IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Sep – Oct 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8 Ver 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Twin Key Implementation in Aes
Country : India
Authors : Himanshu Gupta
: 10.9790/0661-16580105     logo

Abstract: In February 2001, NIST announced that a draft of the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) was available for public review and comment. Finally, AES was published as FIPS 197 in the Federal Register in December 2001. Rijndael's has been standard by the NIST as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). This makes the AES essential and necessary for protection of data. We propose to reconfigure the structure of the advanced encryption standard (AES), especially in constant rotation and replaced it with variable rotation using a single key (Twins Key) that can be used for both ciphering and inverse ciphering. We demonstrate that changes can develop twin ciphers which are similar to the original one. The use of single key in AES helps to solve complexity faced during ciphering and deciphering, but it still maintains the same degree of Confusion and Diffusion. Confusion and diffusion make the use of key thus more very complex and very difficult to discover it. The use of a single key also makes this process more time efficient and variable rotation can protect data from continuous tries to attack encryption algorithm.

Keywords: AES, Twin key, Encryption, Decryption.

[1] Daniel J. Bernstein, ―Understanding brute force, Department of Mathematics‖, Statistics, and Computer Science (M/C 249) The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60607-7045, 2006
[2] Neeraj Kumar, ―Investigations in Brute Force Attack on Cellular Security Based on Des and Aes‖, IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 14, October 2011, ISSN 2230-7893
[3] Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich, IvicaNikoli_c, ―Distinguisher and Related-Key Attack on the Full AES- 256‖,University of Luxembourg falex.biryukov, Dmitry.khovratovich, ivica.nikolic@uni.lug10 August 2009.
[4] EladBarkan and Eli Biham, ―In How Many Ways Can You Write Rijndael?‖, Computer Science Department Technion { Israel Institute of Technology Haifa 32000, Israel ,2006.
[5] Krishnamurthy G N, V Ramaswamy, ―Making AES Stronger: AES with Key Dependent S Box‖,IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.9, September 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Electricity, Computers, Innovation, Environment and Capacity Building: A Statistical Review
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Grace Korter , Olusanya Olubusoye
: 10.9790/0661-16580616     logo

Abstract: The objective was to examine the frameworks needed to foster innovations and to mobilize innovation towards co - creating computers in the context of developing countries' challenge of unreliable energy supply, in order to enhance performance of information and communication technology (ICT) as teaching aids for educational attainment. The basic underlying assumption is that computers are the simplest interactive instructional devices and that energy is a fundamental requirement for its functionality. A sample survey was conducted to ascertain the existing energy and ICT situation and needs amongst students. 213 questionnaires were administered to students of the University of Ibadan, and the Polytechnic, Ibadan in Oyo state of Nigeria. Investigation on technologies that can make the computer more relevant to users and adaptable to the environment revealed 51.4% suggesting longer battery life, 21.8% - double battery pack, 8.5% - both longer battery life and double battery pack and 7% - a reduction in the energy consumption of component parts of the computer. Apparently, there is a need to maximize the full potentials of the computer to enhance educational development and to expose students across the globe to equal platforms and opportunities for learning.

Keywords: Capacity building, Computer, Innovation, Statistics

[1] C. Weiss, Mobilizing technology for developing countries, Science New Series, 203(4385), 1979, 1083-1089.

[2] J. James, Sharing mechanisms for information technology in developing countries, social capital and quality of life, Social Indicators Research, 94(1), 2009, 43-59.

[3] J. Ashworth, Technology diffusion through foreign assistance: Making renewable energy sources available to the world's poor, Policy Sciences, 11(3), 1980, 241-261.

[4] J. Goldemberg., T.B. Johansson , A.K.N. Reddy and R.H. Williams, Basic needs and much more with one kilowatt per capita, Ambio, 14(4/5), 1985,190 - 200.

