IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

July – Aug. 2015 Volume 17 - Issue 4

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Government Policies Search Using Marathi Speech Recognition System– Based On Robust Feature Extraction Method
Country : India
Authors : Mugdha Parande || Prof. Shanthi Therese || Prof. Vinayak Shinde

Abstract:Country like India, where 70% of the population lives in village and rural parts of the country, it becomes more necessary to utilize such tools for their social, economic, administrative and governance regeneration. The objective is to facilitate and improve Panchayat functioning on day-to-day basis, through two ways flow of information and content. The propose speech recognition application can facilitate most effective and reliable service to the user.
Index Terms: Feature Extraction approach, Gammatone filter, SNR parameter, Marathi Speech recognition.

[1]. Jun qi, dong wang, yijiang, runshengliu, "auditory features based on gammatone filters for robust speech recognition," ieee transactions on audio, speech, and language processing, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1109-11023, march,2012.
[2]. Vimala.c, radha.v, "suitable feature extraction and speech recognition technique for isolated tamil spoken words," international journal of computer science and information technologies, vol. 5 (1) , 2014, 378-383.
[3]. Hynkeyhermanskey , "design and development of automatic speech recognition of isolated marathi words for agricilturalpurpose,"iosr journal of computer engineering, vol.16,issue no. 3, pp. 79-85, may-jun 2014.
[4]. R. K. A. A. M. Dave, "using gaussian mixtures for hindi speech recognition system," international journal of signal processing, image processing and pattern recognition, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 50-64, december 2011.
[5]. Octavian cheng, waleedabdulla, zoransalcic, report on" performance evaluation of front-end processing for speech recognition systems," department of electrical and computer engineering department, the university of auckland. March 2012.
[6]. Bharti w. Gawali, santoshgaikwad, pravinyannawar, sureshc.mehrotra"marathi isolated word recognition system using,", vol. 01, no. 01, pp. 21-26, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Advanced Safe PIN-Entry Against Human Shoulder-Surfing
Country : India
Authors : Ms.R Revathy || Mrs.R.Bama

Abstract: When users insert their passwords in a common area, they might be at risk of aggressor stealing their password. The PIN entry can be perceived by close by adversaries, more effectually in a crowded place. A new technique has been established to cope with this problem that is cryptography prevention techniques. Instead, there have been alternative approaches among them, the PIN entry was elegant because of its simplicity and accessibility. The basic BW method is focused to withstand a human shoulder surfing attack. In every round, a well ordered numeric keypad is colored at odd. A user who knows the accurate PIN digit can enter by pressing the separate color key.

1]. "Security Notions and Advanced Method for Human Shoulder-Surfing Resistant PIN-Entry" IEEE TRANSACTIONS 2014, Mun-Kyu Lee, Member, IEEE.
[2]. "Drag-and-type: a new method for typing with virtual keyboards on small touch screens", IEEE TRANSACTIONS 2014, Taekyoung Kwon, IEEE, Sarang Na, IEEE, Sang-ho Park.
[3]. "Novice and Expert Performance of Key Scretch: A Gesture-Based Text Entry Method for Touch-Screens" IEEE TRANSACTIONS, 2014, Vittorio fuccella, Mattia de Rosa, and Gennaro costagliola, Member, IEEE.
[4]. "Differentiated Virtual Passwords, Secret Little Functions, and Codebooks for Protecting Users From Password Theft" IEEE TRANSACTIONS 2014, Yang Xiao , senior member, IEEE ,Chung – Chin Li, Ming Lei, and Susan V. Vrbsky.
[5]. "Capacitive Touch Communication: A Technique to Input Data through Devices Touch Screen" IEEE TRANSACTIONS, 2014, Tam Vu, Akash Baid, Simon GAO, Marco Gruteser, Richard Howard, Senior Member.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effective Modular Order Preserving Encryption on Cloud Using MHGD
Country : India
Authors : N.Jayashri. || T.Chakravarthy.

