IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Mar - Apr 2014Volume 16 - Issue 2

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Advanced Redundancy Management Of Heterogeneous Using The Packet Dropper With Nodes For Multipath routing
Country : India
Authors : Angelin P Edwin
: 10.9790/0661-162100107    logo
Abstract: Developing a secured environment for detectingmalicious nodes in a heterogeneous wireless sensor network(HWSN).Here which is analysing the best redundancylevel using path redundancy and sourceredundancy.Packet droppers with IDS(Intrution detection system)is used for tolerance purpose.To improve this method it uses heterogeneous node for the multipath routing.To deal with packet droppers, a widely adopted counter measure is multipath forwarding.Each packet is forwarding along with multiple redundant paths and some of its path cant be tolerated, this process introducing high extra communications.Here we proposing a probabilistic nested marking(PNM)scheme to identify packet modifiers with a certain probability.In wireless sensor networks(WSN),a critical issue is that security of the data transmission.For the system performance of a WSN,clustering ia an effective and practical way to enhance(CWSN)
[1] Y. Zhou, Y. Fang, and Y. Zhang, "Securing wireless sensor networks: a survey,"IEEECommun. Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 6–28, 2008.
[2] L.Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease, "The byzantine generals prob-lem,"ACM Trans.Programming Languages Syst., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 382–401, 1982.
[3] Y. Yang, C. Zhong, Y. Sun, and J. Yang, "Network coding based reliable disjoint and braided multipath routing for sensor networks,"J. Netw.Comput. Appl., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 422–432, 2010.
[4] J. Deng, R. Han, and S. Mishra, "INSENS: intrusion-tolerant routing for wireless sensor networks," Computer Commun., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 216–230, 2006.
[5] K. D. Kang, K. Liu, and N. Abu-Ghazaleh, "Securing geographic routing in wireless sensor networks," in Proc. 2006 Cyber Security Conf. Inf.Assurance.
[6] W. Lou and Y. Kwon, "H-SPREAD: a hybrid multipath scheme for secure and reliable data collection in wireless sensor networks,"IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1320–1330, 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Foreground detection by using multi features
Country : Iraq
Authors : Dr. Emad Kadum Jabbar, Dr. Ahmed Tariq Sadiq, Nuha Jameel Ibrahim
: 10.9790/0661-162100812    logo
Abstract: Foreground detection is an essential task in many applications and a commonly used approach to obtain foreground objects from the background. Many techniques exist, but due to shadows and changes in illumination the detection of foreground objects from the background remains challenging. The most popular method for foreground detection is background subtraction where a background model needs to be maintained. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting objects based on texture, color and edge measure.
[1]. S.Swathikiran, P. Sajith Sethu,2. Human Detection and Tracking System for Automatic Video Surveillance.International Journal of Engineering Inventions,e-ISSN: 2278-7461, p-ISSN: 2319-6491,Volume 2, Issue 10 (June 2013) PP: 58-61
[2]. Martínez-Martín, Ester, Pobil, Ángel P. del,"Robust Motion Detection in Real-Life Scenarios", Series: SpringerBriefs in Computer Science,2012.
[3]. C.Stauffer, W.Grimson. "Adaptive background mixture models for real-time tracking". In Proc. CVPR, 1999.
[4]. Piccardi, M., "Background subtraction techniques: a review", Comput. Vision Group, Univ. of Technol., Sydney, NSW, Australia.
[5]. K. Toyama, J. Krumm. "Wallflower: Principles and practice of background maintenance". International Conference on Computer Vision, September 1999.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Relation Between '3utility problem' and 'Eulerian Trail'
Country : India
Authors : Yashasvini Sharma
: 10.9790/0661-162101322    logo
Abstract: There are two most renowned puzzles whose algorithms have been developed in the computer science (field- Algorithms and design Analysis) that are impossible to solve till date. They are 3 utility problem and Eulerian trail. Both of them have some methods and have to be done according to some rule. A lot of work has been done to find why this happens and what application can be drawn out of it. The answer is though simple, these problems cannot be solved in 2- dimension and we need a 3-dimensional environment to solve them.
