IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Jan – Feb. 2015 Volume 17 - Issue 1

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of a D.C Circuit Analysis Software Using Microsoft Visual C#.Net
Country : Nigeria
Authors : B.O. Omijeh || M. Ehikhamenle

Abstract:In this paper, the development of D.C circuit simulation software, using Microsoft visual C#.net, has been achieved. This paper aims at (i) analysing a purely resistive planar circuit, (ii) displaying current direction as they flow through components and (iii) having a user-friendly Graphic User Interface (GUI). The methodology employed in this work includes: (i) equations, (ii) pseudo code, (iii)algorithm, (iv)flowchart and (v) Microsoft C#.Net codes. The solutions obtained from the software correlate with those generated manually. The software has an efficiency of 99.3396% which makes it very reliable for circuit analysis and simulation.
Keywords: D.C circuit, Circuit simulation software, Microsoft Visual C#.net, CiRSiS

[1]. Bart D.S. (2011): C# 4.0 Unleashed, Sams, Indianapolis, Indiana, ISBN:13-978-0-672-33079-7
[2]. Butow .E and Ryan .T (2002): C#. Your visual blueprint for building .net applications, Maran graphics and Hungry minds, New-York, ISBN: 0-7645-3601-X
[3]. Malvino (1993): Electronic Principles 5th edition, Macmillian/McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-02-800846-6.
[4]. Mehta V. K. and Mehta R. (2006): Basic Electrical Engineering, S. Chand & Company ltd, New Belhi, India, ISBN 81-219-0871-X.
[5]. Mitchell E. S. (2007): Basic Electronics 10th edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN-13 978-0-07-297475-1
[6]. Omijeh B.O. (2009): Circuit Analysis & Simulation (with MATLAB and TINA applications), Joint Heirs publishers Nig. Ltd, ISBN 978-978-48383-4-7.
[7]. Sadiku M.N.O. and Charles K.A. (2004): Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-304718-X.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Method of Generating (Stream Cipher) Keys for Secure Communication
Country : Iraq
Authors : Zainalabideen Abdullasamd Rasheed || Ali Abdul Azeez Mohammad Baker

Abstract: Security is an important part of computer science that deals with the protection of important information from access, change or modified, and delete, so there are many ways to improve the security of information like cryptography, steganography, biometrics, passwords, barcode….. However most of these methods are considered keys required.These keys are used to implement the changing of the information for secure style purpose. For that reason, generating and keeping these keys is a major part of the appropriate security system. Moreover, sending the key to the wanted person in unsacred channel is a widely weakness part for any system. The proposed system is a novel method for generating a secret unique key from an image. A generating process is applied by discovering the essential colors in the image and constructing a table values for these essential colors , after that a suitable threshold is used to considered these values are (0, 1) bits which will be used as stream bits key.

Keywords: stream cipher, secret key, x-or, ciphering, security.

[1]. Ali Abdul Azeez Mohammad Baker, ZainalabideenAbdullasamdRasheed" Secure Keys Constructing", Education College, Kufa University, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering ,2014, Iraq.
[2]. NesirRasoolMahmood, Ali Abdul Azeez Mohammad baker, ZahraaNesirRasool " Public Key Steganography", Kufa University ,Education College, International Journal of Computer Applications,2014, Iraq.
[3]. Abhishek Roy, Sunil Karforma" STREAM CIPHER BASED USER AUTHENTI-CATION TECHNIQUE IN E-GOVERNANCE TRANSACTIONS", Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2014, INDIA.
[4]. PratishDatta, Dibyendu Roy and SouravMukhopadhyay "A Probabilistic Algebraic Attack on the Grain Family of Stream Ciphers", India.
[5]. Xinxin Fan and Guang Gong "Specification of the Stream Cipher WG-16 Based Confidentiality and Integrity Algorithms", 2012, CANADA.1.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : How Are Mainframes Still Better Than Cloud?
Country : India
Authors : Sophia Sharda

Abstract: This article presents a summary of the Mainframes which are breathing new life in business within the wake of a new computing commonly termed as Cloud Computing in which colossal clusters of remote servers are arranged & structured in a circuitry in such a way so as to permit centralized data storage and online approach to computer services or resources. It discusses varied potential advantages of Mainframes over the Cloud significantly in terms of processing power, storage and security. It argues that given somewhat slower growth projection, the Cloud will reach a declining phase, posing security issues and inflexible environment but the Mainframes will still stand the test of time since the asserted advantages are far more copious that its drawbacks could be overlooked. It also bounces off the wherewithal benefactors of using mainframes prominently in terms of its pursuance on the businesses and adduces out notions & validations that make it a prime platform for fleckless & unerring computing.