[5] United Nations Development Programme, World energy assessment: Energy and the challenge of sustainable development, Jose Goldemberg (ed.), New York, 2000.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Privacy and Security in Data Storage Using Two Layer Encryption and MAC Verification
Country : India
Authors : Ashly.k.Achenkunju.
: 10.9790/0661-16581723     logo

Abstract: For the privacy and security of data stored in data storage a new Two Layer Encryption (TLE) approach is developed. This technique performs an encryption at two layers based on some ACP(Access Control Policies)on the data owner as well as on the datastorage.The data owner and the data storage utilizes a key management scheme with the help of a key generating algorithmABGKM (Attribute Based Group Key Management)whereby the actual keys do not need to be distributed by the users. The single layer encryption approach using keyword search has some drawbacks such as the privacy of the identity attributes of the users is not taken into account so that the data storage can learn some information about the users and the organization. The random keyword search request also cause loss of information and degrade the privacy of encrypted data. This thesis of two layer encryption allows more secure and private way to handle data updates, user dynamics and policy changes. If there is a change in user dynamics or policy the outer layer of encryption needs to be updated. Since the outer layer encryption is done at the data storage, no transmission of data required between the data owner and data storage. The user who satisfies the access control policies should be able to decrypt the keys twice in order to access the data makes the system more secure and private. Hence my propped thesis has a newly added advantage of two layer encryption using Attribute Based Group Key management (ABGKM) provides a strong secure layer for data storage in servers.
Keywords: TLE, PrivacyPresrving, Security, Access Control, ABGKM

[1] D. Song, D. Wagner, and A. Perrig, "Practical techniques for searches on encrypted data," in Proc. of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy'00, 2000.

[2] Y.-C. Chang and M. Mitzenmacher, "Privacy preserving keyword searches on remote encrypted data," in Proc. of ACNS'05, 2005. [3] R. Curtmola, J. A. Garay, S. Kamara, and R. Ostrovsky, "Search-able symmetric encryption: improved definitions and efficient constructions," in Proc. of ACM CCS'06, 2006.

[4] J. Li, Q. Wang, C. Wang, N. Cao, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Fuzzy keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing," in Proc.of IEEE INFOCOM'10 Mini-Conference, 2010.

[5] N. Cao, C. Wang, M. Li, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data," in Proc.of INFOCOM'11, 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Text Clustering in Distributed Networks with Enhanced File Security
Country : India
Authors : Teena Susan Chandy
: 10.9790/0661-16582430     logo

Abstract: Text Clustering technique is widely used in both centralized and distributed environments for information retrieval. Centralized approaches are used in traditional text clustering algorithms. In such approaches, clustering is performed on a dedicated node and also they are not suitable for deployment in large distributed networks. This centralized approach require high processing time and retrieving time during searching due to scalability of users. To overcome this, the Probabilistic text clustering for peer to peer(PCP2P) algorithm was introduced. It provides improved scalability by using a probabilistic approach for assigning documents to clusters. Only most relevant clusters are considered for comparison with each document. PCP2P alone does not provide any security for the system. It only ensures efficient information retrieval of text data by assigning document to most relevant cluster. This project is implemented within a medical research environment. Here, the system is implemented using this PCP2P algorithm and an enhanced version of a security related technique called LZW. Enhanced LZW technique can ensure secure transmission within the system. This technique includes hiding information directly in compression codes. Lempel -Ziv-Welch (LZW) coding is a well known lossless compression algorithm is simple and does not require prior analysis of the source or send extra information to the decoder. This introduces a new input table which contains 255 contents. This method, reversibly embeds data in LZW compression codes by modifying the value of the compression codes. The value of the LZW code either remains unchanged or is changed to the original value of the LZW code plus the LZW dictionary size according to the data to be embedded.