[1] Eulerian Graphs and Related Topics, Part 1, Volume 1, By Fleischner, Jennifer, Herbert Fleischner VI .1.1
[3] trail
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Face Recognition Techniques - A Review
Country : India
Authors : Taqdir, Dr Renu Dhir
: 10.9790/0661-162102327    logo
Abstract: Human faces are major identity mark. Face recognition is the active research area in real time applications. Face detection has many applications in biometrics, video surveillance , robotics, control of man- machines, photography, and image indexing. Many face recognition techniques are developed to recognize human features. In this paper the study and methodology of PCA (Principal Component Analysis), CoC (Coefficient of Correlation) , SSIM (Structural SIMilarity Index Metrics), DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) face recognition techniques is provided.
[1]. K.Pearson, "On Lines and Planes of Closest fit to systems of points in space", Phil. Mag., Vol.2, No.6, pp.559-572,(1901).
[2]. M.Hotelling, "Analysis of a Complex of Statistical Variables into Principal Components", Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.24, pp.498-520, (1933).
[3]. L. Sirovich and M. Kirby, "Low-dimensional Procedure for the Characterization of Human Faces", Journal of the Optical Society of America A- Optics, Image Science and Vision, 4, Vol.4, No.3, pp.519–524, March (1987).
[4]. J.L.Rodgers, and W.A. Nicewander, "Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient", The American Statistician, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp.59-66, February 1988.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Distributed Computing Challenges
Country : India
Authors : Mr. BhushanTalekar, Miss SonaliChaudhari, Prof. VinayakShinde,
Prof .GayatriMasiwal
: 10.9790/0661-162102831    logo
Abstract: In recent years, distributed computing systems has been widely explored in order to improve system performance in terms of scalability and reliability.A distributed computing system allows the user to share, select, and aggregate the distributed heterogeneous computational and storage resources, which are under the control of different sites or networks. A distributed system also provides solutions to the complex scientific or engineering problems, such as weather forecasting, medical diagnoses, and stock portfolio management. However, the distributed nature of the system also raises some serious challenges. This paper covers the major challenges of security& design.However, complete distributed nature of the system raises serious challenges in domains of security like Scheduling,Objective Function,Security and Trust and also in domain of design like Heterogeneity,Openness,Reliability and Fault Tolerance, etcIn this paper, we aim to identify the challenges of distributed systems.
[1] Al-Sakib Khan Pathan International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia,MukaddimPathan Australian National University, Australia,Hae Young Lee Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea" Advancements in Distributed Computing and Internet Technologies: Trends and Issues"
[2] Krishna Nadiminti, Marcos Dias de Assunção, and RajkumarBuyya"Distributed Systems and Recent Innovations: Challenges and Benefits".LalanaKagal, Tim Finin and Anupam Joshi University of Maryland Baltimore County"
[3] LalanaKagal, Tim Finin and AnupamJoshiUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyMoving from Security to Distributed Trustin Ubiquitous Computing Environments"

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Heart Disease Risk Prediction System Based On Novel Technique Stratified Sampling
Country : India
Authors : Lalita Sharma, Vineet Khanna
: 10.9790/0661-162103237    logo
Abstract: Medical decision support systems are designed to support clinicians in their diagnosis. The prediction of heart disease pattern with classification algorithms is proposed in this paper. It is essential to find the best fit feature selection algorithm that has greater accuracy on classification in the case of heart disease classification. By using feature selection method the dimensionality of the data is reduced. In this paper, a novel feature selection method based on correlation based feature selection (CFS) is proposed.
[1] John Peter ―An Empirical Study On Prediction Of Heart Disease Using Classification Data Mining Techniques‖ IEEE-International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management PP. 514-517(ICAESM -2012) March 30, 31, 2012.