Keywords: colossal, circuitry, copious, pursuance, adduces

[1]. History of IBM mainframe operating systems. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_IBM_mainframe_operating_systems

[2]. Mainframe - Advantages and Disadvantages. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from biznik: http://biznik.com/members/rakesh-s/articles/mainframe-advantages-and-disadvantages

[3]. Mainframe architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from ibm: http://www01.ibm.com/ support /knowledgecenter/ zosbasics/com.ibm.zos.zmainframe/ zconc_evolvarch.htm

[4]. Mainframe computer. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainframe_computer

[5]. Mainframe strengths. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from ibm: http://www 01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ zosbasics/com.ibm.zos.zmainframe/zconc_RAS.htm

[6]. Mainframe strengths. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from ibm: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/ knowledgecenter /zosbasics/com.ibm.zos.zmainframe/ zconc_security.htm [7]. What is a mainframe? It's a style of computing. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from ibm: http://www01.ibm.com/support/ knowledgecenter/zosbasics/com.ibm.zos.zmainframe/ zconc_whatismainframe.htm


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Overview of Improving Robustness of MAODV Protocol by Combining Tree and Mesh Structures
Country : India
Authors : Ujwala U. Salunke || Vinod S. Wadne

Abstract:Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) plays an important role in the communication in the network must be set up temporarily and quickly. Since the nodes move randomly routing protocols must bring strong and constant to ensure successful packet delivery. Advantage of multicast routing is the ability to reduce communication costs and saving the network resources by just a copy of the message over the shared compound. Several destinations Based on the data delivery structure can multicast routing protocols are divided into two groups is a tree-based and other mesh-based. Tree-based protocols have high efficiency and low consumption of more bandwidth and may have poor robustness, since only one connection between two nodes exists. Like a tree based multicast routing protocol,

[1]. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group Charter 2006, http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ manet-charter.html.
[2]. Conti M, Giordano S. Multihop Ad hoc networking: the theory [J]. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2007, 45 (4): 78-86.
[3]. Luo Junhai, Ve Danxia, Xue Liu and Fan Mingyu,"A survey of multicastrouting protocols for mobile ad-hoc networks," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 78-91,2009.
[4]. Soni S.K. and Aseri T.Ci, "A review of current multicast routing protocol of mobile ad hoc network," in Proc. Second Int. Conf. Computer Modeling and Simulation ICCMS' 10, vol. 3, pp.207-211, 2010.
[5]. K. Viswanath, K. Obraczka, and G. Tsudik, "Exploring mesh and tree based multicast routing protocols for manets," vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 28-42,2006.
[6]. E. M. Royer and C. E. Perkins, "Multicast ad hoc on-demand distance vector (maodv) routing," draft-ietf-manet-maodv-OO.txt, 2000
[7]. W. S. Vunjung Vi Sung-Ju Le and M. Gerla," On-demand multicast routing protocol (odmrp)for ad hoc networks," draft-ietf-manet-odmrp-04.txt, 2002.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Reduce the False Positive and False Negative from Real Traffic with Intrusion Detection in Zigbee Wireless Networks
Country : India
Authors : Sivashanmugam .N

Abstract: Denial-of-Service attack in particular is a threat to zigbee wireless networks. It is an attack in which the primary goal is to deny the legitimate users access to the resources. A node is prevented from receiving and sending data packets to its destinations.Typically the traffic through the network is heterogeneous and it flows from multiple utilities and applications Considering todays threats in network there is yet not a single solution to solve all the issues because the traditional methods of port-based and payload-based with machine learning algorithm suffers from dynamic ports and encrypted application.Many international network equipment manufactures like cisco, juniper also working to reduce these issues in the hardware side.

