1.
[6]. Glover V. And Ramanlal P, (2000), Playing the E-commerce Game, Business and Economic Review, Columbia, Octo-Dec.
[7]. Gummerson, E. (2002), Total Relationship Marketing, 2nd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK.977.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Empirical Study of 2-bit Fast Adder using Simon 2.0
Country : India
Authors : Dr. J. Gope (MIEEE) || Tishya Sarma Sarkar || Sreshtha Ray

Abstract: The present context of post CMOS era demands highly sophisticated low power consuming high speed novel integrated chips in nanometer region. SET (Single Electron Transistor) is eventually the highest priority indexed device that are to be incorporated largely in replacing today's CMOS transistors. Several attempts have been made so far in mobilizing SET in designing future electronic circuits. One such attempt is being reported here in the present work. The target is to model an SET digital 2-bit fast adder to augment the speed of the super computers or large processing systems. Authors, here, have emphasized in deliberately integrating SET logics to design the 2-bit fast adder. A comparative study is annexed to advocate the incorporation of SET in near future.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Level DWT Image Watermarking Algorithm for RGB Cover Images and Watermarks
Country : India
Authors : Jaya Jeswani

Abstract: This paper proposes a new 1 level DWT (Discrete wavelet transform) robust image watermarking algorithm for RGB cover images and watermarks. In the proposed algorithm 1 level DWT is applied on RGB cover image. The DWT divides cover image into four bands namely a lower resolution approximation image (LL) as well as horizontal (HH), vertical (LH) and diagonal (HL) detail components and watermark is inserted into LL sub band. As high frequency sub-band is usually removed through noise attacks. The proposed algorithm is imperceptible as well as robust against wide variety of image processing attacks like Gaussian noise, Salt –pepper noise, Gaussian filter, Median filter, Histogram Equalization etc. The watermarked image is of good quality and achieves high PSNR.

[1] C.I. Podilchuk, E.J. Delp, "Digital watermarking: algorithms and applications," Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE,Vol 18, pp.33-46 July 2001.
[2] Potdar, V. M., Han, S., and Chang, E., "A Survey of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques", 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics(INDIN), pp. 709-716, 2005.
[3] SmithaRao, Jyothsna A. N, Pinaka Pani. R, "Digital watermarking: applications, techniques and attacks", International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 44, No. 7, pp. 29-34, April 2012.
[4] M. Darshana, "Comparison of Digital Watermarking Methods," International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, vol. 02, no. 09, pp. 2905-2909, 2010.
[5] A. P. Akhil and M. Agya, "Wavelet Based Watermarking on Digital Image" Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 2011.
[6] K. Nikita and G. R. singha, "Image Watermarking Using 2 level DWT" ,Advances in Computational Research, vol.4, issue 1,pp. 42-45, March 2012.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Face Recognition using Radial Basis Neural Network
Country : India
Authors : Vijayata Jindal

Abstract: In this paper, we propose four techniques for extraction of facial features namely PCA, LDA, KPCA and KFA. The purpose of face feature extraction is to capture certain discriminative features that are unique for a person. In the previous works that uses PCA for face feature extraction involves merging the features and reducing the dimensions that results in some information loss. To overcome this problem, in the first method we used PCA for face feature extraction, LDA for making class labels and NN with RBF for face recognition. Similarly we used the three more techniques namely LDA, KPCA and KFA for face feature extraction and then NN with RBF for face recognition. The proposed method is tested on the ORL database

Keywords: 2DPCA, LDA, KPCA, FFNN and KFA.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Face Recognition using Feed Forward Neural Network
Country : India
Authors : Pooja Rani

Abstract: In this paper, we propose four techniques for extraction of facial features namely 2DPCA, LDA, KPCA and KFA. The purpose of face feature extraction is to capture certain discriminative features that are unique for a person. In the previous works that uses PCA for face feature extraction involves merging the features and reducing the dimensions that results in some information loss. To overcome this problem, in the first method we used 2D-PCA for face feature extraction, LDA for making class labels and FFNN for face recognition. Similarly we used the three more techniques namely LDA, KPCA and KFA for face feature extraction and then FFNN for face recognition.

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