IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Sep – Oct 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8 Ver 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Digital Image Forgery Detection by Contrast Enhancement
Country : India
Authors : Remya S.
: 10.9790/0661-16590107     logo

Abstract:For decades, photographs have been used to document space-time events and they have often served as evidence in courts. Today, powerful digital image editing software makes image modifications straightforward. This undermines our trust in photographs and, in particular, questions pictures as evidence for real-world events. Contrast enhancement is mainly to adjust the brightness globally. Users may also perform local contrast enhancement for creating a realistic composite image. Most latest technology in the literature uses two algorithms to find the contrast enhancement for the manipulation of digital imagees. First algorithm focus on the detection of global contrast enhancement applied to previously JPEG compressed images.

[1] H. Farid, "Image forgery detection," IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 16–25, Mar. 2009. [2] B. Mahdian and S. Saic, "A bibliography on blind methods for identifying image forgery," Image Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 389–399, Jul. 2010. [3] S. Bayram, I. Avcubas, B. Sankur, and N. Memon, "Image manipulation detection," J. Electron. Imag., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 04110201–04110217, 2006. [4] A. Swaminathan, M. Wu, and K. J. R. Liu, "Digital image forensics via intrinsic fingerprints," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 101–117, Mar. 2008. [5] H. Cao and A. C. Kot, "Manipulation detection on image patches using FusionBoost," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 992–1002, Jun. 2012. [6] J. Fan, H. Cao, and A. C. Kot, "Estimating EXIF parameters based on noise features for image manipulation detection," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 608–618, Apr. 2013.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient video watermarking with SWT and empirical PCA based decoding
Country : India
Authors : Teena M. Thomas
: 10.9790/0661-16590814     logo

Abstract: Digital content piracy is one of the major crimes in the present world. Protection of digital content like music, video and images has become a major problem. Watermarking is one of the methods to protect digital content against unauthorized copying. In watermarking procedure, generally, watermark is embedded before it is going to be distributed over different communication channels. This paper presents a novel technique for embedding a image/data into video frames. Video Watermarking is a process by which user specified data is hidden or embedded into another signal (Video Signal) by the watermark embedding process. Afterwards the recovery of the watermark is achieved with the help of the watermark extraction process. The proposed scheme is an imperceptible and a robust hybrid video watermarking scheme.

[1]. C. T. Hsu and J. L. Wu, "DCT-based watermarking for video," IEEETrans. Consumer Electron., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 206–216, Feb. 1998.
[2]. L. Young-Yoon, J. Han-Seung, and L. Uk,"3D DFT-based videowatermarking using perceptual models," in Proc. IEEE 46th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 3. Dec. 2003, pp. 1579–1583.
[3]. Xinghao Jiang, Tanfeng Sun, Jianhua Li and Ye Yun,"A Novel Real-Time MPEG-2 Video Watermarking Scheme in Copyright Protection", Digital Watermarking, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 5450, pp:45-51, 2009.11
[4]. P. Campisi and A. Neri, "Perceptual video watermarking in the 3D-DWTdomain using a multiplicative approach," in Lecture Notes in ComputerScience, vol. 3710. New York, NY, USA: Springer-Verlag, Sep. 2005,pp. 432–443.
[5]. Xinxing Jing,Yan Liu, Xi Chen, Ping Zhou, The Domain Block Video watermarking Scheme Based video sequences' characteristics and DCT,2012.The 7th International Conference on Computer Science and Education. Australia5
[6]. Yan Liua and Jiying Zhao ," A new video watermarking algorithm based on 1D DFT and Radon transform ",Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 626-639, 2010.13.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Pragmatic Approch for Financial Networking System Using Cyber Physical Systems Through Advanced DataMining Concepts
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. Sharada Mangipudi, Dr. P. Suresh Verma, Dr. M. Srinivasa Rao
: 10.9790/0661-16591523     logo

Abstract: Last few decades witnessed the proliferation of financial reforms, liberalization and globalization of economy coupled with rapid revolution in information technology (IT).The paper presents the benefits of applying data mining (DM) and data warehousing (DW) techniques in customer relationship management (CRM) of the financial Networking.Detecting and preventing fraud is difficult, because fraudsters develop new schemes all the time, and the schemes grow more and more sophisticated to elude easy detection. So the Proposed cyber-physical systems (CPS) provide a novel security challenges due to their heterogeneity and complexity. In this present paper the basic ideology is to apply(DM) And (DW) techniques and also to monitor the entire Financial Network System (FNS) through CPS to alert the user and entire network about the intruder flow in the network.