[2] Shweta Kharya ―Using Data Mining Techniques For Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Cancer Disease Abdelghani Bellaachia, Erhan Guven‖ International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology (IJCSEIT), Vol.2, No.2, April 2012
[3] Li, W., Han, 1., Pei, 1.: ―CMAR: Accurate and Efficient Classification Based on Multiple Association Rules‖. In: Proc. of 2001 International Conference on Data Mining, 2001
[4] Jyoti Soni, Ujma Ansari, Dipesh Sharma ―Predictive Data Mining for Medical Diagnosis: An Overview of Heart Disease Prediction‖ International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 17– No.8, March 2011.
[5] Abdelghani Bellaachia,Erhan Guven ―Predicting Breast Cancer Surviability Using data Mining techniques‖ Software technology and Engineering (ICSTE),2010 2nd international Conference on 3-5 Oct,2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Accident Detection and Surveillance System using Wireless Technologies
Country : India
Authors : Purva Javale, Shalmali Gadgil, Chinmay Bhargave, Yogesh Kharwandikar , Prof. Vaishali Nandedkar
: 10.9790/0661-162103843    logo

Abstract:The symbiosis between communication technologies and vehicles offers opportunity to improve assistance to people injured in traffic accidents, by providing information about the accident to reduce the response time of emergency assistance services. Determining the required resources for accident could significantly reduce the number of casualties. This paper presents a system prototype especially designed to detect and provide faster assistance to traffic accident victims. The proposed system requires each vehicle to be endowed with a control unit (CU) responsible for detecting accident and onboard unit (OBU) reporting accident location for providing the necessary resources for the rescue operation.

Keywords: Control Unit, Emergency Assistance Service, Onboard Unit, Traffic Accidents,

[1] Manuel Fogue, Piedad Garrido, Francisco J. Martinez, Juan-Carlos Cano, Carlos T. Calafate, and Pietro Manzoni, "Assistance through Communication Technologies and Vehicles", IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 2012.
[2] Tanushree Dalai, "Emergency Alert and Service for Automotives for India", International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering (IJATCSE), Mysore, India, Vol.2, No.5, Pages: 08-12 (2013) Special Issue of ICETCSE 2013.
[3] R. Grzeszczyk, J. Merkisz, P. Bogus, and T.Kaminski ""Methods and Procedures for testing the E- call in-vehicle unit for The purpose of its performance assessment and certification,‟‟ in Proc. 21st Int. Technical Conf. Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Stuttgart, Germany, June 2009, Paper 09- 0332

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : CEET: A Compressed Encrypted & Embedded Technique for Digital Image Steganography
Country : India
Authors : Palak Mahajan, Dr. Ajay Koul
: 10.9790/0661-162104452    logo
Abstract: In this information era, digital information sharing and transfer plays a vital role and their use has increased exponentially with the development of technology. Thus providing security of data is a topic of concern. Data hiding is a powerful tool that provides mechanism for securing data over insecure channel by concealing information within information. Steganography inherits data hiding concept and passes information through host files in such a way that the existence of the embedded secret is unknown. This paper presents a joint application of compression
[1] N. Provos and P. Honeyman, "Hide and seek: An introduction to Steganography", IEEE Conference on Security and Privacy, pp. 32-44, 2003.
[2] Fangjun Huang, Jiwu Huang, and Yun-Qing Shi, "New Channel Selection Rule for JPEG Steganography", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 1181-1191 August 2012.
[3] Avinash Srinivasan, Srinath Thirthahalli Nagaraj, and Angelos Stavrou, "HIDEINSIDE – A Novel Randomized & Encrypted Antiforensic Information Hiding", International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications, Communications and Information Security, 2013.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network using Android based Smart Phone Application
Country : India
Authors : Sonali Tembekar, Amit Saxena
: 10.9790/0661-162105357    logo
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network application's is use in detection of natural calamities like forest fire detection, flood detection, , earth quick early detection ,snow detection, traffic congestion and various other applications. However still it fails to provide dynamism in detection of sensing data. Centralized Computing is a profitable extension of computing resources which offer scalable resources to its users over the communication network.
