IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Sep – Oct 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 5

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8 Ver 9

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Password-oriented Image Encryption with multiple dependent factors.
Country : India
Authors : Ishaan Agarwal
: 10.9790/0661-16560103     logo

Abstract: The goal of this project was to develop a password-based image encryption algorithm that would be virtually safe from brute-force attacks, resulting in an image that would have no recognizable pattern. The algorithms designed were implemented in a java program. To increase the security of the algorithm, dual encryption keys generated based on the user's password are used and have an increased number of factors dependent upon the password. Apart from the pixel values, the location of pixels and the number of cycles of encryption, which the image will undergo, are also based on the password entered.

Keywords: Image Encryption, RGB, Shifting, Image Entropy

[1] Feng Liu and ChuanKun Wu, Optimal XOR based (2,n)-Visual Cryptography Schemes,International Association for Cryptologic Research, 2010, 545.

[2] Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan(November 1, 2013),"NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say",The Washington Post.

[3] Jolly Shah and Dr. VikasSaxena, Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes, International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 4, No. 1, July 2011.
[4] Paar, Christof; Pelzl, Jan; Preneel, Bart (2010).Understanding Cryptography: A Textbook for Students and Practitioners. Springer. ISBN 3-642-04100-0.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Teneur: A LINUX based offline content management system
Country : India
Authors : Das Gupta Debasmita , Ganguly Sridisha , Paul Maumita , Saha Arunima
: 10.9790/0661-16560414     logo

Abstract: This technical section provides a brief synopsis about our offline content management system. The main purpose of this system is to manage the resources such as text files, images in a more synchronized manner. This system is also capable of administering over the messages send to and received from different users. The basic concept is that whenever a user signs up with his login id and password a new folder is automatically created with his id name. And then the user can access this area specified to him to store his belongings. The different operations that can be done can be divided into modules. The first module is TEXT. One can open his own files or may want to view some other user's files. But he can do so only if he has the permission granted to him by the other user. This feature provides security to the contents. One may also add different text files within a specific file size limit. If enough memory is not present then he has an option to delete files either by his choice or the administrator will delete the most less frequently used files to accommodate the space for new files. The files will be stored in the folders specified by their extensions. The second module is IMAGE. All the above mentioned operations performed with text files can also be implemented on Image files. The third module is concerned about MESSAGES. Just like the e-mailing system a user can send and receive messages from other users. He can also search for messages by date or by sender's name. An additional feature provided is that if a user wants to copy or transfer his contents or create a backup of his directory then he can do it easily by compressing his files in zipped format. The methodology section shows its functionality in details. Hence this system provides a comprehensive and efficient administration of annals so that manipulation and storage becomes easy.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Alphabet Recognition for Deaf-Blind People
Country : India
Authors : Yuvraj Singh Rathore , Charvi Mittal , Avik Basu
: 10.9790/0661-16561520     logo

Abstract: This paper aims to present a system to aid deaf-blind people in communicating with the outside world efficiently and help ease their burden. They often find it difficult to interact with others and experience inability to perform daily life activities. The algorithm proposed in this paper recognizes various hand gestures performed by user in the form of alphabets in front of the integrated camera. These are tracked using image and video processing techniques and the character is further detected using pattern recognition. A feedback mechanism has been also employed for achieving high accuracy. The above algorithm was implemented using OpenCV 2.4.9 and Beaglebone Black. The proposed method is user friendly and it will translate hand gestures into meaningful characters with high efficiency.

Keywords: Object Detection, Object Tracking, Pattern Recognition, Real Time Image Processing

[1] Y. Ouerhania, M. Jridia, A. Alfaloua, C. Brosseaub ,Optimized pre-processing input plane GPU implementation of an optical face recognition technique using a segmented phase only composite filter, Optics Communications, Volume 289, 15 February 2013, Pages 33–44.

[2] Poniga, F., Nedevschi, S., Processing Dense Stereo Data Using Elevation Maps: Road Surface, Traffic Isle, and Obstacle Detection, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, (Volume:59 , Issue: 3 ) , March 2010.

