IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 15- Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comprehensive lossless modified compression in medical application on DICOM CT images
Country : India
Authors : Alka sharma, Gagangeet Singh Aujla, Jagbir Singh Gill
: 10.9790/0661-1530107      logo

Abstract: In current days, Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) is widely used for viewing medical images from different modalities, distribution and storage. Image processing can be processed by photographic, optical and electronic means, because digital methods are precise, fast and flexible, image processing using digital computers are the most common method. Image Processing can extract information, modify pictures to improves and change their structure (image editing, composition and image compression etc.). Image compression is the major entities of storage system and communication which is capable of crippling disadvantages of data transmission and image storage and also capable of reducing the data redundancy. Medical images are require to stored for future reference of the patients and their hospital findings hence, the medical image need to undergo the process of compression before storing it. Medical images are much important in the field of medicine, all these Medical image compression is necessary for huge database storage in Medical Centre and medical data transfer for the purpose of diagnosis

Keywords: JPEG, DCT, DWT, SPIHT, DICOM, VQ, Lossless Compression, Wavelet Transform, image Compression, PSNR, RMSE.

[1] Bairagi, V. K. and Sampkal, A. M., (2012-13), "ROI - based DICOM Image Compression for Telemedicine", IEEE, Vol 38, pp.123-131. [2] Dubey, V. G. (2012), "3D Medical Image Compression Using Huffman Encoding Technique", IJSRC, Vol 2, Issue no 9, pp.1-3. [3] Morales, Y. and Diaz, F. V, (2012), "Fingerprint verification by correlation using wavelet compression of preprocessing digital images", IEEE, Vol 2, no 12, pp.1517-1520.

[4] Kumar, V., Kumar, A. and Bhardwaj, A., (2012), "Performance Evaluation od Image Compression Techniques, IEEE, pp.447-450.

[5] Kaur, P. and Singh, S., (2012), "Image Compression Using Multithresholding Technique to Enhance Huffman Technique", Vol 3, Issue 8, pp.1-5

[6] Ramola, E. and Manoharan, J.S., (2011), "An Area Efficient VLSI Realization of Discrete Wavelet Transform for Multiresolution Analysis", IEEE, Vol 2, no 11, pp.377-381.
[7] Dhawan, S., (2011), "A review of image compression and comparison of its algorithms," International Journal of electronics & Communication, Vol 2, Issue 1, pp.22-26.

[8] Talukder, KH. And Harada, K., (2009), "A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression", International Journal of Signal Processing, pp.1-10.
[9] S. S. Devi and K. Vidhya, "Development of Medical Image Compression Techniques," Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, IEEE vol. 3, pp. 97–101, 2007.

[10] Graham, R.N.J., Perriss, R.W. and Scarsbrook, A.F, (2005), "DICOM demystified: A review of digital file formats and their use in radiological practice", ELSEVIEER, pp.1133-1140.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : WSO-LINK: Algorithm to Eliminate Web Structure Outliers in Web Pages
Country : India
Authors : Rachna Singh Bhullar, Dr. Praveen Dhyani
: 10.9790/0661-1530812      logo

Abstract: Web Mining is specialized field of Data Mining which deals with the methods and techniques of data mining to extract useful patterns from the web data that is available in web server logs/databases. Web content mining is one of the classifications of web mining which extracts information from the web documents containing texts, links, videos and multimedia data available in World Wide Web databases. Further, web structure mining is a kind of web content mining which extracts patterns and meaningful information from the structure of hyperlinks contained in web documents having the same domain. The hyperlinks which are not related to content or the invalid ones are called web structure outliers. In this paper the basic aim is to find out these web structure outliers.

Keywords- Outliers, web outlier mining, web structure mining, Web mining, web structure documents.