[1] Kwang-il Hwang, Jeongsik In, NhoKyung Park, Doo-seop Eom "A Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Gateway for Efficient Querying and Managing through World Wide Web".
[2] AKhan AkBULUT, M. A. (2012). Accessing to DATA in WSN's.
[3] Kevin Lee1 David Murray, Danny Hughes, Wouter Joosen (2010). Extending Sensor Networks into the Cloud using Amazon web services.
[4] Carlos Oberdan Rolim, Fernando Luiz Koch, Carlos Becker Westphall, Jorge Werner, Armando Fracalossi, Giovanni Schmitt Salvador (2010). A Cloud Computing Solution for Patient's Data Collection in Health Care Institutions.
[5] Wei Wang, Kevin Lee, David Murray (2011). Integrating Sensors with the Cloud UsingDynamic Proxies.
[6] Sanjay Kumar Dash,Subasish Mohspatra and Prashant Kumar Pattnaik (2010) "A Survey on Application of Wireless Sensor Network Using Cloud Computing".

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Parallel Algorithm over Sequential using Open MP
Country : India
Authors : Pranav Kulkarni, Sumit Pathare
: 10.9790/0661-162105862    logo
Abstract: Parallel programming represents the next turning point in how software engineers write software. Today, low-cost multi-core processors are widely available for both desktop computers and laptops. As a result, applications will increasingly need to be paralleled to fully exploit the multi-core-processor throughput gains that are becoming available. Unfortunately, writing parallel code is more complex than writing serial code. This is where the OpenMP programming model enters the parallel computing picture. OpenMP helps developers create multi-threaded applications more easily while retaining the look and feel of serial programming. The term algorithm performance is a systematic and quantitative approach for constructing software systems to meet the performance objectives such as response time, throughput, scalability and resource utilization. The performances (speedup) of parallel algorithms on multi-core system have been presented in this paper. The experimental results on a multi-core processor show that the proposed parallel algorithms achieves good performance compared to the sequential.
Keywords: Multi-core, Multiprocessor, OpenMP, Parallel programming.
[1] Daniel Lorenz, Peter Philippen, Dirk Schmidl and Felix Wolf. "Profiling of OpenMP Tasks with Score-P". International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops, German Research School for Simulation Sciences, 52062 Aachen, Germany, 2012.
[2] D. Dheeraj, B. Nitish, Shruti Ramesh, "Optimization of Automatic Conversion of Serial C to Parallel OpenMP", International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discover, PES Institute of Technology Bangalore, India, Dec 2012.
[3] Suneeta H. Angadi, G. T. Raju Abhishek B, "Software Performance Analysis with Parallel Programming Approaches", International Journal of Computer Science and Informatics, ISSN (PRINT): 2231 -5292, Vol-1, Iss-4, 2012.
[4] Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Dr. Kusum Gupta, "Performance Analysis of Parallel Algorithms on Multi-core System using OpenMP Programming Approaches", International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology (IJCSEIT), Vol.2, No.5, October 2012.
[5] Han Cao1a, Fei Wangb, Xin Fang, Hong-lei Tu, "OpenMP Parallel Optimal Path Algorithm and Its Performance Analysis", Jun Shi World Congress on Software Engineering, DOI 10.1109, WCSE, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : M-Wallet Security using Cued Click Points
Country : India
Authors : Miss. Deepika Mhetre, Miss. Komal Murkute, Miss. Vishranti Kale, Miss. Apurva Kabra, Prof. Sonali Madankar
: 10.9790/0661-162106369    logo
Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to provide higher level of security by using graphical password authentication scheme. Text passwords are easily broken by various intruders and may hack all confidential information of user. User often create memorable passwords that are easy for attackers to guess, but strong system –assigned passwords are difficult for user to remember. So we are making use of alternative method where graphical images are used as passwords as human brains are better at recognizing images than text. The main goal of our work is to reduce the guessing attacks as well as encouraging users to select more random, and difficult password to guess so that various security threats like brute force attacks, dictionary attacks, social engineering attacks ,shoulder surfing attacks can be successfully removed.