Index Terms: Text clustering, K-means, P2P network, Distributed network, DHT, Lossless data compression, LZW code

[1] M. Eisenhardt, W. M ¨ uller, and A. Henrich, "Classifying documents by distributed P2P clustering." in INFORMATIK, 2003.
[2] H.-C. Hsiao and C.-T. King, "Similarity discovery in structured P2P overlays," in ICPP, 2003.
[3] K. M. Hammouda and M. S. Kamel, "Hierarchically distributed peer-to-peer document clustering and cluster summarization,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 681–698, 2009
[4] L. T. Nguyen, W. G. Yee, and O. Frieder, "Adaptive distributed indexing for structured peer-to-peer networks," in CIKM, 2008, pp. 1241–1250.
[5] Odysseas Papapetrou, Wolf Siberski, and Norbert Fuhr,"DecentralizedProbabilisticText Clustering" IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol..24, no.10, 2012


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Towards Adapting NAS Mechanism over Solid State Disks
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Shaikh Muhammad Allayear , Jannatul Ferdaus , Md. Salahuddin , Sung Soon Park
: 10.9790/0661-16583139     logo

Abstract: Flash memory storage such as SSDs (Solid State disks) have been gaining popularity due to its low energy consumption and durability in embedded systems and laptops. With the fast technical improvement, Solid State Disks (SSDs) are becoming an important part of the computer storage hierarchy to significantly improve performance and energy efficiency. However, due to its relatively high price and low capacity, a major system research issue to address is on how to make SSDs play their most effective roles as a high-performance storage system in cost- and performance-effective ways. In this paper, we describe a NAS prototype that eliminates most software overheads and makes Solid State Disks a high-performance storage system in cost- and performance-effective ways. NAS integrates a network adapter into SSDs, so the SSDs remove the random access time, Reduce administrative overhead while delivering scalable, reliable data storage. NAS can also give support block based I/O rather than traditional NAS system which supports only file I/O protocol such as NFS and CIFS. Our scale-out NAS solutions can boost capacity and performance while enabling flexible provisioning, no disruptive operations, easy scalability, and virtualization. As the storage and processing requirements of the file server continued to increase data security and integrity became difficult to manage in conventional NAS, this NAS can ensure the data integrity and sanctity as well.

Keywords: Data Storage & Data Integrity, Iscsi, NAS, Solid State Disks, Software Overhead

[1]. SAM-3 Information Technology – SCSI Architecture Model 3, Working Draft, T10 Project 1561-D, Revision7, 2003
[2]. S.M Allayear, S.S Park: "iSCSI MultiConnection and Error Recovery Method for Remote Storage System in Mobile Appliance". ICCSA-06, Glasgow, LNCS 3891, pp.641-650, May 2006.
[3]. D.Kim, M. Ok, M.-s. Park. An Intermediate "Target for Quick-Relay of Remote Storage to Mobile Devices". Proc. Of ICCSA, May 2005.
[4]. Sura Park, Bo-Suk Moon, Myong-Soon Park: Design, Implement and Performance Analysis of the Remote Storage System in Mobile Environment, Proc. ICITA 2004.
[5]. M. Ok, D. Kim, M.-s. Park, UbiqStor: A Remote Storage Service for Mobile Devices, The Fifth International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT 04) Singapore, December 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimized Hypergraph Based Social Image Search Using Visual-Textual Joint Relevance Learning
Country : India
Authors : Arya S
: 10.9790/0661-16584049     logo

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lacking in diversity. Most of the existing methods estimate the relevance of images by using tags and visual characteristics either separately or sequentially. The proposed system uses an approach that utilize simultaneously both visual information and textual information in real time to estimate the relevance of user tagged image. The method used to determine the relevance estimation is the hypergraph learning approach.

