IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Mar - Apr 2014Volume 16 - Issue 2

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modified Rabin Cryptosystem through Advanced Key
Distribution System
Country : India
Authors : Rajdeep Chakraborty , Sibendu Biswas, JK Mandal
: 10.9790/0661-162120107    logo
Abstract: In this paper, an asymmetric cryptosystem Rabin Cryptosystem has been modified by adding an advanced message authentication system with it. The proposed modified Rabin Cryptosystem is a combination of symmetric and asymmetric key cryptosystem that is hybrid cryptosystem. In the symmetric part, the sender and the receiver share a secret key between themselves which is added with the plaintext to change the plaintext. The shared secret key is fixed for a session between two users.
[1] Naiara Escudero Sanchez, The Rabin Cryptosystem. University of Paderborn
[2] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, Fifth Edition, 2011.)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secured Cloud Information Accountability for Data Sharing Using Identity Based Encryption Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Rohan M. Bangar, Prof. B. B. Gite
: 10.9790/0661-162120812    logo

Abstract: Cloud Computing provides scalable services which can be used by user on a need basis. These services can be accessed through the internet. User stores important data (mainly, financial and health data) on server. This data is processed by the remote server which will be unknown to the user. Providing security is the main challenge for cloud services. To address this problem, we propose a framework which will keep record of the usage of the data in the cloud. Mainly it is an object-centered approach which helps to enable logging mechanism for the data. We provide the JAR mechanism which helps to create dynamic and travelling objects. These travelling objects will be used for authentication for the access of the data. To provide security, we have introduced auditing mechanisms, data possession for integrity verification and identity based encryption algorithm.

Keywords: About Accountability, Cloud Computing, Data sharing.

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[3]. E. Barka and A. Lakas, "Integrating Usage Control with SIP-Based Communications," J. Computer Systems, Networks, and Comm.,vol. 2008,pp. 1-8, 2008.
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[5]. R. Bose and J. Frew, "Lineage Retrieval for Scientific Data Processing: A Survey," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 37, pp. 1-28, Mar. 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study of Ids for Manet
Country : India
Authors : R Ranjani, JJayalakshmi
: 10.9790/0661-162121418    logo

Abstract:Nevertheless, the exposed medium and wide distribution of nodes make MANET vulnerable to malicious attackers. In this situation, it is necessary to develop efficient intrusion-detection mechanisms to protect MANET from attacks. Since MANETs is used in many applications it isnecessary to provide more security. In this paper, we suggest and implement a new intrusion-detection system named Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment (EAACK) with cluster based communicationspecifically designed for MANETs. Compared to current approaches, EAACK with cluster based communication demonstrates higher malicious-behavior-detection rates in certain environments.

[1]. R. H. Akbani, S. Patel, and D. C. Jinwala,―DoS attacks in mobile ad hoc networks: A survey,‖ in Proc. 2nd Int. Meeting ACCT, Rohtak, Haryana,India, 2012,pp. 535–541.
[2]. T. Anantvalee and J. Wu, ―A Survey on Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,‖ in Wireless/Mobile Security. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2008,.
[3]. K. Liu, J. Deng, P. K. Varshney, and K. Balakrishnan,―An acknowledgment-based approach for the detection of routing misbehaviourin MANETs,‖ IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., 2007,vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 536–550.
[4]. N. Nasser and Y. Chen,―Enhanced intrusion detection systems for discovering malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc network,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int.Conf. Commun., Glasgow, Scotland, 2007,pp. 1154–1159.
[5]. J. Parker, J. Undercoffer, J. Pinkston, and A. Joshi,―On intrusion detection and response for mobile ad hoc networks,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf.Perform., Comput.,Commun., 2004,pp. 747–752.
[6]. Elhadi M. Shakshuki, Nan Kang, and Tarek R. Sheltami, ―EAACK—A Secure Intrusion-Detection System for MANETs,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind Electron.,2013, Vol. 60, no. 3.
[7]. A. Patwardhan, J. Parker, A. Joshi, M. Iorga, and T. Karygiannis,―Secure routing and intrusion detection in ad hoc networks,‖ in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf.Pervasive Comput. Commun.,2005,pp. 191–199.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Sdrp for Wsn Using Diffie – Hellman Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Geetha. J, Jayalakshmi. J
: 10.9790/0661-162121923    logo