Keywords: Authentication, graphical passwords, guessing attacks, computer security.
[1] Chippy. T and R.Nagendran, "DEFENSES AGAINST LARGE SCALE ONLINE PASSWORD GUESSING ATTACKS BY USING PERSUASIVE CLICK POINTS," in International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 03– No.3, Issue: 01 March2012.
[2] S. Akula and V. Devisetty, "Image Based Registration and Authentication System", in Proceedings of Midwes Instruction and Computing Symposium, 2004.
[3] S. Man, D. Hong and M. Mathews, "A Shoulder surfing resistant graphical password scheme," in Proceedings of International conference on security and management." Las Vegas, NV, 2003.
[4] R. Dhamija and A. Perrig, "Deja Vu: A User Study Using Images for Authentication," in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Security Symposium, 2000.
[5] Real User Corporation: Passfaces.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud Data Sharing in a Dynamic Group with a Dual Secure Technology
Country : India
Authors : Ravi C. B., Mohan K.
: 10.9790/0661-162107073    logo
Abstract: Cloud data sharing is an untrustworthy service where any malicious user can access the data from cloud storage and make use of it so an encryption technique is used to convert data into a unreadable format but an hacker uses an different technique to decrypt the data. So a steganography is introducing in cloud storage centre where the group member encrypt the data and send it to the cloud server, the server receive it and hide it in to an image. Data of the different owners in the group shares data with each other securely and preserving their identity from an untrusted cloud server is one of the challenging issues currently, due to the frequent change of the membership. In this paper, we propose a secure multiowner data sharing scheme for dynamic groups in the cloud. By aid of group signature and dynamic broadcast encryption techniques, any cloud user can anonymously share data with others. In addition to the dynamic broadcast encryption techniques we are using image Steganography to store the data in the form of image in the cloud storage.
Keywords: Cloud computing, privacy-preserving, dynamic groups, data sharing, access control, image conversion.
[1] Xuefeng Liu and Yuqing Zhang,"Mona: Secure Multi-Owner Data Sharing for Dynamic Groups in the Cloud",IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL.24, NO.6, JUNE 2013.
[2] Vijay Kumar Sharma, Vishal Shrivastava, "A Steganography Algorithm For Hiding Image In Image By Improved LSB Substitution By Minimize Detection" Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 15th February 2012. Vol. 36 No.1
[3] M. Kallahalla, E. Riedel, R. Swami Nathan, Q. Wang, and K. Fu, "Plutus: Scalable Secure File Sharing on Untrusted Storage," Proc. USENIX Conf. File and Storage Technologies, pp. 29-42, 2003.
[4] E. Goh, H. Shacham, N. Modadugu, and D. Boneh, "Sirius:Securing Remote Untrusted Storage," Proc. Network and Distributed Systems Security Symp. (NDSS), pp. 131-145, 2003.
[5] G. Ateniese, K. Fu, M. Green, and S. Hohenberger, "Improved Proxy Re-Encryption Schemes with Applications to Secure Distributed Storage," Proc. Network and Distributed Systems Security Symp. (NDSS), pp. 29-43, 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Handwritten Devanagari Character Recognition Using Neural Network
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Seema A. Dongare, Prof. Dhananjay B. Kshirsagar, Ms. Snehal V. Waghchaure
: 10.9790/0661-162107479    logo
Abstract: In this digital era, most important thing is to deal with digital documents, organizations using handwritten documents for storing their information can use handwritten character recognition to convert this information into digital. Handwritten Devanagari characters are more difficult for recognition due to presence of header line, conjunct characters and similarity in shapes of multiple characters. This paper deals with development of grid based method which is combination of image centroid zone and zone centroid zone of individual character or numerical image. In feature extraction using grid or zone based approach individual character or numerical image is divided into n equal sized grids or zones then average distance of all pixels with respect to image centroid or grid centroid is computed. In combination of image centroid and zone centroid approach it computes average distance of all pixels present in each grid with respect to image centroid as well as zone centroid which gives feature vector of size 2xn features. This feature vector is presented to feed forward neural network for recognition. Complete process of Devanagari character recognition works in stages as document preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction using grid based approach followed by recognition using feed forward neural network.