[1]. Cisco: a network device manufacturer. http://www.cisco.com
[2]. J. Bellardo and S. Savage. 802.11 denial-of-service attacks: Real vulnerabilities and practical solutions. In Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Security Symposium, pages 15–28, Washington D.C, USA, 2003.
[3]. A.Patwardhan, J.Parker, M.Iorga, A. Joshi, T.Karygiannis and Y.Yesha ―Threshold-based Intrusion Detection in Adhoc Networks and Secure AODV‖Ad Hoc Networks Journal (ADHOCNET), June 2008.
[4]. S. Sen, O. Spatscheck, D. Wang. Accurate, scalable in-network identification of p2p traffic using application signatures. Proceedings of World Wide Web Conference, pp. 512-521 NY, USA, May 2004.
[5]. P. Haffner, S. Sen, O. Spatscheck, D. Wang, D. 2005. ACAS: automated construction of application signatures. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Mining Network Data, pp. 197-202, Philadelphia, USA, August 2005.
[6]. F. Risso, A. Baldini, M. Baldi, P. Monclus, O. Morandi. Lightweight, Session-Based Traffic Classification. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2008) - Advances in Networks & Internet Symposium, Beijing, China, May 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Mobile Based Women Safety Application (I Safe Apps)
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Sridhar Mandapati || Sravya Pamidi || Sriharitha Ambati

Abstract: Many unfortunate incidents have been taking place in woman's case. Problems may come from any direction such as women walking on the road after the work, going to super market or many other reasons for which they go alone. People at home are not sure of their return safely. Another factor is woman die without knowing the reason as they attend excursions and industrial trips conducted by the organizations. It happens due to attacks on woman but not suicides. In 2013 there happened an incident which is a gag rape in New Delhi in the case of 23 year old woman in bus at 9:30 PM. Another incident that has taken place at Mumbai in the case of woman who is leaving her native place after Christmas holidays has been kidnapped and killed. These are some of the problems that have taken place in the day to day life of women. In order to overcome such problems faced by women the I Safety (women security apps) mobile based application is not only necessary to use but also plays a pivotal role with android software.

Keywords: apps, android, mobile, safety, Women.

[1]. Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women. New York, United Nations, 1995 (A/CONF.177/20/Rev.1) (http://www.un.org/womenwatch/confer/beijing/reports/, accessed 1 April 2013).
[2]. World Health Organization, "Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence, Geneva: World Health Organization (2013).
[3]. http://www.mappsafe.com/blog-1-feb-14-three-reasons-why-mobile-technology-will-reduce-violence-against-women
[4]. Nicole Westmarland, Mariann Hardey, et al. "Protecting Women‟s Safety? The use of smartphone "apps‟ in relation to domestic and sexual violence‟, Durham University, Durham centre for research into violence and abuse (2013).
[5]. Mason, C and Shoshana Magnet, "Surveillance studies and violence against women", surveillance & society 10(2):105 – 118 (2012).
[6]. Justine A. Dunlap, Intimate Terrorism and Technology: There's an App for That, 7 U. Mass. L. Rev. 10 (2012).
[7]. Elliott, J. and McCartan K. The Reality of Trafficked People‟s Access to Technology. The Journal of Criminal Law 77(3): 255-273(2013).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Autonomous Self-Assessment Application to Track the Efficiency of a System in Runtime Environment
Country : India
Authors : Arif Aziz || Inderjit Lal || Mayukh Chowdhury || Dr. P S Jagadeesh Kumar

Abstract: In this paper we are proposing a system which will intelligently determine the running time of a process according to the current processor state and the priority of the process. Moreover, given a pool of processes, the software will determine the order in which it should be run to get the optimal result without wasting the computer resource. It can be used as a tool to compute the efficiency of a system as well as to calculate the overhead time of a system.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An in-building multi-server cloud system based on shortest Path algorithm depending on the distance and measured Signal strength
Country : India
Authors : Abhirup Bhawal || Anindita Nath || Suchismita Mitra || Puspendu Roy || Pradip Kumar Das