Abstract: Cloud computing strengthens its presence in the public sector, Organizations and individuals are looking for cloud services to improve productivity, security and reduce costs. Apart from communication, file storage is the main requirement for common people. Traditional data centers consist of large collections of server farms implementing perimeter-security measures. Public cloud offersa multitenant service, in which the concept of the network perimeter evaporates. For the former concern, data encryption before outsourcing is the simplest way to protect data privacy.

[1]. Crowe Horwath LLP, Warren Chan, Eugene Leung,Heidi Pili. Enterprise Risk Management for Cloud Computing.ResearchCommissionedby COSO.(June 2012).
[2]. Wayne Jansen Timothy Grance. NIST-Draft-SP-800-144_cloud-computing - Guidelines on Security and Privacy in Public Cloud Computing.
[3]. ―Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing,‖ Cloud Security Alliance, Dec. 2009;
[4]. Kui Ren, Cong Wang, and Qian Wang . Security Challenges for the Public Cloud. Illinois Institute ofTechnology.
[5]. C. Wang et al., Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Storage Security in Cloud Computing, Proc. 30th IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM 10), IEEE Press, 2010, pp. 525–533.
[6]. Paul Hofmann .Cloud Computing: The Limits of Public Clouds for Business Applications.SAP Labs

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Name Entity Detection and Relation Extraction from Unstructured Data by N-gram Features
Country : India
Authors : Naincy Priya || Amanpreet Kaur

Abstract: In recent years Name entity extraction and linking have received much attention. However, correct classification of entities and proper linking among these entities is a major challenge for researcher. We propose an approach for entities and their relation extraction with feature including lexicon, n-gram and parts of speech clustering and then apply hidden markov model for entity extraction and CRF with kernel approach to detect relationship among these entities.

[1] Daljit Abhishek Gattani, Digvijay S. Lamba, Nikesh Garera, Mitul Tiwari, Xiaoyong Chai, Sanjib Das, Sri Subramaniam, Anand Rajaraman, Venky Harinarayan, AnHai Doan, "Entity Extraction, Linking, Classification, and Tagging for Social Media: A Wikipedia-Based Approach" in International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Vol. 6, No. 11, 26th-30th August 2013
[2] Abdulrahman Alkaff, Masnizah Mohd, "Extraction Of Nationality From Crime News" in Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology,. Vol. 54 No.2, 20th August 2013.
[3] Sudha Morwal, Nusrat Jahan, "Named Entity Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model(HMM): An Experimental Result on Hindi, Urdu and Marathi Languages" in International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013.
[4] Sudha Morwal, Nusrat Jahan and Deepti Chopra, "Named Entity Recognition using Hidden Markov Model (HMM)" in International Journal on Natural Language Computing, , Vol. 1, No. 4, December 2012..

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Three Hop Reliability Model for Wireless Sensor Networks in Nuclear Power Plants
Country : India
Authors : S.Lavanya || Dr. S. Prakasam

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks(WSN) are a good choice for Nuclear Power Plants because of low cost and flexibility. Reliability is a crucial factor for WSN in Nuclear Power Plants since all the data collected are time critical information that should be delivered on time otherwise a huge loss could incur in terms of money, resource or even human lives. So it is a challenging task to design a routing protocol for sensor used in such harsh environments. In Three hop reliability model (3H-ACK), three copies of the same data are maintained without imposing extra cost on the network. This model works best using zone routing protocol .Compared to the models used earlier, this 3H-ACK performs well in terms of delivery ratio, throughput and avoids packet loss as far as possible.