Abstract:Wireless Sensor Network is a group of wireless nodes exclusively designed for the continuous sensing of information at human inaccessible locates. Reprogramming is a definite need at such situations when the monitoring conditions vary according to the environmental changes or other user requirements. Insecure transmission of reprogramming code to such areas can ruin the entire operation of the network. To avoid this, Secure and Distributive Reprogramming Protocol (SDRP) was proposed for user privilege maintenance. In this paper, Diffie-Hellman key(DH) exchange mechanism is implemented as an enhancement to the existing method to further improve security between the forwarding nodes. A network simulator simulation analysis and discussion is provided for the proposed SDRP-DH.

[1]. V. C. Gungor and G. P. Hancke, Oct. 2009 "Industrial wireless sensor networks: Challenges, design principles, and technical approaches," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4258–4265.
[2]. V. C. Gungor, B. Lu, and G. P. Hancke, Oct. 2010 "Opportunities and challenges of wireless sensor networks in smart grid," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3557–3564.
[3]. J. Chen, X. Cao, P. Cheng, Y. Xiao, and Y. Sun, Dec. 2010 "Distributed collaborative control for industrial automation with wireless sensor and actuator networks," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4219–4230.
[4]. X. Cao, J. Chen, Y. Xiao, and Y. Sun, Nov. 2010 "Building-environment control with wireless sensor and actuator networks: Centralized versus distributed," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3596–3604.
[5]. H. Song, V. Shin, and M. Jeon, Nov. 2010 "Mobile node localization using fusion prediction-based interacting multiple model in cricket sensor network," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 4349–4359.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey Paper on PEGASIS: Energy Conservation in Heterogeneous Environment
Country : India
Authors : Bhatt Bhargavi, Prof. Chandresh R. Parekh
: 10.9790/0661-162122428    logo

Abstract: Wireless sensor network is vast area for research. Because of scarce resources, energy consumption and battery lifetime is crucial aspects in WSN. So with the help of routing protocol, improvement can be done. More energy can be conserved and network lifetime can be improved by modifying the existing protocols. Power Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information System (PEGASIS) is an improvement of hierarchical protocol. It mainly focuses on network lifetime. It uses chaining construction and data gathering approach to communicate. Aggregated data will pass on to the head node and it will pass the data to the base station. This paper introduces the PEGASIS, discusses the related previous work. New aspect of PEGASIS in heterogeneous environment is proposed. The new scheme is proposed in order to conserve energy.

[1] Evolution-of-wireless-sensor-networks, Silicon Labs
[2] An Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks, Bhaskar Krishnamachari
[3] Wireless Sensor Networks: Motivation, Progress, and Challenges Tracy Camp Colorado School of Mines.
[4] Prof. Dr. Dieter Hogrefe Dr. Omar Alfandi, wireless ad hoc and sensor network
[5] Shio Kumar Singh,M P Singh,D K Singh," A Survey of Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks"

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Organizational Strategies & Social Interaction Influence in Software Development Effort Estimation
Country : India
Authors : B V A N S S Prabhakar Rao & P Seetharamaiah
: 10.9790/0661-162122940    logo

Abstract: In software development cost estimation, effort allocation is an important and usually challenging task for project management. This paper observes the use of concepts in software effort estimation by analyzing group work with organizational strategies as outgoing practice. The purpose is to improve our understanding of how software professionals raise different types of information when talking, way of thinking and reaching a decision on a software effort estimate. Software effort estimation is a core task regarding planning, budgeting and controlling software development projects.