Abstract: In this paper we are proposing a system that will work as a virtual cloud computing environment. Our system will be suitable for an office for example software development firm. Cloud Computing is an emerging technology now a days. In cloud computing, the resources are shared within a network using web server. We have designed a cloud computing environment having multiple upload stations and numerous client nodes. Most commonly, the cloud computing environment has one server and multiple nodes connected with it. It server multiple purposes at a time.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Data Transmission Technique Based On RSSI in an Ad-Hoc Network
Country : India
Authors : Aninditanath || Suchismitamitra || Puspendu Roy || Abhirupbhawal || Pradip Kumar Das

Abstract: In this paper we are proposing an intelligent routing protocol that routes the data from a given source node and a destination node in an in the floor ad-hoc network. We have used Bluetooth as the medium of transmission. Our system works in two different ways depending on the size of the packet. There are some pre-defined paths for a set of source and destination nodes. If the packet size is smaller than our threshold value, the system follows the static and pre-defined paths. On the other hand, if the packet size exceeds the threshold value, then the system dynamically determines the path in runtime. It calculates the distance of the nearby nodes based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). After that, according to the distance calculated, it transmits the packet to reach its destination. Keywords: Gossip Routing Protocol, Ad-Hoc Network, Received Signal Strength Indicator, Epidemic Data Collection Protocol, Bluetooth

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A classification of methods for frequent pattern mining
Country : India
Authors : Patel Atul R. || Patel Tushar S.

Abstract: Data mining refers to extracting knowledge from large amounts of data. Frequent pattern mining is a heavily researched area in the field of data mining with wide range of applications. Frequent itemsets is one of the emerging task in data mining. A many algorithms has been proposed to determine frequent patterns. Apriori algorithm is the first algorithm proposed in this field. An Apriori algorithm having two major limitation first generate huge candidate itemsets and second more times scan the database. Problem, to be solved some methods for frequent itemset mining in the paper. Three major factors used in frequent itemset mining such as time, scalability, efficiency. In this paper we have analyze various algorithm for frequent itemset mining such as CBT-fi, Index-BitTableFI, Hierarchical Partitioning, Matrix based Data Structure, Bitwise AND, Two-Fold Cross-Validation and binary based Semi-Apriori Algorithm also discuss advantages & disadvantages of the frequent itemset mining algorithm.

Keywords: Frequent, K-itemset, Mine

[1]. Wei Song, Bingru Yang and Zhangyan Xu, " Index-BitTableFI: An improved algorithm for mining frequent itemsets," Proceedings of the Elsevier, March 2008.
[2]. Guoxiaoli, Fengli and Guoping, " Research on Mining Frequent Itemsets based on Bitwise AND Algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011.
[3]. Predrag Stanisic and Savo Tomovic, " Frequent Itemset Mining Using Two-Fold Cross-Validation Model," Proceedings of the IEEE, 2012.
[4]. Fan-Chen Tseng, " Mining frequent itemsets in large databases: The hierarchical partitioning approach," Proceedings of the Elsevier, 2013.
[5]. A.Saleem Raja and E.George Dharma Prakash Raj, " CBT-fi: Compact BitTable Approach for Mining Frequent Itemsets," Proceedings of the Advances in Computer Science: an International Journal, sep 2014.
[6]. Shalini Dutt, Naveen Choudhary and Dharm Singh., " An Improved Apriori Algorithm based on Matrix Data Structure," Proceedings of the Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology: C Software & Data Engineering, 2014.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Data Sharing Using Compact Summation key in Hybrid Cloud Storage
Country : India
Authors : Pratap M Mohite || DipaDharmadhikari || RavindraBankar

Abstract:Data security is crucial aspect in cloud storage. Providing security to a single file or to set of files is another important factor. In cloud, security is applied to a set of files i.e. to central location. In file sharing approach a single key can be used to gain access to storage. Applying security to each file in cloud is not possible with cloud environment. To solve this type ofproblems, new improved key assignment scheme have to be used. New improved algorithm that satisfies these conditions is summation key encryption. Summation key is of power more than two keys. It takes one public key, known to both parties & another key is generated using keygen algorithm. Data owner retrieves the summation key from the alternatives made to share data. This key can be dispatch to second user using secure channel for example email or smart cards. Summation key is compact in size & also decrease the size of files after encryption. Time duration required to generate summation key is very short as compare to Identity based or Attribute based encryption scheme.Practically how this algorithm is beneficial to provide security to individual files in cloud repositoryis described here.
Keywords: Cloud Server,Data Sharing, Data Security, Hybrid Cloud, Summation key.