Keywords: Acknowledgment, Nuclear Power Plants, Reliability, Sensor Networks,

[1]. L. Li*a, Q. Wangb, A. Barib, C. Dengc, D. Chenc, J. Jiangb, Q. Alexandera, and B. Sura , Field Test of Wireless Sensor Network in the Nuclear Environment, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0, Canada.
[2]. H.M. Hashemian, 2011, Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control -In Nuclear Power – Control, Reliability and Human Factors, InTech, Chapter 3, pp. 49–66, Available from URL: 1051/InTech uclear_power_plant_instrumentation_and_control.pdf.
[3]. A Kadri, R.K. Rao and J. Jiang, 2009, "Low-Power Chirp Spread SpectrumSignals for Wireless Communication within Nuclear Power Plants", Nuclear Technology, 166(2), pp. 156–169.
[4]. Muhammad Adeel Mahmood and Winston Seah, "Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges Ahead" Published in Elsevier February 8, 2012.
[5]. Joseph V. Cordaro, Davis Shull, Mark Farrar, and George Reeve, Ultra Secure High Reliability Wireless Radiation Monitoring System, IEEE 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : SpMV Profiling and Optimization Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Aditi V. Kulkarni || Prof. C. R. Barde

Abstract: Sparse matrix-vector multiplication is an important operation when it comes to sparse matrix computations. Very large and sparse matrices are used in many engineering and scientific operations. Hence the matrix needs to be partitioned properly. Even though the matrix is partitioned and stored appropriately there still exists a possibility, the performance achieved is not significant. Thus, the need to address these issues. System proposes an integrated analytical and profile based performance modelling that accurately measures the kernel execution time of various SpMV CUDA kernels for a given target sparse-matrix.

[1]. P. Guo, L. Wang and P. Chen, "A Performance Modeling and Optimization Analysis Tool for Sparse-Matrix Vector Multiplication on GPUs", IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1112-1123, May 2014.
[2]. N. Bell and M. Garland, "Implementing Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication on Throughput-Oriented Processors," Proc. Conf. High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC'09), pp. 1-11, 2009.
[3]. P. Guo and L. Wang, "Accurate CUDA Performance Modeling for Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. High Performance Computing and Simulation (HPCS '12), pp. 496-502, July 2012. P. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Chen, L. Wang, E.-J. Lee, and P. Chen, "A Model-Driven Partitioning and Auto-Tuning Integrated Framework for Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication on GPUs," Proc. TeraGrid Conf. Extreme Digital Discovery (TG '11), pp. 2:1-2:8, 2011.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Forensic Activity on Multitenant Cloud Web Hosting
Country : India
Authors : Capt. Dr. S Santhosh Baboo || S. Mani Megalai

Abstract: Cloud computing has become bounteous target for populous IT Industry and other Commercial Industries. Multitenant Cloud Hosting is the popular hosting for numberless providers. Multitenant shares the single application and the data would be different. There should be isolation of data and the logs between each company. There is a challenge to analyze the criminal activity on multitenant cloud environment. It is strenuous to analyze the forensic activity without violating the privacy of other company users.

[4]. Manish Hirwani Yin Pan Bill Stackpole Daryl Johnson, Forensic Acquisition and Analysis of VMware Virtual Hard Disks, 2012 Rochester Institute of Technology
[5]. Jason Flood, AnthonyKeane, A Proposed Framework for the active detection of security vulnerabilities in multitenancy cloud systems. , 2012 Third International Conference on Emerging Intelligent Data and Web Technologies, IEEE 978-0-7695-4734-3/12
[6]. Cheng yan, Cybercrime Forensic System in Cloud Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, East China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai, China, IEEE 2011, 978-1-61284-881-5/11 Tobias Gebhardt, Hans P. Reiser, Network Forensics for Cloud Computing, Volume 7891, 2013, pp 29-42

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Neural Stepper
Country : India
Authors : Chaitanya Ramji || Sandhya Murali

Abstract: Diseases from the brain come in different forms and shapes ranging from highly disabling and eventually fatal neurological condition to mild, treatable depression. Such diseases also referred to as a neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral system which mainly affects the brain, spines and nerves that connect them. Epilepsy, Alzheimer's, Cerebral Palsy and other cerebrovascular diseases like stroke, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease are some of them. The common symptoms include muscle weakness, difficulty in reading and writing, changes in coordination and balance, tremors, poor speech delivery and numbness in arms or legs.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Parallelizing Graph Algorithms on GPU for Optimization
Country : India
Authors : Trupti R. Desale