[1]. Signed approach for mining web content outliers by G.Poonkuzhali, K. Thaiagrajan, K. Sarukesi and G.V.Uma, World Academy of Science Engineering & Technology, 32, 2009.
[2]. Bing Liu, Kevin chen-chuan chang, Editorial special issue on web content mining, SIGKDD Explorations Volume 6, issue 2.
[3]. Hongqili, Zhuang Wu, Xia.ogang Ji research on the techniques for effectively searching and retrieving information from Internet Symposium on Electronic Commerce & Security, IEEE 2008.
[4]. G.Poonkuzhali, K.Thaigarajan, K.Sarukesi, set theoretical approach for mining web content through outlier detection, International Journal on Research & Industrial Applications, Volume 2, January 2009.
[5]. "Chinese web text outlier mining Based on domain knowledge ", by Xia Huosang , Fan Xhaoyan, Pang Liuyan in 2010 Second WRI Global Congress on Intelligent Systems.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Approach for Examination of Visually Challenged Candidates by E-Evaluation Techniques
Country : India
Authors : M. Dhanalakshmi
: 10.9790/0661-1531316      logo

Abstract: The evaluation of physically challenged is always a challenging task as any evaluation of them is compared with that of normal candidates. The case of visually challenged is still more difficult as vision is a nunerouno sensor in the field of study and knowledge enhancement and evaluation of them on par with other candidate is very difficult. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for E-evaluation model for the visually challenged students/candidates for the screening tests conducted by the different examination authorities. The major attempt is made to use the personal computer and avoid the use of a scriber by the candidate so that candidate can take the exam independently. A portion of the PC keyboard is slightly modified in its software functionality to help them in undergoing the test. Also described is the functioning of this model of E-Evaluation and its relative advantages.

Keywords: E-evaluation, PC keyboard, visually challenged candidate

[1]. Census of India-2001.

[2]. Application details for the post of probationary officer in State bank of India.

[3]. News paper clippings:- Times of India-18may 2009, Expess News service 15 may 2009, IANS 8 march 2008.

[4]. Proceedings of International seminar on empowering Visually Impaired through ICT, April 15-16-2009.

[5]. Lorentz J ntschi, Sorana D. Bolboac, Monica M. Marta, and Alexandru Laszlo, ' E-Learning and E- Evaluation: A Case Study', HIS 2008, Krakow, Poland, May 25-27, 2008.

[6]. Daniel Fallman, Oskar Fjellström & Kent Lindbergh, 'AudioIndex: Library Access for the Visually Challenged Using an RFID-based Point and Listen Interface'.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Steganography Technique of Sending Random Passwords on Receiver's Mobile
(A New Technique to Hide Information File with an Image)
Country : India
Authors : Shubhendu S. Shukla, Vijay Jaiswal, Sumeet Gupta, Anurag Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1531725      logo

Abstract: Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. There are many application of Steganography with different carrier file format. Here we perform Steganography Technique with sending OTP on receiver mobile, which is one of the best secured technique in current scenario. This technique is hiding file information into image with OTP password that is only known by receiver. And can decrypt using that OTP only this is pure Steganography. Pure Steganography means that there is none prior information shared by two communication parties. We are not sharing OTP information by two communication parties. So this is more secure than other technique.

Key Words : Steganography, OTP, ICT, Password, IP, UDP, SIHS, LSB.

[1] "Information Hiding: A survey" (pdf). Proceedings of the IEEE (special issue) 87 (7): 1062–78. doi:10.1109/5.771065. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
[2] A New Text Steganography Method By Using Non-Printing Unicode Characters, Akbas E. Ali, Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol.28, No.1, 2010
[3] B.r., Roshan Shetty; J., Rohith; V., Mukund; Honwade, Rohan; Rangaswamy, Shanta (2009). Steganography Using Sudoku Puzzle. pp. 623–626. doi:10.1109/ARTCom.2009.116.
[4] Chvarkova, Iryna; Tsikhanenka, Siarhei; Sadau, Vasili (15 February 2008). "Steganographic Data Embedding Security Schemes Classification". Steganography: Digital Data Embedding Techniques. Intelligent Systems Scientific Community, Belarus. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
[5] Johnson, Neil; Duric, Zoran; Jajodia, Sushil (2001). Information hiding: steganography and watermarking: attacks and countermeasures. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-7204-2.
[6] Krzysztof Szczypiorski (4 November 2003). "Steganography in TCP/IP Networks. State of the Art and a Proposal of a New System - HICCUPS". Institute of Telecommunications Seminar. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
[7] Kundur D. and Ahsan K. (April 2003). "Practical Internet Steganography: Data Hiding in IP". Texas Wksp. Security of Information Systems. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
[8] Vincent Chu. "ASCII Art Steganography".