Keywords: Data warehousing, Data Mining, Cyber Physical Systems, Financial Network System.

[1]. Mrs. Sharada Mangipudi , J. Vijay Gopal ,Dr. P. Suresh Verma , Dr. M.Srinivasa Rao Developing Multi Level Security System Using Esp Te-hnique By An Advanced Data Mining Concepts [2]. Lee, E.A. EECS , Center for Hybrid & Embedded Software Syst., Univ. of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges [3]. Neelamadhab Padhy1, Dr. Pragnyaban Mishra 2, and Rasmita Panigrahi3, The Survey of Data Mining Applications And Feature Scope (IJCSEIT),Vol.2, No.3, June 2012. [4]. Surajit Chaudhuri Umeshwar Dayal, An Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP Technology, Appears in ACM Sigmod Record, March 1997. [5] .Inmon, W.H., Building the Data Warehouse. John Wiley, 1992. [6]. http://www.olapcouncil.org [7]. Codd, E.F., S.B. Codd, C.T. Salley, "Providing OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) to User Analyst: An IT Mandate." Available from Arbor Software's web site http://www.arborsoft.com/OLAP.html.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Stegnography in video files using Multivariate Regression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering
Country : India
Authors : Anila Chandran
: 10.9790/0661-16592428     logo

Abstract: Data hiding is the ability of embedding data into a digital cover with a minimum amount of perceivable degradation, i.e., the embedded data is invisible or inaudible to a human observer. Data hiding consists of two sets of data, namely the cover medium and the embedding data, which is called the message. In general, there are two types of data hiding for video: one that hides the video content itself (video encryption or scrambling) so that nobody understands what is being transmitted; the other that embeds external information into the video, hence utilizing video as the data host. This paper proposes two data hiding approaches in compressed MPEG video. In the first approach, the quantization scale of a Constant Bit Rate (CBR) video is either incremented or decremented according to the underlying message bit that is to hidden. A second-order multivariate regression is used to associate the macroblock-level features with the hidden message bit. The decoder makes use of this regression model to predict the message bits.

[1]. M. Carli, M. Farais, E. D. Gelasca, R. Tedesco, and A. Neri, "Quality assessment using data hiding on perceptually important areas," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, ICIP, Sep. 2005, pp. III-1200-3–III-1200-3.
[2]. A. Yilmaz and A. Aydin, "Error detection and concealment for video transmission using information hiding," Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 298–312, Apr. 2008.
[3]. S. Kapotas and A. Skodras, "A new data hiding scheme for scene change detection in H.264 encoded video sequences," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo ICME, Jun. 2008, pp. 277–280.
[4]. K. Nakajima, K. Tanaka, T. Matsuoka, and Y. Nakajima, "Rewritable data embedding on MPEG coded data domain," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, ICME, Jul. 2005, pp. 682–685.
[5]. Y. Li, H.-X. Chen, and Y. Zhao, "A new method of data hiding based on H.264 encoded video sequences," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Signal Processing, ICSP, Oct. 2010, pp. 1833–1836.
[6]. D.-Y. Fang and L.-W. Chang, "Data hiding for digital video with phase of motion vector," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Systems, ISCAS, Sep. 2006.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Transmission of Record after Record Linkage for Crime Detection Using AES
Country : India
Authors : Rincy K Raj
: 10.9790/0661-16592935     logo

Abstract: In many applications like crime detection, health sector, taxation sector etc… record linkage is used to find out the matched data items from different data sources. Finding matched records from different data sources corresponding to same entity is referred to as record linkage. It provides data integrity, data quality and also the reuse of existing data for advanced studies. The complexity of finding matching records is high due to the increased size of databases. The proposed system contain the secure information retrieval after efficient record linkage with indexing. AES algorithm is applied for the secure transmission of matched data. The indexing step generates candidate record pairs that are to be compared in record linkage process. After finding the matched records, it is sent to the user using secure AES algorithm in-order to avoid the malpractices.

Keywords:Record linkage, data integrity, data quality, indexing, AES algorithm.