[1] G. R. Finnie, G.E. Wittig and J-M. Desharnais, "A Comparison of Software Effort Estimation Techniques: Using Function Points with Neural Networks, Case-Based Reasoning and Regression Models", J. Systems Software, Elsevier Science Inc, 1997; 39: 281-289.
[2] Hahn-Ming Lee and Bing-Hui Lu, "FUZZY BP: A Neural Network Model with Fuzzy Inference", IEEE, 0-7803-1901-X/94, Pp. 1583-1588.
[3] Girish H. Subramanian and Steven Breslawski, "An Empirical Analysis of Software Effort Estimate Alterations", Elsevier Science Inc, J. SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 1995; 31:135-141.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Brain Computer Interface
Country : India
Authors : Spardha Taneja Jyotika Dingra Ruchika Khaitan
: 10.9790/0661-162124147    logo

Abstract: The Brain computer interface is one of the most enchanting breakthrough for the society as a whole, as it is set to benefit the technical industry, medical word and even the military. This interface is concerned with the control of devices surrounding our environment such as the computing gears and even automobiles in the near future without any physical intervention from the user. It can be utilized as a tool which helps to bridge the communication gap between the society and the disabled. It's prime focus will be on people suffering from brainstem stroke, a spinal cord injury or even blindness.

[1]. Emotiv: EEG Systems
[2]. About BCIs
[3]. HowStuffWorks: Brain Computer Interfaces
[4]. How FMRI Works
[5]. Using Electrocorticography speech for BCI
[6]. Gaining Access To Brain at $300 only
[7]. Mind Controlled Robots
[8]. Surrogates (2009)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Game Theory Modal Based On Cloud Computing For Public Cloud
Country : India
Authors : S. Hemachander , Harikrishna, R. Backiyalakshmi
: 10.9790/0661-162124853    logo

Abstract: Cloud computing promises to increase the velocity with which applications are deployed, increase innovation, and lower costs, all while increasing business agility. This paper discusses how cloud computing Load balancing is done in public cloud. Load balancing in the cloud computing environment has an important impact on the performance. Load balancing makes cloud computing more efficient and improves user satisfaction. This paper introduces a better load balance model for the public cloud based on the cloud partitioning concept. A switch mechanism to choose different strategies for different situations. The game theory algorithm applies here to improve the efficiency of the load balancing strategy in the public cloud environment

Key words: game theory; load balancing model; public cloud; cloud partition

[1]. N. G. Shivaratri, P. Krueger, and M. Singhal, "Load distributing for locally distributed systems", Computer, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 33-44, Dec. 1992.

[2]. R. X. T. and X. F. Z.. "A Load Balancing Strategy Based on the Combination of Static and Dynamic, in Database Technology and Applications (DBTA)", 2010 2nd International Workshop (2010), pp. 1-4

[3]. B. Adler, Load balancing in the cloud: Tools, tips and techniques, loud.pdf, 2012

[4]. Google Trends, Cloud computing,, 2012.

[5]. N. G. Shivaratri, P. Krueger, and M. Singhal, Load distributing for locally distributed systems, Computer, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 33-44, Dec. 1992.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Systematic Combined Approach to Prolong the Life Time of Heterogeneous WSN without Compromising the Performance
Country : India
Authors : Aminur Rahman, Rajbhupinder Kaur, Sanjib Das
: 10.9790/0661-162125466    logo

Abstract: Having seen the robust advantages of Wireless Sensor Network applications, many research works has been done to prolong the life time of the network. The objective of our research work is also to find out a novel approach for synergetic improvement into the life time of WSN. Most of the approach mainly used only single technique to increase the life. In our research subject we have searched that "Is the systematic combination of more than one technique can provide more improvement?" In this paper we have proposed "A Systematic Combined Approach" which combines multiple static and dynamic techniques.