Keywords: Feed forward neural network, handwritten character recognition, image centroid zone, zone centroid zone.
[1] G. Sinha, Mrs. R. Rani, Prof. R. Dhir ,Recognition Using Zonal Based Feature Extraction Method and SVM Classifier , International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering , ISSN: 2277 128X, Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2012.
[2] M. Patil, V. Narawade, Recognition of Handwritten Devanagari Characters through Segmentation and Artificial neural networks , International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) , ISSN:2278-0181,Vol. 1 Issue 6, August 2012.
[3] K. Y. Rajput, S. Mishra, Recognition and Editing of Devanagari Handwriting Using Neural Network, Proceedings of SPIT-IEEE Colloquium and International Conference, Vol. 1.
[4] S. Arora, D. Bhattacharjee, M. Nasipuri, L. Malik and B. Portier, A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters.
[5] V. Agnihotri, Offline Handwritten Devanagari Script Recognition, IJITCS, 2012, 8, 37-42.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Blowfish Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Ms. NehaKhatri – Valmik, Prof. V. K. Kshirsagar
: 10.9790/0661-162108083    logo
Abstract: Blowfish is a popular security algorithm that was developed by Bruce Schneier in the advent of the year 1994. The algorithm works on the same line as DES and it consumes block coding with blocks of a size of 64 bit. Blowfish became quite popular after its advent, just because Bruce Schneier[1] himself is one of the most famous cryptology expert and above this the algorithm is non patented, open source freely and freely available for use and modifications. Blowfish is a 64-bit block cipher with a variable-length key. It defines 2 distinct boxes: S boxes, a P box and four S boxes [3]. Taking into consideration the P box P is a one-dimensional field with 18 32-bit values. The boxes contain variable values; those can be implemented in the code or generated during each initialization. The S boxes S1, S2, S3, and S4 each contain 256 32-bit values.
Index Terms: blowfish, encryption, security, algorithm, cryptography
[1] Bruce Schneier, "Applied Cryptography", John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996
[2] The homepage of description of a new variable-length key, 64-bit block cipher
[3] Patterson and Hennessy, "Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware/ Software Interface", Morgan Kaufmann, Inc. 1994.
[4] B. Schneier, "Description of a New Variable-Length Key, 64-bit Block Cipher (Blowfish)," Fast Software Encryption: Second International Workshop, Leuven, Belgium, December 1994, Proceedings, Springer-Verlag,1994, pp.191-204.
[5] S. Vaudenay, "On the Weak Keys in Blowsh," Fast Software Encryption, Third International Workshop Proceedings, Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 27-32.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detection of Network Intrusion and Countermeasure Selection in Cloud Systems
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Madhusudan S., Mr. Srikanth S. P.
: 10.9790/0661-162108488    logo
Abstract: In Cloud Server Systems, The detection of zombie in virtual machine is considered as the security threat exploration attacks is extremely difficult, due to this the cloud user can able to install harmful applications into their virtual server to attack the virtual server Particularly, intruders can exploit vulnerability to a cloud system and compromise virtual machines to deploy further large scale types of attack like distributed denial of service (DDOS). Mainly vulnerability arises in infrastructure as a service (laas) cloud where the infrastructure shared by millions of users. To prevent vulnerable virtual machine from being compromised in the cloud, the proposed framework introducing multiple distributed vulnerability detection network intrusion and countermeasure selection in cloud systems. It built an attack graph analytical model which is used for identify the intruders possible way of exploit vulnerability.