[1] D. Dey, V. Mookerjee, and D. Liu, "Efficient techniques for online record linkage," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineer- ing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 373–387, 2010.
[2] D. E. Clark, "Practical introduction to record linkage for injury research," Injury Prevention, vol. 10, pp. 186–191, 2004.
[3] C. W. Kelman, J. Bass, and D. Holman, "Research use of linked health data – A best practice protocol," Aust NZ Journal of Public Health, vol. 26, pp. 251–255, 2002.
[4] Peter Christen, "A Survey Of Indexing Techniques For Scaable Record Linkage and Deduplication," vol. 2 no.9 2012
[5] I.P. Fellegi and A.B. Sunter, "A Theory of Record Linkage," J. Am.Statistical Assoc., vol. 64, pp. 1183-1210, 1969.
[6] E. Rahm and H. H. Do, "Data cleaning: Problems and current approaches," IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 4, 2000.
[7] W. E. Winkler, "Overview of record linkage and current research directions," US Bureau of the Census, Tech. Rep. RR2006/02, 2006.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Women in Information and Communication Technologies in India
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh kumar
: 10.9790/0661-16593643     logo

Abstract: India has emerged as one of well recognized developing countries that is serving the Globe with its Information Technology Industry contribution. Women personalities like Sarojini Naidu & Indira Gandhi made India proud by leading from the front. Today, there are many such women who have been the backbone of the recognition that India has achieved in ICT business. A silent revolution is taking place with evolution of women empowerment in the knowledge era. They are getting the best access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education, employment opportunity & becoming owners of IT companies. The purpose of this chapter is to map the emerging trends in India on the role of Women in Information & Communication Technology and look at what could happen in future, if this trend continues and is maintained with gender equality.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparative Study of Two Microprocessor Based Distributed Systems: Intel Xeon and AMD Opteron
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Igiri, Chinwe Peace , Asagba, Prince Oghenekaro , Olowookere, Toluwase Ayobami
: 10.9790/0661-16594448     logo

Abstract: In this article, we draw a comparative study of microprocessor–based distributed systems, using the two major processors; Intel and AMD. Although the philosophy of their microarchitecture is the same, they differ in their approaches to implementation. Whether to increase the number of cores or to maximize the cores by hyperthreading, many of these features arise from philosophical grounds. These differences have been considered on the basis of their threading capabilities, coprocessor communications, memory accesses, and virtualization supports. . Moreover, the invention of hybrid server of these two processors cannot be compared with that of a server built with their individual processors. From our findings therefore, Intel remains the giant in microprocessor world while AMD on the other hand is in the front line of technological innovations.

Keywords: Hyperthreading, HyperTransport, Hypervisor, QuickPath-Interconnect, Virtualization

[1]. Adams K. and Agesen O. A. Comparison of Software and Hardware Techniques for x86 Virtualization. ASPLOS., 2006 http://www.vmware.com/pdf/asplos235_adams.pdf
[2]. Akhtar A. Comparative study of parallel programming models for multicore computing. Master Thesis. ,2013. pp. 63-65.
[3]. AMD White Paper. Hyper Transport Technology I/O Link, A High-Bandwidth I/O Architecture. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., One AMD Place, Sunnyvale, CA 94088. 2001.
[4]. AMD White Paper. New AMD Opteron Processor Core Technology, 2011: http://h17007.www1.hp.com/docs/iss/The_New_ AMD_Opteron_Processor_Core_Technology.pdf
[5]. Bell D. & Grimson J. Distributed Database Systems. MA: Addison-Wesley. 1993.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Secure Data Hiding Scheme In Images Using Random Generated Key
Country : India
Authors : Sobimol Mathew
: 10.9790/0661-16594954     logo

Abstract: Data hiding is the process of transmitting images in a hidden manner, where as the message should be invisible to the unauthorized users. This technique is a good way to achieve the secret delivery of data, where the colour image acts as a popular cover media to send the secret. The commonly used data hiding technique are based on block truncation coding and complementary Error Diffused Block Truncation Coding. Block Truncation Coding is a type lossy image compression technique for grey scale images. It divide the original image into blocks and then use a quantizer to reduce the number of grey levels. The major issues associated with BTC are unnecessary blocking and false contouring effects. To overcome these issues a complementary Hiding Error Diffused Block Truncation Coding was developed by Jing-Min-Guo and Yun-Fu-Lin. This method overcomes the limitations of traditional BTC, ensure the image quality and highest processing efficiency. The existing system consists of an encoder and decoder and the encoder spreads the watermark into two marked images and the corresponding data security is also improved with the security sharing concepts. However the existing system uses a pseudo random key, which is not synchronized in between the encoder and decoder may leads to wrong extraction. Another problem associated with the existing system is Block size. Various block size can lead different bitmap through existing decoder and the system does not consider the bias limitation, number of water mark as keys and cannot protect the embedded data. The proposed system overcomes the limitations of existing CHEDBTC system without altering its advantages. Our system can yield high image quality and can with stand against various types of security attacks.