[1]. S Taruna, Sakshi Shringi: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Prolonging Network Lifetime in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks, Published by International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, ISSN: 2277 128X, Volume 3, Issue 4, April,(2013).
[2]. Andreas Reinhardt, Daniel Burgstahler: Exploiting Platform Heterogeneity in Wireless Sensor Networks by Shifting Resource-Intensive Tasks to Dedicated Processing Nodes. In the Proceeding of 14th IEEE International Symposium on a world of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (Wow Mom), IEEE Press, June, (2013).
[3]. Adamu Murtala Zungeru et al. "Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks" Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Sensors, (2013).
[4]. Jiau-Jian-Liaw, Lin-Haung Chang, Hung Chi Chu; "Improving Life Time in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network with energy Efficient Grouping Protocol", Publish at International journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Volume 8, number 9,(2012)..
[5]. Fabio Engel et al., "Relay Selection Methods for Maximizing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks", presented on IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC), (2013).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : GBC-TD: Gateway Based Congestion and Traffic Distribution Model for Load Sharing in WMN
Country : India
Authors : Shilpi Shukla, Prof (Dr.) Jayant Shekhar, , Amit Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-162126772    logo

Abstract: Effective communication can be categorized by its approaches used to handles the uncertainties and especially in wireless medium. Wireless mesh network is one of the ad-hoc networks having huge applicability with variety of protocols supporting different routing situations. Load balancing over the gateway is one of the key issues related to optimal routing in WMN. In case of multiple networks inter communication; WMN suffers from the gateway selection problem and its load distribution commonly taken as NP-Hard complexity. Mainly these gateway nodes are having the maximum traffic flows due to their central locations and bridge functionality, also the traffic distribution is uneven at those gateways.

[1] Venkata Ganji, "Gateway Selection Scheme for Throughput Optimization in Multi-radio Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Networks Under Physical Interference Model" in Department of Computer Science Montana State Unviversity – Bozeman, 2012.
[2] Emilio Ancillotti, Raffaele Bruno & Marco Conti, "Load-balanced Routing and Gateway Selection in Wireless Mesh Networks: Design, Implementation and Experimentation" in IEEE Transaction, ISSN 978-1-4244-7265-9/10, 2010.
[3] Prashanth A. K. Acharya, David L. Johnson & Elizabeth M. Belding, "Gateway-aware Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks" in Dept of CSE, University of California.
[4] Shigeto Tajima, Teruo Higashino, Nobuo Funabiki & Shoji Yoshida, "An Internet Gateway Access-Point Selection Problem forWireless Infrastructure Mesh Networks" in GSIST, Osaka University.
[5] Deepti Nandiraju, Lakshmi Santhanam, Nagesh Nandiraju, & Dharma P. Agrawal, "Achieving Load Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks Through Multiple Gateways" in IEEE Transaction 1-4244-0507-6/06, 2006.
[6] Juan J Galvez, Pedro M. Ruiz & Antonio F.G. Skarmeta, "A Distributed Algorithm for Gateway Load-Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks" in IEEE Transaction, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : CTV: Consistent Trust Value through Data Drop Monitoring Parameters Based Malicious Behaviour Detection in MANET
Country : India
Authors : Siddharth Shukla, Prof (Dr.) Jayant Shekhar, Amit Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-162127379    logo

Abstract: Growth of wireless technologies with its increased user demands of applications makes this area more vulnerable for attackers and intruders. The attacker continuously trying to affects the communication and getting the benefits from gamming the network with higher data drop rates. Among them, the most famous and dangerous attacks is blackhole by which a node starts dropping a data and behaving as a normal node. During the last few years various solutions are provided for overcoming the active and passive blackhole detection and termed as malicious node detections. Any node, affecting the actual performance or operation of network will be termed as malicious node and blackhole is its one category.