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A survey on context aware system & intelligent Middleware's
Country : India
Authors : Sudeep K. Hase, Prof. M. B. Vaidya
: 10.9790/0661-1532629      logo

Abstract: Context aware system or Sentient system is the most profound concept in the ubiquitous computing. In the cloud system or in distributed computing building a context aware system is difficult task and programmer should use more generic programming framework. On the basis of layered conceptual design, we introduce Context aware systems with Context aware middleware's. On the basis of presented system we will analyze different approaches of context aware computing. There are many components in the distributed system and these components should interact with each other because it is the need of many applications. Plenty Context middleware's have been made but they are giving partial solutions. In this paper we are giving analysis of different middleware's and comprehensive application of it in context caching.

Keywords: Context aware system, Context aware Middleware's, Context Cache

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Finger Vein Based Licensing And Authentication Scheme Using GSM
Country : India
Authors : D.Divya, S.Padmasarath
: 10.9790/0661-1533035      logo

Abstract: Finger vein authentication scheme is a non imitable biometric authentication scheme. By using this biometric authentication, we can prevent the non license from driving. So we will avoid accidents. The proposed system consists of a smart card capable of storing the finger vein of a particular person. While issuing the license, the specific person's finger vein is to be stored in the card. The same automobile should have facility of finger vein reader. A person, who wishes to drive, must match his finger vein with the smart card otherwise the car will not ignite. Car theft security module also provided using GSM. The groups of vein images were previously stored in the database, when the new vein is introduced the GSM will send a message to the authority. The car will ignite, if it gets a positive reply from the authority otherwise the car gets locked and car theft information will be sent to the nearby police station. Further, door detector, Seat belt detector and alcohol sensor are provided to the authentication module.

Keywords: Alcohol sensor, Door detector, Finger vein reader, GSM, Seat belt detector.

[1] Ajay Kumar and Y ingbo Zhou. "Human Identification Using Finger Images'. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing", Vol. 21, No. 4, April 2012

[2] Anil Jain, Arun Ross and Salil Prabhakar, "Fingerprint Matching Using Minutiae And Texture Features,"in Proc. of Int'l Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pp.282-285, Thessaloniki, Greece, Oct 7 - 10, 2001

[3] Naoto Miura, Akio Nagasaka and Takafumi Miyatake."Extraction of Finger-Vein Patterns Using Maximum Curvature Points in Image Profiles",IAPR Conference on Machine Vision Applications, May 16-18, 2005 Tsukuba Science City, Japan

[4] I. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland. "Face recognition using eigenfaces."Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer",vision and PatternRecognition. 586-591 119911.

[5] J. Hashimoto, "Finger vein authentication technology and its future",2006 Symposium on VLSI Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 5-8-2006.

[6] Mulyona D, Jinn H S. ," A study of finger vein biometric for personal identification", International symposium on Biometrics and Security technologies 2008. Journal paper :

[7] Eui Chul Lee , Hyunwoo Jung and Daeyeoul Kim"New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging", Sensors 2011, 11, 2319-2333

[8] Z. Liu, Y. Yin, HWang, S. Song, and Q. Li ,"Finger vein recognition with manifold learning", Journal of Network and ComputerApplications, vol.33, no.3, pp. 275-282, 2010.

[9] Y. G. Dai and B. N. Huang, "A method for capturing the finger-vein image using nonuniform intensity infrared light", Image and SignalProcessing, vol.4, pp.27-30, 2008.