Index Terms: Block Truncation Coding (BTC),data hiding,CHEDBTC

[1] E. J. Delp and O. R. Mitchell, "Image compression [using [block truncationcoding,"

[2] "BTC image coding using vector quantization,"

[3] "Digital halftones by dot diffusion,"

[4] "Multiple images embedding scheme based on moment preserving block truncation coding, "FundamentalInform.,


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Research on Strongly Unforgeable Ring Signature Scheme Based on ID
Country : China
Authors : Gang Zeng
: 10.9790/0661-16595559     logo

Abstract: A ring signature system is strongly unforgeable if the ring signature is existential unforgeable and, given ring signatures on some message m, the adversary can not produce a new ring signature on m. Strongly unforgeable ring signatures are useful for constructing chosen-ciphertext secure cryptographic system. For example, it can be used to design the ring signcryptionscheme.In this paper, we analyse the safety of Au et al.'s ID-based ring signature scheme, then we construct a strongly unforgeable ID-based ring signature scheme in the standard model based on the standard discrete logarithm problem (DLP).

Keywords: Strong unforgeability, ring signature, bilinear pairings, standard model

[1] Rivest, R. L. , Shamir, A. , Tauman, Y. How to leak a secret. In: Boyd, C. (ed. ) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, pp. 2001, 552-565.
[2] F. Zhang and K. Kim. ID-Based Blind Signature and Ring Signature from Pairings. In ASIACRYPT 2002, volume 2501 of LNCS, 2002, 533-547.
[3] Jung Yeon Hwang, A note on an identity-based ring signature scheme with signer verifiability, Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 412, 2012,796-804.
[4] Man Ho Au, Joseph K. Liu, Tsz Hon Yuen, and Duncan S. Wong, "ID-Based Ring Signature Scheme Secure in the Standard Model", IWSEC 2006, LNCS 4266, 2006,1-16 .
[5] Man Ho Au, Joseph K. Liu, Willy Susilo, Tsz Hon Yuen, Secure ID-based linkable and revocable-iff-linked ring signature with constant-size construction, Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 469, 2013, 1-14.
[6] HovavShacham, Brent Waters, Efficient Ring Signatures Without Random Oracles, PKC 2007, LNCS 4450, 2007,166-180 .


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of HTTP and DB Traffic Application Using Proactive and Reactive Routing Protocols
Country : India
Authors : Swati Puri , Vishal Arora
: 10.9790/0661-16596064     logo

Abstract: A group of fixed or mobile communication devices that does not have a stable infrastructure to communicate with each other is known as mobile ad-hoc network. In MANET their is very importent role of nodes. All nodes can communicate with each other by directly or indirectly method. Routing is a most important part in MANET. There are three types of protocols we use for routing i.e. Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. In this Paper, we study the AODV (Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) routing protocols for DB (database) and HTTP (hyper text transfer protocol) traffic types. 20 and 45 nodes are used to computed various parameters like throughput, number of hops and response time and compare using OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool) simulator.

Keywords: Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), AODV, DSR, OLSR, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) Database (DB), Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET)

[1] Kim, Dongkyun, et al. "Routing mechanisms for mobile ad hoc networks based on the energy drain rate." Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on 2.2 (2003): 161-173.
[2] Masoudifar, Mina. "A review and performance comparison of QoS multicast routing protocols for MANETs." Ad Hoc Networks 7.6 (2009): 1150-1155.
[3] Wang, Nen-Chung, Yung-Fa Huang, and Jhu-Chan Chen. "A stable weight-based on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks." Information Sciences 177.24 (2007): 5522-5537.
[4] Trung, Ha Duyen, Watit Benjapolakul, and Phan Minh Duc. "Performance evaluation and comparison of different ad hoc routing protocols." Computer Communications 30.11 (2007): 2478-2496.
[5] Abolhasan, Mehran, Tadeusz Wysocki, and Eryk Dutkiewicz. "A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks." Ad hoc networks 2.1 (2004): 1-22.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Node Replication Attack Detection Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey.
Country : India
Authors : Mayur R. Khandekar , Prof. U. K. Raut
: 10.9790/0661-16596570     logo

Abstract: The sensor networks are often deployed in hostile environments and are not attended for long time. Deployment of these networks is increased in the recent years, as they help in monitoring and analyzing different properties of the environment. The application of wireless sensor network starts from environment, household monitoring and ranging up to critical military applications. The sensor nodes in the network are prone to different kinds of novel attacks. An attacker, with little effort, may physically capture nodes, exploits the information on the node, reprogram the node and create replicas, and secretly insert these replicas at strategic locations within the network. This is called as node replication attack. Since these replicas have legitimate access to the network (legitimate IDs, keys, other security credentials, etc.), they can participate in the network operations in the same way as a legitimate node, and thus a large variety of insider attacks takes over the network. Using such nodes the attacker can corrupt the data flowing through the network, also the attacker can disconnect some part of the network with other part of the network. Detection of node replication attack is therefore important. So, in this report we will come to know about some node replication detection schemes, out of which some depend primarily on centralized mechanisms where the base station plays very important role, and others depend on distributed detection schemes. The detection probabilities and communication overhead are the major concern while proposing and using the detection techniques. Hence, the design of efficient algorithm to detect node identity replicas is still an open and demanding issue. Keywords: Wireless sensor network, Replication attack, Centralized Detection schemes, Distributed Detection schemes, Security.