[1] D He, C Chen, S Chen, J Bu & A B. Vasilakos, "ReTrust: Attack Resistant & Lightweight Trust Management for Medical Sensor Network" in IEEE Transaction on IT in vol: - 16, No 4, July 2012.
[2] Z Min & Z Jiliu, "Cooperative Black Hole Attack Prevention for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks" in IEEE Transaction ISBN 978-0-7695-3686-6/09, 2009.
[3] S Ramaswamy, H Fu, M Sreekantaradhya, J Dixon & K Nygard, "Prevention of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" in Department of Computer Science, IACC 258, 2008.
[4] K E Defrawy & G Tsudik, "Privacy-Preserving Location-Based On-Demand Routing in MANETs" in IEEE Transaction of selected Journal in communication, Vol 29 Issue 10, Dec 2011.
[5] Xu Li, R Lu, X Liang, & X Shen, "Side Channel Monitoring: Packet Drop Attack Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" in IEEE ICC, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Bus Tracking System Using Gps on Smart Phones
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Pradip Suresh Mane, Prof. Vaishali Khairnar
: 10.9790/0661-162128082    logo

Abstract: Public transport networks (PTNs) are difficult to use when the user is unfamiliar with the area they are traveling to. This is true for both infrequent users (including visitors) and regular users who need to travel to areas with which they are not acquainted. In these situations, adequate on-trip navigation information can substantially ease the use of public transportation and be the driving factor in motivating travellers to prefer it over other modes of transportation.

1]. Ana Aguiar, Francisco Maria Cruz Nunes., "Leveraging Electronic Ticketing to Provide Personalized Navigation in a Public Transport Network." IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 213–220, Mar. 2012
[2]. B. Ferris, K. Watkins, and A. Borning, "Location-aware tools for improving public transit usability," IEEE Pervasive Comput., vol. 9, no. 1,pp. 13–19, Jan.–Mar. 2010.
[3]. B.Caulfield and M.O'Mahony,"An examination of the public transport information requirements of users," IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21–30, Mar. 2007
[4]. M.Arikaa,S.Konomi,andK.Ohnishi,"Navitime:Supporting pedestrian navigation in the real world," IEEE Pervasive Comput., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 21–29, Jul.–Sep. 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A New DCT based Color Video Watermarking using Luminance Component
Country : India
Authors : Jaya Jeswani, Dr. Tanuja Sarode
: 10.9790/0661-162128390    logo

Abstract: This paper presents a new blind secure video watermarking algorithm using DCT (discrete cosine transform). In this proposed algorithm cover video is divided into frames and watermark is inserted into selected frames. For selected video frames two-dimensional 8×8 discrete cosine transform is carried out on luminance component. Finally binary watermark is embedded into mid frequency DC coefficients by adjusting coefficients DCT(4,3) and DCT(5,2).

[1] C.I. Podilchuk, E.J. Delp "Digital watermarking: algorithms and applications," Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE,Vol 18, pp.33-46 July 2001.
[2] Potdar, V. M., Han, S., and Chang, E., "A Survey of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques", 3rd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), pp. 709-716, 2005.
[3] Yeo and M.M. Yeung, "Analysis and synthesis for new digital video applications", International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP'97), vol. 1, pp.1, 1997.
[4] SmithaRao, Jyothsna A. N, PinakaPani. R, "Digital watermarking: applications, techniques and attacks", International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 44, No. 7, pp. 29-34, April 2012.
[5] M. Natarajan, G. Makhdumi1,"Safeguarding the Digital Contents: Digital Watermarking," DESIDOC Journal of Library &Information Technology, Vol. 29, pp. 29-35, May 2009.
[6] G. Doërr, J.L. Dugelay, "Security Pitfalls of Frame-by-Frame Approaches to Video Watermarking," Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 52, pp. 2955 – 2964, 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher
Country : India
Authors : Jacob John
: 10.9790/0661-162129195    logo

Abstract: The demand for applications involving Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) or RFID systems is increasing. The sensor in a WSN and RFID tag/reader in a RFID system are called resource constrained devices because these devices have limited processing power, memory size and energy supply. The information transmitted among these low resource devices must be protected from unauthorized access using specifically made cryptographic algorithms.