[1] Y. Gao, M. Wang, H. Luan, J. Shen, S. Yan, and D. Tao, "Tag-based social image search with visual-text joint hypergraph learning," in Proc. ACM Conf. Multimedia, 2011, pp. 1517 1520.
[2] Z.-J. Zha, L. Yang, T. Mei, M. Wang, and Z. Wang, "Visual query suggestion," in Proc. ACM Conf. Multimedia, 2009, pp. 15–24.
[3] J. Shen, D. Tao, and X. Li, "QUC-tree: Integrating query context information for efficient music retrieval," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 313–323, Feb. 2009.
[4] J. Shen, D. Tao, and X. Li, "Modality mixture projections for semantic video event detection," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1587–1596, Nov. 2008.
[5] Cilibrasi, R., Vitanyi, P.M.B.: The google similarity distance. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.19, 370–383 (2007)
[6] Clarke, C.L.A., Kolla, M., Cormack, G.V., Vechtomova, O., Ashkan, A., Büttcher, S., MacKinnon,I.: Novelty and diversity in information retrieval evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 659–666. ACM, New York (2008)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Non-Cooperative Eavesdropping Resisted Using Ford-Fulkerson And AES By Secure coding
Country : India
Authors : Sreelekshmi Murali
: 10.9790/0661-16585055     logo

Abstract:A wireless sensor network is usually composed of a large number of spatially distributed autonomous sensor nodes. Advancement in the field of modern communication networks especially in the wireless network dramatically improved their accessibility,affordability and accuracy. The eavesdropping is a serious security threat to a WSN since this attack is a prerequisite to other attacks. Avoiding the major threat called eavesdropping,cryptographic techniquies are to be used. Reexamine the notion of security,accessibilty,affordability and confidentiality of the WSN, combines Shannon's cypher method and Ford-Fulkerson algorithm together with one time pad system.

[1] C. E. Shannon, ―Communication theory of secrecy systems,‖ Bell Syst.Tech. J., vol. 28, pp. 565–715, Oct. 1949.
[2] N.CaiandR.W.Yeung,―Secure network coding,‖ presented at the IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory, Jun. 2002.
[3] N. Cai and R. W. Yeung, ―Secure network coding on a wiretap network,‖ IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 424–435, Jan. 2011.
[4] J.Feldman,T.Malkin,C.Stein,andR.A. Servedio, ―On the capacity of secure network coding,‖ presented at the Allerton Conf. Commun., Control Comput., Sep. 2004.
[5] Joseph Binder, Hans Peter Bischof, Zero Knowledge Proofs of Identity for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks An In-Depth Study, Technical Report, 2003. http://www.cs.rit.edu/ jsb7384/zkp-survey.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secured Password Technique Using Devices
Country : India
Authors : Mekha Mariyam Thomas
: 10.9790/0661-16585660     logo

Abstract: Text based password is most commonly used user authentication .To log on to websites, users must memorize the selected password. Password based authentication can resist brute force and dictionary attacks, if they select a stronger password but users often select weak password for their convenience and remembrance. They reuse password in different sites for simplicity, it would make the attacker to find their passwords in different sites. These are caused by the negative impact of human behavior. Typing password on untrusted computers suffers from stealing of password i.e. shoulder surfing. Then researchers have designed graphical password which made attackers to find out the commonly selective areas (Hotspots). Some researchers have focused on three-factor authentication for reliability and depends on password, token, biometric. For this authentication, the user must input a password and provide a pass code generated by the token, and scan her biometric features (e.g., fingerprint). This is a comprehensive defense mechanism against password stealing attacks, but it requires high cost. Another user authentication is Opass,