[10 ] D. D. Hwang and I. Verbauwhede, "Design of portable biometric authenticators - energy, performance, and security tradeoffs",IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1222-1231, Nov.2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimized Traffic Signal Control System at Traffic Intersections Using Vanet
Country : India
Authors : V.Hemakumar, H.Nazini
: 10.9790/0661-1533643      logo

Abstract: Traditional Automated traffic signal control systems normally schedule the vehicles at intersection in a pre timed slot manner. This pre-timed controller approach fails to minimize the waiting time of vehicles at the traffic intersection as it doesn't consider the arrival time of vehicles. To overcome this problem an adaptive and intelligent traffic control system is proposed in such a way that a traffic signal controller with wireless radio installed at the intersection and it is considered as an infrastructure. All the vehicles are equipped with onboard location, speed sensors and a wireless radio to communicate with the infrastructure thereby VANET is formed. Once the vehicles enter into the boundary of traffic area, they broadcast their positional information as data packet with their encapsulated ID in it. The controller at the intersection receives the transmitted packets from all the legs of intersection and then stores it in a temporary log file. Now the controller runs Platooning algorithm to group the vehicles approximately in equal size of platoons. The platoons are formed on the basis of data disseminated by the vehicles. Then the controller runs Oldest Job First algorithm which treats platoons as jobs. The algorithm schedules jobs in conflict free manner and ensures all the jobs utilize equal processing time i.e the vehicles of each platoons cross the intersection at equal delays. The proposed approach is evaluated under various traffic volumes and the performance is analyzed.

Keywords: Conflict graphs, online job scheduling, traffic signal control, vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) simulation, vehicle-actuated traffic signal control, Webster's algorithm.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey of Agent Based Pre-Processing and Knowledge Retrieval
Country : India
Authors : Sapna Pujara, Dr. Kanwal Garg, Mr. Bharat Chhabra
: 10.9790/0661-1534447      logo

Abstract: Information retrieval is the major task in present scenario as quantum of data is increasing with a tremendous speed. So, to manage & mine knowledge for different users as per their interest, is the goal of every organization whether it is related to grid computing, business intelligence, distributed databases or any other. To achieve this goal of extracting quality information from large databases, software agents have proved to be a strong pillar. Over the decades, researchers have implemented the concept of multi agents to get the process of data mining done by focusing on its various steps. Among which data pre-processing is found to be the most sensitive and crucial step as the quality of knowledge to be retrieved is totally dependent on the quality of raw data. Many methods or tools are available to pre-process the data in an automated fashion using intelligent (self learning) mobile agents effectively in distributed as well as centralized databases but various quality factors are still to get attention to improve the retrieved knowledge quality. This article will provide a review of the integration of these two emerging fields of software agents and knowledge retrieval process with the focus on data pre-processing step.

Keywords: Data Mining, Multi Agents, Mobile Agents, Preprocessing, Software Agents.

[1] Bach, M P, Vlahovic, N, & Knezevic, B 2005, September, "Public data retrieval with software agents for business intelligence", in proceedings of the 5th wseas int. Conf. On Applied Informatics, pp. 15-17.
[2] Bellifemine, F, Poggi, A, & Rimassa, G 2001, "Developing multi-agent systems with JADE", Intelligent Agents VII Agent Theories Architectures and Languages, pp. 42-47.
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[4] Davies, W 1993 "ANIMALS: A distributed, heterogeneous multi-agent learning system", MSc Thesis, University of Aberdeen.
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[10] Moemeng, C, Zhu, X, Cao, L, & Jiahang, C 2010, "I-Analyst: An agent-based distributed data mining platform", In Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), 2010 IEEE International Conference, IEEE, pp. 1404-1406.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Upgrading the Performance of Speech Emotion Recognition at the Segmental Level
Country : India
Authors : Agnes Jacob, P.Mythili
: 10.9790/0661-1534852      logo

Abstract: This paper presents an efficient approach for maximizing the accuracy of automatic speech emotion recognition in English, using minimal inputs, minimal features, lesser algorithmic complexity and reduced processing time. Whereas the findings reported here are based on the exclusive use of vowel formants, most of the related previous works used tens or even hundreds of other features. In spite of using a greater level of signal processing, the recognition accuracy reported earlier was often lesser than that obtained by our approach. This method is based on vowel utterances and the first step comprises statistical pre-processing of the vowel formants. This is followed by the identification of the best formants using the KMeans, K-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes classifiers. The Artificial neural network that was used for the final classification gave an accuracy of 95.6% on elicited emotional speech. Nearly 1500 speech files from ten female speakers in the neutral and six basic emotions were used to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. Such a result has not been reported earlier for English and is of significance to researchers, sociologists and others interested in speech. Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Emotions, Formants, Preprocessing,Vowels.