Index Terms: Cloud Computing ,SLAs,DDOS ,IaaS, Virtual machine, Vulnerability, Command And Control.
[1] NICE
[2] M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A.Konwinski,G. D. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia "A view of cloud computing," ACM Commun., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 50–58, Apr. 2010.
[3] B. Joshi, A. Vijayan, and B. Joshi, "Securing cloud computing environment against DDoS attacks," IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI '12), Jan. 2012.
[4] H. Takabi, J. B. Joshi, and G. Ahn, "Security and privacy challenges in cloud computing environments," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 24–31, Dec. 2010.
[5] Z. Duan, P. Chen, F. Sanchez, Y. Dong, M. Stephenson, and J. Barker,"Detecting spam zombies by monitoring outgoing messages," IEEE Trans. Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 198–210, Apr. 2012. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEPEDABLE AND SECURE COMPUTING.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : RKO Technique for Color Visual Cryptography
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Moushmee Kuri, Dr. Tanuja Sarode
: 10.9790/0661-162108993    logo
Abstract: To maintain the secrecy and confidentiality of images two different approaches are being followed, Image Encryption and Visual Cryptography. The former being encrypting the images through encryption algorithms using keys, and the later approach involves dividing the image into random shares without the use of keys. Unfortunately heavy computation cost and key management limit the employment of the first approach and the poor quality of the recovered image from the random shares limit the applications of the second approach. In this paper we propose a novel approach with the use of random share and key share. The approach employs generating two shares of the original image. One random share and the other key share. The original secret image can be recovered from the two shares simply by Xoring the two shares without any loss of image quality.
Keywords: Visual Cryptography , Overlapping , Shares, Image Encryption, Keyless Encryption, Color images.
[1] M. Naor and A. Shamir, "Visual cryptography," in Proc. EUROCRYPT' 94, Berlin, Germany, 1995, vol. 950, pp. 1–12, Springer-Verlag, LNCS
[2] Jaya, Siddharth Malik, Abhinav Aggarwal, Anjali Sardana, " Novel Authentication System Using Visual Cryptography", in 2011 World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies.
[3] F. Liu1, C.K. Wu X.J. Lin , "Colour Visual Cryptography Schemes", IET Information Security, vol. 2, No. 4, pp 151-165, 2008.
[4] Y. C. Hou, "Visual cryptography for color images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, pp. 1619-1629, 2003.
[5] Siddharth Malik, Anjali Sardana, Jaya "A Keyless Approach to Image Encryption", 2012 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud Computing: A Key to It Development in West African Sub Region
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Odach Gabriel Nwabuonu, Nwosu John Nwachukwu
: 10.9790/0661-162109498    logo
Abstract: There is no gainsaying the fact that information technology (IT) development in West Africa has met a lot of challenges ranging from cyber threat to inadequate IT infrastructure. Cloud computing is a revolution. It is creating a fundamental change in computer architecture, software and tools development and of course, in the way we store, process, distribute and consume information. This paper, therefore explores the basic concepts of cloud computing and how cloud computing could be harnessed to improve IT and economic development in West African sub-region.
[1]. Cloud Computing (2007); http://www.wikinvest.compconcept/cloud_computing Accessed 1/3/2013
[2]. Daily Champion (2011): "West Africa – The nations ranks third on internet penetrations", Friday March 4, 2011.
[3]. Odachi, (2011): "ATM Technology and Banking System in West African sub region; Prospect and Challenges", African Research Review – An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, Vol 5(2), no 19 pp104 – 114
[4]. Oketola, D. (2013): Poor Fixed Infrastructure Hinders Internet Penetration Twinpine Accessed 11/3/2013 (Daily punch March 10, 2013)
[5]. Walker, G. (2010): Cloud Computing Fundamentals; Accessed 1/3/2013.

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