[1] Ahmad Salehi S., M.A. Razzaque, Parisa Naraei, Ali Farrokhtala "Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges" Proceeding of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace), 1-3 July 2013, Melaka, Malaysia.
[2] Abhishek Jain, Kamal Kant, M. R. Tripathy "Security Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks" Second International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies 2012.
[3] R.Sathish, D.Rajesh Kumar "Proficient Algorithms for Replication Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey" IEEE International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing, Communication and Nanotechnology (ICECCN 2013) 2013.
[4] Bryan Parno, Adrian Perrig, Virgil Gligor "Distributed Detection of Node Replication Attacks in Sensor Networks" 2006.
[5] Wibhada Naruephiphat, Yusheng Ji, Chalermpol Charnsripinyo "An Area-Based Approach for Node Replica Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks" 11th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications IEEE 2012.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis on Data Integrity in Cloud Environment
Country : India
Authors : Siddhartha Rao , Savan Gujrathi , Mithun Sanghvi , Shubham Shah
: 10.9790/0661-16597176     logo

Abstract: Cloud Computing privileges convenient, easy on-demand access to a collection of configurable resources and services. The services and resources on the cloud can be robustly deployed with low maintenance cost, effort and high efficiency. Cloud is still considered as an insecure computing platform from the user point of view due to the lack of security in terms of confidentiality and integrity. Shielding mechanisms for cloud systems must be designed that safeguard sensitive data using cryptographic techniques and also maintain the intactness of user information stored on the remote storage by protecting it against malicious entities or behaviors. In this paper, we enunciate an overall sketch of various integrity issues in cloud that have been discovered over a period of time and the possible solutions that deal with these serious issues.

Keywords: Cloud Security, Data Integrity, Security, Integrity Verification, SHA-1

[1] Vitthal Raut, Prof. Suhasini Itkar, A Survey on Data Integrity of Cloud Storage in Cloud Computing, IJAFRC Feb. 2014, Vol1 Issue2, pp. 58-64.

[2] V.Nirmala, R.K.Sivanandhan, Dr.R.Shanmuga lakshmi, Data Confidentiallity and Integrity Verification using User Authenticator scheme in cloud, in Proc of ICGHPC Mar. 2013.

[3] Rajkumar Chalse, Ashwin Selokar, Arun Katara, A New Technique of Data Integrity for Analysis of the Clou d Computing Security, CICN 2013, pp.469-472.

[4] Venkatesa Kumar V, Poornima G, Ensuring Data Integrity in Cloud Computing, IJCA Feb 2012,Vol5 Issue4, pp.514-519.

[5] Pradeep Kumar Tiwari, Dr. Bharat Mishra, Cloud Computing Security Issues, Challenges and Solutions, IJETAE Aug. 2012, Vol2 Issue8, pp. 306-309


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design of Non-pipelined LC3 RISC Microcontroller
Country : India
Authors : Devyani Gera , Mehul Garg
: 10.9790/0661-16597781     logo

Abstract: This paper highlights the designingof data and control path of a non-pipelined LC3 microcontroller with a 16 bit Reduced instruction set. The designing was done using a Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) System Verilog on the platform Questasim Simulator. We have demonstrated the use of this RISC microcontroller using basic ALU operations- ADD, AND & NOT, and a memory operation- Load Effective Address (LEA).The 16 bit reduced instruction used in the designing has been chosensuch that it's computing ends in exactly 5 clock cycles.

Keywords: HDL, LC3, Load Effective Register, Non-pipelined, Pipelined,RISC

[1]. Reduced Instruction Set Processing: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reduced_instruction_set_computing
[2]. Instruction pipelining: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_pipelining#Advantages_and_Disadvantages
[3]. NCSU open library : ECE Projects : http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/muse/courses/ece406/labs/proj1/proj1_spr09.pdf
[4]. SystemVerilog for Verification by Chris Spears 2nd Edition.
[5]. Writing TestBenches using SystemVerilog by Janick Bergeron



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