[1] Alena Neviarouskaya, Helmut Prendinger, and Mitsuru Ishizuka, "Emo Heart: Conveying Emotions in Second Life Based on Affect Sensing from Text". Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 2010, 13 pages, 2010. [Online] Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/209801.
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[4] Nasir Naqvi, Baba Shiv and Antoine Bechara, The Role of Emotion in Decision Making-A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective.Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol.15, no.5, pp. 260-264, 2006.
[5] Moataz El Ayadi, Mohamed S.Kamel, Fakhri Karray, "Survey on speech emotion recognition: Features, classification schemes, and databases." Pattern Recognition, Vol. 44, pp. 572–587, 2011.
[6] Ramakrishnan S., & Ibrahiem M.M.El Emary, "Speech Emotion Recognition Approaches in Human Computer interaction". Telecommunication Systems, Vol. 52, no.3, pp.1467-1478, 2013. doi:10.1007/S.11235-011-9624.
[7] S. Lee, S. Yildirim, A. Kazemzadeh, S. Narayanan, "An Articulatory study of Emotional Speech Production," Proceedings of the Eurospeech, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 497-500, 2005.
[8] Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales, "Recognition of Emotions in Mexican Spanish Speech: An Approach Based on Acoustic Modeling of Emotion-Specific Vowels" The Scientific World Journal, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, vol. 2013, 13 pages. [Online] Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/162093.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Exploration of HCI Design Features and Usability Techniques in Gaming
Country : Australia
Authors : Venkata Krishna Mahesh Kumar Kondraju
: 10.9790/0661-1535357      logo

Abstract: This Conference paper explores the human computer interaction design features relating to gaming industry. The HCI user design interface development and HCI Usability expectations are discussed in this paper. HCI design features of Simple Sudoku and Contemporary HCI Expectations are also discussed. And suggestions are given to develop the Simple Sudoku as per HCI standards and expectations.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface, Gestures Recognition, Hand Gestures in 3D, Pattern Language Management Tool, Real Time Strategy Games

[1] Jorgensen, A.H., 2004, 'Marrying HCI/Usability and Computer Games: A Preliminary Look', ACM International conference proceeding series, vol. 82, pp 393-396.
[2] Wenjun, H, Xiudong, B, 2006, 'HCI in real-time strategy games: a study of principals and guidelines for designing 3D user interface', Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design, pp. 1-6
[3] Guan, Y, Zheng, M, 2008, 'Real-time 3D pointing gesture recognition for natural HCI', Proceedings of the 7TH World Congress on Intelligent and Automation, pp. 2433-2436.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Clustering Algorithm Based On Correlation Preserving Indexing
Country : India
Authors : P.Sudhher, V.Kesav Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-1535863      logo

Abstract: Fast retrieval of the relevant information from the databases has always been a significant issue. Different techniques have been developed for this purpose; one of them is Data Clustering. In this paper Data Clustering is discussed along with the applications of Data Clustering and Correlation Preserving Indexing. We proposed a CPI (Correlation Preserving Indexing) algorithm and relate it to structural differences between the data sets.

Keywords: Data Clustering, Data Mining, Clustering techniques, Correlation Preserving Indexing.