1] Daniel Engels, Marakku-Juhani O. Saarinen, Peter Schweitzer, Eric M. Smith "The Hummingbird-2 Light weight Authenticated Encryption Algorithm" RFID Sec 2011.The 7th workshop on RFID Security and Privacy, Amherst, Massachusets , USA June 2011.
[2] Xinxin Fan, Guang Gong, K. Lauffenburger, T. Hicks " FPGA Implementations of the Hummingbird Cryptographic Algorithm" Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST) 2010 IEEE International Symposium.
[3] P Yalla , Jens-Peter Kaps "Light Weight Cryptography for FPGAs " IEEE International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs 2009 IEEE Computer Society Press.
[4] A. Bogdanov et al., "PRESENT: An ultra-lightweight block cipher," in CHES 2007, ser. LNCS, vol. 4727. Springer, 2007, pp. 450–466.
[5] D. Hong, J. Sung, S. Hong, J. Lim, S. Lee, B.-S; Koo, C. Lee, D. Chang, J. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Kim, J. Kim, and S. Chee. "HIGHT: A New Block Cipher Suitable for Low-Resource Device," In L. Goubin and M. Matsui, editors, Proceedings of CHES 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Passive Image Forensic Method to detect Copy Move Forgery in Digital Images
Country : India
Authors : Salma Amtullah, Dr. Ajay Koul
: 10.9790/0661-1621296104    logo

Abstract: Tampering in digital images has become very easy due to the availability of advanced image editing softwares to the users. Images are being tampered in a very efficient manner without leaving any visual clue. As a consequence, the content of digital images cannot be taken as for granted. There are various types of image tampering techniques. One of the most common tampering techniques is copy-move forgery. In copy-move forgery one part of an image is copied and pasted in another part of the same image. In this paper, the passive image forensic method is presented to detect copy move forgery in digital images. The proposed method is based on SURF (Speed Up Robust Features) algorithm.

[1] J. Redi, W. Taktak, and J.-L. Dugelay, "Digital image forensics: A booklet for beginners," Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 133–162, 2010.
[2] H. Farid, "Asurvey of image forgery detection," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 16–25, Mar. 2009.
[3] J. Fridrich, D. Soukal, and J. Lukáš, "Detection of copy-move forgery in digital images," in Proc. Digital Forensic Research Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Aug. 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Alzheimer Symptoms and Stages Using Canny Edge Detector in Image Segmentation
Country : India
Authors : M.Jainab., M. Phil1 Prof. B. Mohamed Faize Basha, MCA., M.Phil., Prof. M. Mohamed Surpudeen,, M. Phil.,
: 10.9790/0661-16212105108    logo

Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia.It is a neurological brain disorders. The hippocampus is known to shrink in time due to cell death,and it is linked with increased memory loss,which is a primary symptom of AD.In previous work, the active shape model is use to represent the shape of hippocampus,this model does not accomplish the exact volume of hippocampus. In this paper segmentation done on the hippocampusregion by the canny edge detector algorithm.This algorithm is used to trace the edges of hippocampus region in MRI images and hysteresis thresholding is used to trace the image and the segmented image is measured using voxel based morphometric technique for better result.
Keywords: AD,MRI, Hippocampus, voxel

[1]. K. Somasundaram ,and S. Vijayalakshmi A Novel Method for Segmentationof the HippocampusGandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul,Tamil Nadu(2010)
[2] O. T. Carmichael. A. Aizenstein,S. W. Davis. T. Becker. M. Thompson. C. Meltzer. Liu. Atlas-based hippocampus segmentation in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage, 27: 979-990, 2005
[3] William R. Crum, Rachael I. Scahill, Nick C. Fox, (2001), "Automated Hippocampal Segmentation by Regional Fluid Registration of Serial MRI: Validation and Application in Alzheimer's disease", Elsevier, NeuroImage, Vol. 13, pp. 847–855.
[4] Woo Suk Tae, Sam Soo Kim, Kang Uk Lee, Eui-Cheol Nam and Keun Woo Kim, (2008), "Validation of hippocampal volumes measured using a manual method and two automated methods (FreeSurfer and IBASPM) in chronic major depressive disorder",Neuroradiology Vol.50,pp. 569-581.
[5] A. Ghanei, H. Soltanian-Zadeh, and J. Windham, (1996), A deformable model for hippocampus segmentation: improvements and extension to 3D. In IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Vol.3, pp. 1797–1801.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title :