[3] Scharcanski, Jacob, Celebi, M. Emre, Computer Vision Techniques for the Diagnosis of Skin Cancer, ISBN: 978-3-642-39607-6

[4] Le Hoang Thai, Ha Nhat Tam, Face recognition using standardized fingerprint model, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 3, No 7, May 2010, ISSN (Online): 1694-0784, ISSN (Print): 1694-0814.

[5] Overview on Deaf-Blindness, National Center on Deaf-Blindness, Oct 1, 2008

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : EEG Subband Analysis using Approximate Entropy for the Detection of Epilepsy
Country : India
Authors : G.R.Kiranmayi , V. Udayashankara
: 10.9790/0661-16562127     logo

Abstract: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which affects the nervous system. Epileptic seizures are due to sudden hyperactivity in certain parts of the brain. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the commonly used modality for the detection of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection helps in diagnosis and monitoring of epilepsy especially during long term recordings of EEG. This paper presents non linear analysis of EEG for the detection of epilepsy using approximate entropy (ApEn). The proposed method involves ApEn measured from EEG subbands applied as features to an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. The ApEn measured from delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma subbands of normal EEG, ictal and inter ictal EEGs are used as features. In the present work detection of epilepsy is considered as a two class problem. In the first case the classification is done between normal and ictal EEGs and in the second case, classification is done between normal and inter ictal EEGs. For both cases artificial neural networks with back propagation training are used as classifiers. The classification accuracy of 100% is obtained for normal and ictal groups and that of 98.9% is obtained for normal and inters ictal EEGs.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG), ictal and inter ictal EEG, approximate entropy, neural network classifier

[1] Saeid Sanei and J.A Chambers, "EEG Signal Processing", John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 2007.

[2] G.R.Kiranmayi, V.Udayashankara, "Neural Network classifier for the detection of Epilepsy", proceedings of the International IEEE Conference on Circuits, controls and communications , CCUBE 2013, pp 1-4,27 - 28, December 2013.

[3] H. Adeli, S.G.Dastidar, and N. Dadmehr, "A Wavelet-Chaos Methodology for Analysis of EEGs and EEG Subbands to Detect Seizure and Epilepsy", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp 205-211, February 2007.

[4] S.G.Dastidar, H. Adeli and N. Dadmehr, "Mixed-Band Wavelet-Chaos-Neural Network Methodology for Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizure Detection", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 54, N0. 9, pp 1545-1551, September 2007.

[5] S.G.Dastidar, H. Adeli, and N. Dadmehr, "Principal Component Analysis-Enhanced Cosine Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Robust Epilepsy and Seizure Detection", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp 512-518, February 2008. [6] Ozbeyaz, A., Gursoy M.I. Coban R ., "Regularization and Kernel Parameters Optimization based on PSO algorithm in EEG Signals Classification with SVM ", Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications (SIU), pp 399 – 402, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Prospects & Problems Of Information Technology In The Banking Industry In Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Kadiri Kamoru O.
: 10.9790/0661-16562835     logo

Abstract: This study looks into prospects and issues of data technology within the Nigeria banking industry. Data technology has been acknowledged as a life wire of banks within the monetary sector because it promotes and facilitates the performance of banks in various countries. However, with reference to IT security in Nigeria, there's a variation within the level of trust that customers have in their banks. Most of the sampled customers responded that network is unreliable and there's an occasional shortage|of money deduction, unable to dispense, insufficient funds and alot of other vices while using ATM machine in Nigeria. They noted that IT security may be a major downside to banking in Nigeria and therefore the industry isn't stable enough for e-banking. Numerous customers were sampled from 9 totally different banks in Nigeria mistreatment accidental sampling technique and form was used as knowledge assortment instrument. Whereas four hundred and fifty (450) questionnaires were distributed to respondents, however solely three hundred and sixty (360) were retrieved. The study discovered that data technology has vital result on the bank productivity, cashiers' work, banking transactions, bank patronage, bank services delivery, client services and bank services. These have an effect on the expansion and development of the industry completely. Customers can currently withdraw money through the ATM machines in any part of the country. Customers don't have to be compelled to move regarding with huge sums of money anymore; customers also are being attended to inside the Bnking hall within a reseaonable time frame with advent of IT In the light of the above the paper advice that the ability banking sector ought to be deregulated along with the independence of the country.