[1]. S. G. Akl and P. D. Taylor, "Cryptographic Solution to a Problem of Access Control in a Hierarchy," ACM Transactions on ComputerSystems (TOCS), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 239–248, 1983.
[2]. G. C. Chick and S. E. Tavares, "Flexible Access Control with Master Keys," in Proceedings of Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO'89, ser. LNCS, vol. 435. Springer, 1989, pp. 316–322.
[3]. W.-G. Tzeng, "A Time-Bound Cryptographic Key Assignment Scheme for Access Control in a Hierarchy," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (TKDE), vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 182–188, 2002.
[4]. G. Ateniese, A. D. Santis, A. L. Ferrara, and B. Masucci, "Provably-Secure Time-Bound Hierarchical Key Assignment Schemes," J. Cryptology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 243–270, 2012.
[5]. R. S. Sandhu, "Cryptographic Implementation of a Tree Hierarchy for Access Control," Information Processing Letters, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 95–98, 1988
[6]. C.-K. Chu and W.-G.Tzeng, "Identity-Based Proxy Re-encryption Without Random Oracles," in Information Security Conference (ISC '07), ser. LNCS, vol. 4779. Springer, 2007, pp. 189–202.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Artificial Neural Network For Recognition Of Handwritten Devanagari Character
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Seema A. Dongare || Prof. Dhananjay B. Kshirsagar || Mr. Nitin J.Khapale || Ms. Amruta D. Pawar

Abstract: Information gathering is one of the most important thing in the digital world, many organizations still use handwritten documents for storing their information. So it is important task to convert this information in to digital world. Handwritten character recognition helps user to convert their handwritten documents in to digital information. Purpose of this dissertation work is to implement zone based feature extraction method which is combination of image centroid zone and zone centroid zone of individual character image. In feature extraction using zone based approach, individual character image is divided into n equal size zones then average distance of all pixels with respect to image centroid or zone centroid is computed. In combination of image centroid and zone centroid approach it computes average distance of all pixels present in each zone with respect to image centroid as well as zone centroid which gives feature vector of size 2Xn features. This feature vector is presented to feed forward neural network for recognition. Keywords: Feed forward neural network, handwritten character recognition, image centroid zone, zone centroid zone.

[1]. G. Sinha, Mrs. R. Rani, Prof. R. Dhir ,Recognition Using Zonal Based Feature Extraction Method and SVM Classifier , International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering , ISSN: 2277 128X, Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2012.
[2]. M. Patil, V. Narawade, Recognition of Handwritten Devanagari Characters through Segmentation and Artificial neural networks , International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) , ISSN:2278-0181,Vol. 1 Issue 6, August 2012.
[3]. K. Y. Rajput, S. Mishra, Recognition and Editing of Devanagari Handwriting Using Neural Network, Proceedings of SPIT-IEEE Colloquium and International Conference, Vol. 1.
[4]. S. Arora, D. Bhattacharjee, M. Nasipuri, L. Malik and B. Portier, A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters.
[5]. V. Agnihotri, Offline Handwritten Devanagari Script Recognition, IJITCS, 2012, 8, 37-42.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Research Paper Selection Based On an Ontology and Text Mining Technique Using Clustering
Country : India
Authors : Snehal Shivaji Patil || S.A.Uddin

Abstract:Research Paper Selection is important decision making task for the Government funding Agency, Universities, research Institutes. Ontology is Knowledge Repository in which concepts and terms defined as well as relationship between these concepts. In this paper Ontology is old research papers repository of keywords and frequencies of that keywords of the research papers of funding agencies. Ontology makes the tasks of searching similar patterns of text that is to be more effective, efficient and interactive. The current method of grouping of papers for research paper selection based on similarities of Keywords and Frequencies of research papers of ontology. Text mining is method for extracting unknown information from the large documents. The Research Papers in each domain are clustered using Text mining Technique. Grouped Research papers are assigned to appropriate reviewer or domain experts for peer review systematically. The Reviewer results are collected and papers are get ranked based on experts review results.