Ds* Heuristic Approach using ‘Safety Distance’ for Agent Path Planning

Country : India
Authors : Kiran K Ravulakollu , Shailashree K Sheshadri
: 10.9790/0661-16212109115    logo

Abstract:The efficiency in path planning algorithms is a crucial issue in mobile agents. For an artificial agent, observation from environment, navigational behavior and learning methods over occupancy grid maps are tools for effective path planning. The path generated by the conventional D* algorithm may lead to collision with the obstacles in real-time scenario and this issue is addressed by Ds* which uses `safety distance' phenomena, based on weighted cost function. The factors of distance and safety are considered simultaneously in the cost function, thereby demonstrated efficiency in path planning. An analysis on goal-directed navigation tasks in mazes using Ds* heuristic approach is carried out and the efficiency is evaluated based on two parameters - Path length and Execution time.
Keywords: D* search algorithm, Heuristic Search, Occupancy Grids, Path Planning, Safety Distance.

[1] H. Zhang, J. Butzke, and M. Likhachev, "Combining global and local planning with guarantees on completeness", In IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2012.
[2] H. Choset, K. Lynch, S. Hutchinson, G. Kantor, W. Burgard, L. Kavraki, and S. Thrun, Principles of Robot Motion: Theory, Algorithms, and Implementations, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
[3] M. Barbehenn, "A note on the complexity of Dijkstra‟s algorithm for Graphs with Weighted Vertices", IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol.47, no.2, 1998.
[4] T. Goto, T. Kosaka, and H. Noborio, "On the heuristics of A* or a algorithm in ITS and robot path-planning," 2003 IEEWRSJ Intl, Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2003.
[5] M. Fu and B. Xue, "A path planning algorithm based on dynamic networks and restricted searching area", IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, pp.1193-1197, 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detection and Removal of Infection Sources in a Network
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Rintamol Mathew , Ms. Preethymol B
: 10.9790/0661-16212116121    logo

Abstract:Identifying an infection source in a network is a challenging problem. An infection source can be either a disease, virus or a rumor spreading through a network. Detection of infection source in a network, allows timely quarantine of the infection like a virus spreading in a network, thus limiting the damage caused. Here we take the computer virus as an infection source and tries to identify the infection source based on the knowledge of which nodes are infected and their connections. For the detection of an infection source, we use signature scanning method. Signature scanning is the most popular method of virus scanning and is capable of detecting more than 80% of viruses.
Keywords: Infection Source, Computer Virus, Signature Scanning, Source Estimation

[1] Wuqiong Luo, Wee Peng Tay, and Mei Leng, "Identifying infection sources and regions in large networks," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 61, no. 11, Jun. 2013.
[2] C. Moore and M. E. J. Newman, "Epidemics and percolation in Small-world networks," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 61, pp. 5678–5682,
[3] M. E. J. Newman, "Spread of epidemic disease on networks," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 016 128+, Jul. 2002.
[4] P. D. ONeill, "A tutorial introduction to Bayesian inference for stochastic epidemic models using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods," Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 180, no. 1-2, pp. 103 – 114, 2002.
[5] A. Ganesh, L. Massouli, and D. Towsley, "The effect of network topology on the spread of epidemics," in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title :