[1] B. Ives, K. R. Walsh, and H. Schneider, "The domino effect of password reuse," Commun. ACM, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 75–78, 2004.
[2] S. Gawand E. W. Felten, "Password management strategies for online accounts," in SOUPS '06: Proc. 2nd Symp. Usable Privacy . Security,New York, 2006, pp. 44–55, ACM..
[3] D. Florencio and C. Herley, "A large-scale study of web password habits," in WWW '07: Proc. 16th Int. Conf. World Wide Web., New
[4] S. Chiasson, A. Forget, E. Stobert, P. C. van Oorschot, and R. Biddle, "Multiple password interference in text passwords and click-based graphical passwords," in CCS '09: Proc. 16th ACM Conf. Computer Communications Security, New York, 2009, pp. 500–511, ACM.
[5] S. Wiedenbeck, J. Waters, J.-C. Birget, A. Brodskiy, and N. Memon, "Passpoints: Design and longitudinal evaluation of a graphical password system," Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 63, no. 1–2, pp. 102–127, 2005.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhanced Decision Tree Algorithm for Data Streams using adaptation of Concept Drift
Country : India
Authors : Bhavkaran Singh Walia, Navan Preet Singh
: 10.9790/0661-16586164     logo

Abstract:Construction of a decision tree is a well researched problem in data mining. Mining of streaming data is a very useful and necessary application. Algorithms such as VFDT and CVFDT are used for decision tree construction, but as a lot of new examples are added, a new optimal model needs to be constructed. Here in this paper, we have provided an algorithm for decision tree construction which uses discriminant analysis, to select the cut point used for splitting tests, thus optimizing time complexity from O(nlogn) to O(n). We have also analyzed several learning strategies such as dynamic ensemble, contextual, forgetting and detection approaches. We have also discussed handling of concept drift which occurs due to gradual change in the data set using the naive Bayes classifer at each of the inner node.

[1] R.O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David Stork. Pattern Classification. New York, Willey and Sons,1998. [2] R. Jing and Gagan Agarwal. Efficient Decision Tree Construction on Streaming Data http://web.cse.ohio-state.edu/~agrawal/p/sigkdd03.pdf [3] S. Babu and J. Wisdom. Continuous Queries over Data Stream http://ilpubs.stanford.edu:8090/527/1/2001-9.pdf
[4] F. Thomas Leighton. Introduction to parallel algorithms and architectures: array, trees, hypercubes. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
[5] Mehryar Mohri, Afshin Rostamizadeh, Ameet Talwalkar. Foundations of Machine Learning. [6] Paul Van Tilburg. Space-efficient Algoritms for Data Streams and Histograms http://paul.luon.net/papers/AA-Space-Efficient-Alg.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel set of tools to "Extract, Rework, Batch" [ERB] Big Data with Apache Hadoop Environment
Country : India
Authors : Ketavarapu Nageswara Rao, Maddineni Karuna Sree, K.Narasimha Sastry, Duvvada Rajeswara Rao
: 10.9790/0661-16586572     logo

Abstract: Over the previous couple of years, organizations across public and personal sectors have created a strategic call to show massive information into competitive advantage. The challenge of extracting price from huge information is comparable in many ways to the antique drawback of distilling business intelligence from transactional knowledge. At the center of this challenge is that the method costumed extract information from multiple sources, remodel it to suit your analytical wants, and load it into an information warehouse for consequent analysis, a process called "Extract, Rework , Batch" (ERB). The character of huge knowledge needs that the infrastructure for this method can scale cost-effectively.

[1]. MIT Sloan study; results published in MIT Sloan Management Review. "Big Data, Analytics and the Path From Insights to Value," Steve LaValle, Eric Lesser, Rebecca Shockley, Michael S. Hopkins, Nina Kruschwitz, December 21, 2010.
[2]. The claim of up to 32% reduction in I/O latency is based on Intel internal measurements of the average time for an I/O device read to local system memory under idle conditions for the Intel ® Xeon® processor E5-2600 product family versus the Intel® Xeon® processor 5600 series
[3]. Gartner 2013 CIO Survey. http://www.gartner.com/technology/cio/cioagenda.jsp
[4]. http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/white-papers/big-data-apache-hadoop-technologies-for-results whitepaper.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design of Smart Universal Remote using Mobile for Home Automation
Country : India
Authors : Joydeep Roy, Joyanta Kumar Roy
: 10.9790/0661-16587380     logo

Abstract: Controlling Home Appliances remotely is à main part of automation. There is a great deal of inconvenience in controlling each digital home appliance with its own separate remote. In this paper we present an advanced universal remote which can control and regulate lights, fans and also any IR controlled Home appliance like TV, home theater, air conditioner etc. This paper gives the design on how to build this remote and how we can turn our smart phone into a true universal remote which will be both versatile and have capability to easily learn new devices and new IR protocols.