Keywords: Ontology, Text Mining, Classification, Document Preprocessing, Clustering.

[1]. Y. H. Sun, J. Ma, Z. P. Fan, and J. Wang, ―A group decision support approach to evaluate experts for R&D project selection,‖ IEEE Trans Eng. Manag., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 158–170, Feb.2008.
[2]. A. D. Henriksen and A. J. Traynor, ―A practical R&D project-selection scoring tool,‖ IEEE Trans. Eng. Manag., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 158–170,May 1999.
[3]. S. Bechhofer et al., OWL Web Ontology Language Reference, W3C recommendation, vol.10, p. 2006-01, 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improved and Feasible Access to Health Care Services through Integration of Mobile Technology and Big Data (Indian Context)
Country : India
Authors : Ajit Kumar Yadav || Sunil Kumar Chowdhary || Abhishek Srivastava

Abstract:Big Data is already changing the way business decisions are made, however, it is still early in the game. Big data has the potential to increase the capacity and capabilities of conventional storage, reporting and analytics system. With the convergence of powerful computing, advanced database technologies, wireless data, mobility, and social networking, it is now possible to bring together and process big data in many ways which are good for society. In the area of health services, all health-care constituents members, payers, providers, groups, researchers, governments, etc. will be impacted by big data, which can predict how these players are likely to behave, encourage desirable behavior and minimize less desirable behavior. These applications of big data can be tested, refined and optimized quickly and inexpensively and will radically change health-care delivery and research. Leveraging big data will certainly be part of the solution to controlling spiraling health-care costs in a developing country like India with billions of population.

Keywords: Big data, E-health, Health-care

[1]. India is the Second-Largest Mobile Phone user in World, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, 02-August-2012.
[2]. India set to be heart disease capital of world, Indian Express News, 2012.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater as Agri-tourism Resource Facilitator: Discourse Analysis for Planning in Developing Nations
Country : Kenya
Authors : Achieng' David Omondi || Okungu Jared Ouma || Hayombe Patrick O.|| Agong Stephen G.

Abstract:Ecotourism is increasingly exhibited as a component of the conventional tourism that needs augmentation with enhanced availability of water resources in sustainable modes. This sustainability is attainable through conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. This paper reviews literature and theoretical ideas from various authors and practical examples of implementations in different countries. This is with an aim of analytically setting up general spotlights that can be relied upon with a focus on surface and ground water as ecotourism resource enabler in developing countries. The paper Introduction; the nuance of conjunctive use of water resources on agri-tourism; case studies; technical and management distinctions; and planning and management for conjunctive water use. The paper also covers spontaneous and planned conjunctive water use systems; key advantages; potential benefits; summary of significant aspects of conjunctive water use planning; overcoming the main impediments to planned conjunctive use; and proposed policy and institutional issues for developing nations. It relies heavily on authored work and all such information used here has been acknowledged in the references.
Key Words: Conjunctive Use; Surface Water; Groundwater; Discourse Analysis; Agri-tourism Resource; Planning

[1]. Achieng' D.O., Hayombe, P.O., and Agong' S.G., (2014): Positioning ecotourism destinations in Kisumu County: Cultural Diversity Perspective. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE) Volume 16, Issue 6, Ver. II (Nov – Dec. 2014).
[2]. Agricultural & Rural Development (ARD), (2006). Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water, BY: the Water for Food Team.
[3]. Bredehoeft J D, (2011). Hydrologic Trade-Offs in Conjunctive Use Management. Groundwater Vol 49, No 4, pp 468-475. IWMI, 2002. Innovations in groundwater recharge. IWMI-Tata water Policy Briefing, No. 1. http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/gwmate
[4]. Buechler, S., and G. M. Devi. (2003). The Impact of Water Conservation and Reuse on the Household Economy - Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Water Conservation and Reuse of Wastewater, Mumbai, September 13-14.
[5]. Coe, J. J.(1990); Conjunctive use—Advantages, constraints and examples.''J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 116~3!, 427–443.
[6]. Dudley, T., & Fulton, A (2006). Conjunctive water management: what is it? Why consider it? What are the challenges? - University of California.


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