Keywords: Information technology, Security, E-Banking, Banking industries, Nigeria

[1]. E. J. Ofanson (PhD); O. M. Aigbokhaevbolo (PhD) and G. O. Enabulu (2010). The financial system in Nigeria: An overview of banking sector reforms. AAU JMS Vol. 1, No. 1, December 2010.
[2]. Harold, B. & Jeff, L. (1995): 'Don't Let Technology Pass You By', ABA Banking Journal, Box 986, Omaha, NE, p.73
[3]. Muyiwa O., Tunmibi S., and John-Dewole A.T., (2013). Impact of cashless economy in Nigeria. Greener Journal of Internet, Information and Communication Systems. Vol. 1 (2), pp. 040-043, April 2013.
[4]. Woherem, E. W. (2000): Information Technology in the Nigerian Banking Industry, Spectrum, Ibadan.
[5]. Agboola, A. A. (2006). Electronic Payment Systems and Tele-banking Services in Nigeria, Journal of Internet

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Texture Classification Technique Based on Semi Uniform LBP
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Y venkateswarlu , Dr. U Ravi Babu , Ch Aneel Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-16563642     logo

Abstract: Local Binary Pattern' (LBP) operator has been proved to be a theoretically simple yet very effective statistical texture descriptor in many areas. One of the main disadvantage of LBP is they are more sensitive to even a simple noise, this causes a change in LBP pattern. A LBP can generate 256 (0 to 255) different patterns. These patterns are grouped into 59 uniform and 197 nonuniform LBP patterns. Most of the researchers have considered only uniform patterns for texture classification due to their small numbers and claiming that most of the textures are dominated by only uniform LBP's. But after a careful, critical and significant study on the literature, ULBP have some shortcomings: they discard some important texture information, suffer much from non-monotonic illumination variation and do not describe the stochastic characteristics of texture efficiently and sensitive to noise. To overcome this, the present paper defined 'Semi Uniform LBP' (SULBP). The proposed method has a significant role in efficient texture classification and analysis.

Keywords: Local Binary Pattern, Semi Uniform LBP, texture analysis and classification

[1] T., Pietikäinen M., Mäenpää T., ―Multi-resolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns‖, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal., vol.24, pp.971–987, 2002.
[2] Abdolhossein Fathi, Ahmad Reza Naghsh-Nilchi, ―Noise tolerant local binary pattern operator for efficient texture analysis‖, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol.33, pp.1093–1100, 2012.
[3] Ahonen T., Hadid A., Pietikäinen M., ―Face description with local binary patterns: application to face recognition‖, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.28(12), pp.2037–2041, 2006.
[4] Antonio Fern´andez, Ovidiu Ghita, Elena Gonz´alez, Francesco Bianconi, Paul F. Whelan, ―Evaluation of robustness against rotation of LBP, CCR and ILBP features in granite texture classification‖, Machine Vision and Applications, 2011.
[5] Eswara Reddy B., Chandra Sekhar Reddy P., Vijaya Kumar V., ―Texton based shape features on local binary pattern for age classification‖, Int. Jour. graphics and signal processing, pp.110-116, 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Risk Management in Agile Model
Country : India
Authors : Monika Singh , Ruhi Saxena
: 10.9790/0661-16564346     logo

Abstract: In traditional waterfall-model risks were usually managed by using project risk management frameworks. Nowadays agile methods have started replacing the traditional models. Agile development is based on short iteration cycles, which allow them to respond to changes in business environment. This paper focus on use of risk management in AGILE model.

Keyword: Agile Model, Scrum, Risk, Risk Management.




Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Secure Anonymous Communication Protocol in MANET based on Destinations Location
Country : India
Authors : Jyothis B. Kallada , Renjith George
: 10.9790/0661-16564754     logo

Abstract: The protocols and cryptographic techniques used in MANET are intended to provide complete security to the data transmitted with low cost. In hostile environments, as a part of providing security to data; the source, destination and route of the data need to be anonymous. Prior works do not provide complete anonymity protection along with security, reduced network overhead and cost, sever side security and efficient utilization of resources. So "An Efficient Secure Anonymous Communication Protocol in MANET based on Destination's Location is proposed". This paper "An Efficient Secure Anonymous Communication Protocol in MANET based on Destinations Location" uses a technique called one-hop-distance; one-hop-distance along with public key encryption technique provides security of data and anonymity of route and destination. To provide source anonymity, this paper presents the concept of a proxy node. The technique one hop distance presents in this paper can also prevent different types of attacks such as intersection attack, black hole attack etc…, and can reduce the network overhead and cost of data transmission. Their by the resources in MANET can be efficiently utilized to the maximum.

Key words: MANET, anonymity, hop, GPSR, Hostile Environment

[1] L. Zhao and H. Shen, "ALERT: An Anonymous Location-Based Efficient Routing Protocol in MANETs," proc. Int‟l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP), 2011.
[2] Z. Zhi and Y.K. Choong, "Anonymizing Geographic Ad Hoc Routing for Preserving Location Privacy," Proc. Third Int‟l Workshop Mobile Distributed Computing (ICDCSW), 2005.
[3] K.E. Defrawy and G.Tsudik, "ALARM: Anonymous Location-Aided Routing in Suspicious MANETs," proc. IEEE Int‟l Conf. Networks Protocols (ICNP), 2007.
[4] Y.–C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D.B. Johnson, "Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 11, pp. 21-38, 2005.
[5] C.-C. Chou, D.S.L. Wei, C.-C. Jay Kuo, and K.Naik, "An Efficient Anonymous Communication Protocol for Peer-to-Peer Applications over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 192-203, Jan.2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Collaborative data sharing in online social network resolving privacy risk and sharing loss
Country : India
Authors : Nithya Sara Joseph
: 10.9790/0661-16565561     logo

Abstract: Nowadays, Online Social Networks (OSNs) is popular all over the world. Millions of people join such networks to share their personal and public information and also to make new friends and relations. But there arises several security and privacy issues related to these network since users may have contact with persons who are known to them as well as unknown to them. There are many mechanisms to provide privacy on shared data but enforcing privacy concerns over data associated with multiple users is of great concern as there are chances for privacy risk and data sharing loss. In this paper, privacy setting for a shared data is discussed where multiple users, other than owner, who shares the same data can provide their own privacy policies on shared data.. Privacy conflicts are resolved using a conflict resolution mechanism which will calculate the privacy risk and sharing loss associated with each controller. Thus in this paper a systematic solution that facilitate collaborative management of shared data in OSNs and a conflict detection and resolution mechanism to cope with privacy conflicts in data sharing is addressed.

Keywords: Access control, Data sharing, Privacy conflict, Social network

[1] Facebook Developers.

[2] Facebook Privacy Policy, htttp://

[3] G. Ahn and H. Hu. Towards realizing a formal rbac model in real systems. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM symposium on Access control models and technologies pages 215–224. ACM, 2007.

[4] G. Ahn,H. Hu, J. Lee, and Y.Meng. Representing and reasoning about web access control policies. In Computer Software and Applications Conference(COMPSAC),2010.IEEE 34th Annual, pages 137–146. IEEE , 2010.