Keywords: Home Automation, IR decoding, MSP430 Microcontroller, Universal Remote

[1]. Sharon Panth & Mahesh Jivani, "Home Automation System (HAS) using Android for Mobile Phone", International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering, 3 (1), 2014, 1-10
[2]. Omar Abdulraheem Mahdi & Bhavya Alankar, "Wireless Controlling Of Remote Electrical Device Using Android Smartphone", IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE), 16 (3),2014,23-27, e-ISSN: 2278-0661
[3]. Deepti Shastri, "Home Automation System with Universally used Mobile Application Platform", IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE),9 (2),2014, 01-06, e-ISSN: 2278-2834
[4]. M. Puthanial, S. Rajeshwari, Dr. P.C. Kishore Raja & Dr. P. Shankar, "Android and Bluetooth Technology Enabled


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Architectural Design of Healthcare Service with Big-Data Storing Mechanism
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Salahuddin, Shaikh Muhammad Allayear, Sung Soon Park
: 10.9790/0661-16588194     logo

Abstract: Healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by practitioners in allied health, dentistry, midwifery-obstetrics, medicine, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, psychology and other care providers. In healthcare service to provide better performance to identify some diseases like blood pressure, skin cancer, diabetes etc. with the sensor devices those are connected with home server by using wireless sensor or wired network policies. The size of data sets being collected and analyzed in the industry for healthcare business intelligence is growing rapidly. In healthcare service case we have to concern about massive data services. To store and process huge amount of unstructured data by using traditional database system is so difficult. To alleviate this drawback we can use Hadoop architecture that has functionality to store and process huge amount of unstructured data.

[1] Le DEAN, J., AND GHEMAWAT, S. MapReduce: Simplified dataprocessing on large clusters. In OSDI (2004).
[2] SAM-3 Information Technology – SCSI Architecture Model 3, Working Draft, T10 Project 1561-D, Revision7, 2003.
[3] S.M.Allayear, Sung Soon Park: iSCSI Multi-Connection and Error Recovery Method for Remote Storage System in Mobile Appliance. The 2006 International Conference on Computational and It's Applications (ICCSA2006), Glasgow- Scotland. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006, (SCI Indexed) LNCS 3981, pp.641-650.
[4] Hadoop, http://hadoop.apache.org/mapreduce/
[5] Tyson Condie, Neil Conway, Peter Alvaro, Joseph M. Hellerstein UC Berkeley: MapReduce Online. Khaled Elmeleegy, Russell Sears(Yahoo! Research)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) In Indian Service Sector -A Study of Post Liberalization
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-165895105     logo

Abstract: FDI to developing countries in the 1990s was the leading source of external financing and has become a key component of national development strategies for almost all the countries in the world as a vehicle for technology flows and an important source of non-debt inflows for attaining competitive efficiency by creating a meaningful network of global interconnections. FDI provide opportunities to host countries to enhance their economic development and opens new opportunities to home countries to optimize their earnings by employing their ideal resources. India ranks fifteenth in the services output and it provides employment to around 23% of the total workforce in the country. The various sectors under the Services Sector in India are construction, trade, hotels, transport, restaurant, communication and storage, social and personal services, community, insurance, financing, business services, and real estate.