[1]. Jeffrey Augen, "Bioinformatics and Data Mining in Support of Drug Discover," Handbook of Anticancer Drug Development. D. Bud man, A. Calvert, E. Rowinsky, editors. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.2003).
[2]. Document Clustering in Correlation Similarity Measure Space Taiping Zhang, Member, IEEE, Yuan Yan Tang, Fellow, IEEE,Bin Fang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Yong Xiang.
[3]. Effective and efficient Clustering methods for spatial data mining-Raymont.T.Ng, Jaiwei Han.
[4]. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques-Jaiwei Han, M. Kamber, Jian Pei.
[5]. Document Clustering usinglocality Preserving IndexingDeng CAI, Xiaofei He, And Jiawei Han.
[6]. Data Clustering: A reviewK. JainMichigan State UniversityM.N. MurtyIndian Institute of sciencesand P.J. FLYNN the Ohio State University.
[7]. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis Scott Deerwester,Susan T. Dumais, George W. Furnas, and Thomas K. Landauer,Richard HarshmanUniversity of Western Ontario, London, Ontario Canada. Document Clustering with Cluster Refinement and Model Selection Capabilities -Xin Liu, Yihong Gong, Wei Xu.,Shenghuo Zhu.
[8]. Recent Advances in Clustering: A Brief Survey- S.B. KOTSIANTIS, P. E. PINTELAS.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : VLSI Implementation of High Speed & Low Power Multiplier in FPGA
Country : India
Authors : Prashant Kumar Sahu, Asst. Prof. Nitin Meena , Prof. Shweta Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1536470      logo

Abstract: We known that different multipliers consume most of the power in DSP computations, FIR filters. Hence, it is very important factor for modern DSP systems to built low-power multipliers to minimize the power dissipation. In this paper, we presents high speed & low power Row Column bypass multiplier design methodology that inserts more number of zeros in the multiplicand thereby bypass the number of zero in row & Column as well as reduce power consumption. The bypassing of zero activity of the component used in the process of multiplication, depends on the input bit data. This means if the input bit data is zero, corresponding row and column of adders need not be addition & transfer bit in next row and column adder circuit. If multiplicand having more zeros, higher power reduction can be achieved. At last stage of Row & column bypass multiplier having ripple carry adder which are increase time to generate carry bit to transfer next adder circuit. To reduce this problem by using Carry bypass adder in place of ripple carry adder, then new modification of Row &column multiplier having high speed in comparison to simple row & column bypass multiplier, , the experimental results show that our proposed multiplier reduces power dissipation & High speed overhead on the average for 4x4, 8x8 and 16x16 multiplier.

Keywords: Low Power, Row & Column bypass Multiplier, Carry bypassing techniques, FPGA, Xilinx .

[1] Prashant kumar Sahu and Asst. Prof Nitin Meena, "Comparative Study Of Different Multiplier Architecture", IJETT, Volume 4 Issue ,pp. 4293,10- Oct 2013.

[2] M. C. Wen, S. J. Wang and Y. M. Lin, "Low power parallel multiplier with column bypassing," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2005.

[3] Ming-Chen Wen, Sying-Jyan Wang, and Yen-Nan Lin, "Low power parallel multiplier with column-bypassing," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS, vol. 2, pp.1638-1641, May 2005.

[4] J. Ohban, V. G. Moshnyaga, K. Inoue, "Multiplier energy reduction through Bypassing of partial products", IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp.13-17, 2002.

[5] Chang-Young Han, Hyoung-Joon Park, and Lee-Sup Kim, "A low-power array multiplier using separated multiplication technique," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume 48, Issue 9, pp.866-871, Sept. 2001.

[6] B. Parhami, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Oxford University Press, 2000.

[7] C. R. Baugh and B. A. Wooley, "A two's complement parallel array multiplication algorithm," IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-22, pp. 1045-1047, Dec. 1973.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey of Image Segmentation based on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Approach
Country : India
Authors : Varshali Jaiswal, Aruna Tiwari
: 10.9790/0661-1537178      logo