[5] B. Carminati and E. Ferrari. Collaborative access control in online social networks. In Proceeding of the 7thInternational Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applicationsand Worksharing pages 231–240. IEEE, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Multi-Purpose Voice Controlled System on Android Platform
Country : India
Authors : Shreya Dugar , Harsh Gupta
: 10.9790/0661-16566268     logo

Abstract: This paper describes a method which helps in making Android operating system based mobile phone detect a voice command and perform the operation accordingly. We also introduce a new secured backup and restore approach for messages from the SMS logs, which helps to reduce the effort in saving and restoring them manually. Our approach is minimize time in efficient way for backup and restoring the data in the phone using android platform. We have used our own optimized and secured encryption and decryption technique to store and retrieve messages. It can also check the nearest ATM's, Hospitals etc, by sending and comparing the GPS location of the mobile phone to that stored in the database .

Keywords: GPS, Encryption and Decryption, SMS log, voice commands, data base.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparative Study On The Performance CharacteristicsOf Sudoku Solving Algorithms
Country : India
Authors : Sankhadeep Chatterjee , Saubhik Paladhi , Raktim Chakraborty
: 10.9790/0661-16566977     logo

Abstract: Solving Sudoku, a NP-Complete combinatorial optimization problem has been carried out using the optimized Graph Referencing Algorithm (GRA),Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), Harmony Search (HS) and Brute Force algorithm. The present study is primarily aimed at finding out the fastest algorithm in terms of least time consumption in solving Sudoku. The performance characteristics of algorithms of interest are studied by deploying randomly selected puzzles with different difficulty levels. The comparative performance characteristics study reveals the superiority of the Graph Referencing algorithm over the other algorithms in taking least possible time to solve Sudoku.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm,Graph Referencing algorithm, Harmony Search, Simulated Annealing, Sudoku

[1]. Wikipedia: Sudoku. Available via www: (16.08.2014)
[2]. Yato, T. and T. Seta.: Complexity and Completeness of Finding Another Solution and Its Application to Puzzles, IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, Vol. E86-A, No. 5, pp. 1052-1060 (2003)

[3]. Lewis, R., Metaheuristics can solve sudoku puzzles. Journal of heuristics, 13(4), 387-401, (2007)
[4]. Xu, J.: Using backtracking method to solve Sudoku puzzle, Computer Programming Skills & Maintenance, 5, pp. 17-21 (2009).
[5]. Chakraborty, R., Paladhi, S., Chatterjee, S., Banerjee, S.: An Optimized Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Problems using Reference Graph, IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, 16(3), pp. 1-7 (2014)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Building Of Smart Systems Using Mechatronic Engineering: A Case Study Of "Smart Door‟ System.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Jonathan O. Obande , Garba M. Rabiu , John D. Galadima
: 10.9790/0661-16567884     logo

Abstract: Often, Mechanical, Electrical and Software Engineers in many companies live and work from different locations. In some cases, they may be in the same building or the same office but live in different worlds, speaking different languages and therefore, cannot effectively communicate with one other when it comes to product design or problem solving; simply because they come from different backgrounds knowing very little about other disciplines. For instance, when the Mechanical Engineers design a system, they pass it over to the Electrical/Electronic Engineers to design and fit the control system and they in turn roll it over to the Software Engineers to write the control program. This serial and disjointed engineering practice results in producing and un-optimized product or solution. To overcome these difficulties, Mechatronics evolved as a trans-disciplinary approach to solving engineering problems based on open communication systems and concurrent practices, to design better engineering products. This paper describes the building of smart systems using mechatronics command set; the Flowcode programming software was used in coding instruction into the PIC Microprocessor 16F877A.

Keywords: Mechatronics, Flowcode, Microcontroller, Servo motor

[1] Isremann, R, Mechatronic Systems Fundamentals. Spring-verlag London Ltd. 2005

[2] Craig, J, Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control, 2nd edn. (Reading: Addison-wesley, 1989)

[3] AIM IEEE/ASME Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics. Atlanta (1999), Como (2001), Kobe(2003)

[4.] SENSORS- The Journal of Applied Sensing Technology, Advanstar Communications Inc.

[5] Dorf, R.C., Bishop, R.H, Modern control systems, 9th edn. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,).

[6.] PIC microcontroller Data Sheet, Microchip.

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