Quantum Computing: Quantum Key Distribution

Country : India
Authors : Vishnu Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-16212122125    logo
Abstract: For the last fifty years computers have grown faster, smaller, and more powerful transforming and benefiting our society in ways too numerous to count. But like any exponential explosion of resources, this growth — known as Moore's law — must soon come to an end. Research has already begun on what comes after our current computing revolution. This research has discovered the possibility for an entirely new type of computer, one that operates according to the laws of quantum physics — a quantum computer.. In this paper, the author will discuss quantum computing and quantum key exchange protocol (BB84) that can be used to securely exchange keys.
Keywords: Cryptography, Quantum Computing, Quantum Cryptography, Security

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detecting multiple Blackhole and Gray whole attacks in MANETS by modifying AODV
Country : India
Authors : Divya KhajuriaSudesh kumar
: 10.9790/0661-16212126133    logo

Abstract: Ad hoc networking refers to as network with no fixed Infrastructure. When the nodes are assumed to be capable of moving in the network, then networks are referred as MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks).Security is a paramount challenge in Ad hoc networks. Because of shared broadcast radio channels, insecure operating system, Limited resources, changing network membership, dynamic and arbitrary topology, no central authority, MANETs networks are sensitive and vulnerable to many security attacks. MANETs have critical application such as military applications and civilian application. In such applications, secure communication is of prime importance. Most of MANETs routing protocols works on trustworthy collaboration among participating nodes which leads to security threats. Lack of authentication and identification mechanism is another shortcoming in routing protocols due to which security issues arises inMANETs.There are many security attacks which occur on MANETs, Blackhole and Grayhole attacks are one of them. AODV protocol is effective and efficient in MANETs environment and is vulnerable to both Blackhole and Grayhole attack.A Blackhole attack is one in which malicious node falsely advertises itself as good path or stable path to destination during route discovery and malicious node starts dropping the packets instead of forwarding to destination.Grayhole attack is an extended version of the Blackhole attack where adversary behaves as a genuine node for certain time and turns into malicious node later on. In this paper, we proposed a modified version of AODV routing protocol that detect attacks before route discovery and during route discoverywith high packet delivery ratio, low routing overhead and maintenance overhead.
Keywords: MANETs, Blackhole attack, Grayhole attack,fake RREQ.

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[5] IraNath and Dr.RituparnaChaki, "BHAPSC: A New Black Hole Attack Prevention System in Clustered MANET", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 2 Issue 8, August 2012, pp. 113-121. Moumita Deb, "A Cooperative Blackhole Node Detection mechanism for ADHOC Networks", In Proc. Of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008, October 2008

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Barcode Authentication using Genetic Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Poornima G. Naik,. Mr. Girish R. Naik
: 10.9790/0661-16212134142    logo

Abstract: Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an invaluable tool for solving optimization problems due to its robustness. It does not break even in the presence of a reasonable noise or even if the inputs are changed slightly. GA offers significant benefits over other optimization techniques in searching a large state space or n-dimensional surface. In todays information age information transfer and sharing has increased exponentially. With the popularization of Internet and exponential increase in e-commerce transactions security has become an inevitable and an integral part of any e-commerce application. Data integrity, confidentiality, authenticity, non-repudiation have gained tremendous importance and have become important components of information security. In this paper we have made an attempt to exploit the randomness involved in crossover and mutation processes of GA for generating a barcode for authentication process. The number of crossover points and number of mutation points is fixed and cannot be altered by the user. In the current work we have employed a single crossover point and two mutation points. We have used Code-39 and Code-128 encoding techniques for generating a barcode. The barcode data comprises of 12 randomly generated decimal digits. Each decimal digit is represented using 4 bits. Hence the length of the barcode data is 36 bits. The randomly generated data is transformed into encoded form by applying crossover, mutation and XOR operations before generating a bar code. The randomness together with encoding makes the password robust and hard to track. Finally, the algorithm is implemented in Java and applied for authentication of employee data in a hypothetical organization. The methodology is general and can be applied to any task where authentication is required.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Cross-over, Mutation, Barcode, Encoding.

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