Abstract: In image analysis, segmentation is the partitioning of a digital image into multiple regions (sets of pixels), according to some homogeneity criterion. The problem of segmentation is a well-studied one in literature and there are a wide variety of approaches that are used. Different approaches are suited to different types of images and the quality of output of a particular algorithm is difficult to measure quantitatively due to the fact that there may be much correct segmentation for a single image. Image segmentation denotes a process by which a raw input image is partitioned into nonoverlapping regions such that each region is homogeneous and the union of any two adjacent regions is heterogeneous. A segmented image is considered to be the highest domain-independent abstraction of an input image. Image segmentation is an important processing step in many image, video and computer vision applications. Extensive research has been done in creating many different approaches and algorithms for image segmentation, but it is still difficult to assess whether one algorithm produces more accurate segmentations than another, whether it be for a particular image or set of images, or more generally, for a whole class of images. In this paper, The Survey of Image Segmentation using Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Approach methods that have been proposed in the literature. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. 1. Introduction, 2.Literature review, 3.Noteworthy contributions in the field of proposed work, 4.Proposed Methodology, 5.Expected outcome of the proposed research work, 6.Conclusion.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, Segmentation Algorithm, Artificial Intelligence, Evolutionary Algorithm, Neural Network, Fuzzy Set, Clustering.

[1] Ms.Chinki Chandhok, Mrs.Soni Chaturvedi, Dr.A.A Khurshid, "An Approach to Image Segmentation using K-means Clustering Algorithm", International Journal of Information Technology (IJIT), Volume – 1, Issue – 1, August 2012
[2] Aleksandar Jevti´c, Member, IEEE and Diego Andina, Senior Member, IEEE, "Adaptive Artificial Ant Colonies for Edge Detection in Digital Images",2010 IEEE
[3] Yongwang Wang, Yiming Wu, Xiaojin Zhao, Zhen Yao and Chunyan Li, "A Method of Identifying and Locating Encoded Artificial Points Automatically in Close Range Digital Photogrammetry", 978-1-4673-1744-3/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE
[4] Sude Tovassoli, Alireza Rezvanian, Mohammad Mehdi "A New Method for Impulse Noise Reduction from Digital Images Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System and Fuzzy Wavelet Shrinkage", 978-1-4244-6349-7/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE
[5] S.Dhanalakshmi, Dr.T.Ravichandran "A New Method for Image Segmentation", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012
[6] Yongxia Zuo, Guoqiang Wang, Chuncheng Zuo, "A Novel Image Segmentation Method of Pavement Surface Cracks Based on Fractal Theory" 2008 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, 978-0-7695-3508-1/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE DOI 10.1109/CIS.2008.206
[7] Gan Du and Tat Soon Yeo, "A Novel Lacunarity Estimation Method Applied to SAR Image Segmentation" IEEE Transaction on geosciences and Remote Sensing, vol. 40, No. 12, Dec 2002
[8] Hiroyuki awanishi and Masafiimi Hagiwara, "A Shape Detection Method using Improved Genetic Algorithm", 0-7803-2559-1/95 $4.00 0 1995 IEEE
[9] Krishna Kant Singh, Akansha Singh, "A Study Of Image Segmentation Algorithms For Different Types Of Images Different", IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5,September 2010
[10] Aleksandar Jevti´c, and Diego Andina, "Adaptive Artificial Ant Colonies for Edge Detection in Digital Images" 2010 IEEE


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Quantified Approach for large Dataset Compression in Association Mining
Country : India
Authors : Pratush Jadoun , Kshitij Pathak
: 10.9790/0661-1537984      logo

Abstract: With the rapid development of computer and information technology in the last several decades, an enormous amount of data in science and engineering will continuously be generated in massive scale; data compression is needed to reduce the cost and storage space. Compression and discovering association rules by identifying relationships among sets of items in a transaction database is an important problem in Data Mining. Finding frequent itemsets is computationally the most expensive step in association rule discovery and therefore it has attracted significant research attention. However, existing compression algorithms are not appropriate in data mining for large data sets. In this research a new approach is describe in which the original dataset is sorted in lexicographical order and desired number of groups are formed to generate the quantification tables. These quantification tables are used to generate the compressed dataset, which is more efficient algorithm for mining complete frequent itemsets from compressed dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs better when comparing it with the mining merge algorithm with different supports and execution time.

Keywords: Apriori Algorithm, mining merge Algorithm, quantification table.