[1]. Kuchhal S.C., "The Industrial Economy of India", Chaitanya Publishing House, Allahabad, 1974.
[2]. Lal Anil K. & Clement Ronald W. "Economic Development in India: The role of individual enterprise (and entrepreneurial spirit)", Asia Pacific Development Journal, Vol-12, No. 2, Dec 2005.
[3]. Mishra, SK, "Globalization and Structural Changes in the Indian Industrial Sector: An Analysis of Production Functions", North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong (India) 20 December 2006.
[4]. Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1231/
[5]. MPRA Chapter No. 1231 posted 07. November 2007 / 01:37


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improved Brain Extraction Tool using Marker-Controlled Watershed Segmentation
Country : India
Authors : Kalavathi P.
: 10.9790/0661-1658106111     logo

Abstract: MRI head scan images contains some non-brain tissues and it is necessary to remove these non-brain tissues for further processing. The Brain Extraction Tool (BET) is one of the most popular brain segmentation technique which removes the non-brain tissues in MRI head scan volumes. It is a simple and robust brain extraction method. It is a boundary based method and uses deformable surface to detect brain boundaries. Due to its over smoothing capabilities it always under-segment the brain images by including more non-brain tissues in its final segmentation. The aim of this proposed method is to overcome the problems encountered with the existing BET method by using the marker-controlled watershed segmentation.

[1] Smith SM., Fast Robust Automated Brain Extraction, Human Brain Mapping, 17(3), 2002, 143-155.
[2] Shattuck DW, Sandor-Leahy SR, Schaper KA, Rottenberg DA, Leahy RM., Magnetic Resonance Image Tissue Classification using a Partial Volume Model, Neuroimage, 13(5), 2001, 856-876.
[3] Hahn HK, Peitgen HO., The Skull Stripping Problem in MRI Solved by Single 3D Watershed Transform, Proc. of Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), LNCS, 1935, 2000, 134-143.
[4] Segonne F, Dale AM, Busa E, Glessner M, Salat D, Hahn HK, Fischl B., A Hybrid Approach to the Skull Stripping Problem in MRI, Neuroimage, 22, 2004, 1060-1075.
[5] Sadananthan AS, Zheng W, Chee WL, Zagorodnov V., Skull Stripping using Graph Cuts, Neuroimage,49, 2010, 225-239.
[6] Somasundaram, K. and Kalavathi. P., Automatic Skull Stripping of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of Human Head Scans using Image Contour, (Image Processing, Allied Publisher, New Delhi, 2010), 147-151.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Growth and Development Strategy of It Software and Service Industry
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh kumar
: 10.9790/0661-1658112134     logo

Abstract: Information Technology (IT), a knowledge-based industry, has the tremendous potential of becoming an engine of accelerated economic growth, productivity improvement for all sectors of the economy and means of efficient governance. It enhances access to information, protects consumers, provides access to government services, makes skill formation and training more effective, improves delivery health services, and promotes transparency. It provides tremendous employment potential and linkages between government and the people both at the rural and urban level. Investment in knowledgebased industries will determine the level of the country's dominant position in the world economy in the next two decades.

[1]. Arora, Ashish, V. S. Arunachalam, Jai Asundi and Ronald Fernandes (2001a), The Indian Software Service Industry, Research Policy, 30, 1267-1287.
[2]. Arora, Ashish and Suma Athreye (2002), The Software Industry and India's Economic Development, Information Economics and Policy, 14, 253-273.
[3]. Arora, Ashish, Alfonso Gambardella and Salvatore Torrisi (2001b), In the footsteps of the Silicon Valley? Indian and Irish Software in the International Division of Labour, chapter presented at the conference, ‗Silicon Valley and its Imitators', Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, July 2000.
[4]. Bajpai, Nirupam and Anupama Dokeniya (1999), Information Technology-Led Growth Policies: A Case Study of Tamil Nadu, Development Discussion Chapter No. 729, October, Harvard Institute for International Development.
[5]. Banerjee, Abhijit V. and Esther Duflo (2000), Reputation Effects and the Limits of Contracting: A Study of the Indian Software Industry, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115,3, 989-1017.



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