[1]. Jia -Yu Dai, Don – Lin Yang, Jungpin Wu and Ming-Chuan Hung, " Data Mining Approach on Compressed Transactions Database" in PWASET Volume 30, pp 522-529, 2010.
[2]. M. C. Hung, S. Q. Weng, J. Wu, and D. L. Yang, "Efficient Mining of Association Rules Using Merged Transactions," in WSEAS Transactions on Computers, Issue 5, Vol. 5, pp. 916-923, 2008.
[3]. D. Burdick, M. Calimlim, J. Flannick, J. Gehrke, and T. Yiu, "MAFIA: A maximal frequent itemset algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 17, pp. 1490-1504, 2008.
[4]. D. Xin, J. Han, X. Yan, and H. Cheng, "Mining Compressed Frequent-Pattern Sets," in Proceedings of the 31st international conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 709-720, 2007.
[5]. G. Grahne and J. Zhu, "Fast algorithms for frequent itemset mining using FP-trees," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 17, pp. 1347-1362, 2005.
[6]. M. Z. Ashrafi, D. Taniar, and K. Smith, "A Compress-Based Association Mining Algorithm for Large Dataset," in Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science, pp. 978-987, 2003.
[7]. Ashrafi and K. Smith, "Data Compression-Based Mining Algorithm for Large Dataset," in Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science, 2003.
[8]. D. I. Lin and Z. M. Kedem, "Pincer-search: an efficient algorithm for discovering the maximum frequent set," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 14, pp. 553-566, 2002.
[9]. E. Hullermeier, "Possibilistic Induction in Decision-Tree Learning," in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 173-184, 2002.
[10]. Cheung, W., "Frequent Pattern Mining without Candidate generation or Support Constraint." Master's Thesis, University of Alberta, 2002.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Bandana Bhatia
: 10.9790/0661-1538589      logo

Abstract: A wireless sensor network consists of a large number of sensor nodes which are deployed over an area to perform local computations based on information gathered from the surroundings. Each node in the network consists of a battery, but it is very difficult to change or recharge batteries. So the question is how to enhance the lifetime of the network to such a long time. Therefore, in order to maximize the lifetime of the network, the consumption of energy must be minimized. This is an important challenge in sensor networks as sensors can not be easily replaced or recharged due to their ad-hoc deployment in hazardous environment. In this paper, the main techniques used for energy conservation in sensor networks are discussed which include duty cycling scheme, data driven approaches, mobility-based schemes, energy efficient MAC protocols and node self scheduling scheme. These schemes can be used to improve the energy efficiency of the wireless sensor network so that the network can work with greater efficiency and high battery lifetime.

Keywords : Energy conservation, energy consumption, sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks.

[1] "Sensor Networks", available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network, last accessed on: 12 October, 2013.

[2] G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. D. Francesco and A. Passarella, Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: A survey, ELSEVIER, 2008, 537–568.

[3] "Radio Frequency", available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_frequency, last accessed on: 15th October, 2013.
[4] K. E. Kannammal and T. Purusothaman, Comparison of Data Centric Routing Protocols with Random Way Point Mobility Model in Mobile Sensor Networks, European Journal of Scientific Research, 65(4), 2011, 546.

[5] Z. Rezaei and S. Mobininejad, Energy Saving in Wireless Sensor, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES), 3(1), 2012, 23-37.

[6] W. Ye, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin, Medium Access Control With Coordinated Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 12(3), 2004, 493-506.

[7] T. V. Dam and K. Langendoen, An Adaptive Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. 1st ACM Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Department of Computer Engineering Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Iran, 2003.

[8] W. Ye, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin, Medium Access Control With Coordinated Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 12(3), 2004, 493-506.

[9] T. V. Dam and K. Langendoen, An Adaptive Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. 1st international conf. on Embedded networked sensor systems, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2003, 171-180.

[10] D. Tian and N. D. Georganas, A Node Scheduling Scheme for Energy Conservation in Large Wireless Sensor Networks, Multimedia Communications Research Laboratory, University of Ottawa, Canada, 2003.




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