Abstract: Many practical applications include image processing, space searching, network analysis, graph partitioning etc. in that large graphs having a millions of vertices are commonly used and to process on that vertices is difficult task. Using high-end computers practical-time implementations are reported but are accessible only to a few. Efficient performance of those applications requires fast implementation of graph processing and hence Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) of today having a high computational power of accelerating capacity are deployed. The NVIDIA GPU can be treated as a SIMD processor array using the CUDA programming model.

[1]. Jun-Dong Cho, Salil Raje, and Majid Sarrafzadeh, "Fast approximation algorithms on maxcut, k-coloring, and k-color ordering for vlsi applications," IEEE Transactions on Computers, 47(11):1253–1266, 1998.
[2]. David A. Bader and Kamesh Madduri, "Designing multithreaded algorithms for breadth-first search and st-connectivity on MTA-2," In ICPP, pages 523–530, 2006.
[3]. J.D. Owens, D. Luebke, N.K. Govindaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, "A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware, " in Proc. Eurographics, State Art Rep., 2005, pp. 21-51.
[4]. P. Harish and P.J. Narayanan, "Accelerating Large Graph Algorithms on the GPU Using CUDA," in Proc. HiPC, 2007, pp. 197-208.
[5]. Vibhav Vineet and P. J. Narayanan,"Large graph algorithms for massively multithreaded architecture" in Proc. HiPC, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Exploratory Review on Soft Computing Segmentation Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Chandanpreet Kaur || Dr. Bikrampal Kaur

Abstract: Segmentation is a process to divides the images into its regions or objects that have similar features or characteristics. Segmentation has no single standard procedure and it is very difficult in non-trivial images. The extent, to which segmentation is carried out, depends on the problem specification. Segmentation algorithms are based on two properties of intensity values- discontinuity and similarity. First property is to partition an image based on the abrupt changes in the intensity and the second is to partition the image into regions that are similar according to a set of predefined criteria. In this paper some methods to detect the discontinuity and similarity of digital images will be discussed.

[1]. R. Gonzalez and Richard E.Woods, "Digital Image Processing", 2Ed, 2002.
[2]. B. Sumengen, B. S. Manjunath, C. Kenney, "Image Segmentation using Curve Evolution and Flow Fields" Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Rochester, NY, USA, September 2002.
[3]. W. Ma, B.S. Manjunath, "Edge Flow: a technique for boundary detection and image segmentation" Trans. Image Proc., pp. 1375-88, Aug. 2000
[4]. Venugopal, "Image segmentation" written reports 2003.
[5]. Jin Wang, "Image segmentation Using curve evolution and flow fields", written reports 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study of AODV, FSR and IERP on MANET using Grid topology
Country : India
Authors : Sanjeev Kumar Ojha || A.K.Shukla || Pramod Narayan Tripathi || Ashutosh Shukla

Abstract: Over the recent many of years, the use of wireless networks has become very popular. A MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes without the use of any fixed network infrastructure or centralized administration networks. Each node in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use and therefore be a router. In this paper a performance comparison of three popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols i.e. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV),Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) and Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSRP) is presented with variable maximum speed with grid node placement.

[1]. V. Sahu, G. Sharma, and R. Paulus, "Study of Performance Variation of AODV Routing Protocol for Various Parameter Patterns using Qualnet Simulator", volume-54, no. 6, pp. 7-11, September, 2012, IJCA (0975-8887).
[2]. GauravSharma ,V. Sahu, P. K. Maurya, R.Paulus ,"Analyzing the Effect of Constant and Lognormal Shadowing Model on Ad-hoc Routing Protocols"Volume 66– No.8,IJCA,March,pp-16-19,Mar 2013.
[3]. Ashish A Roberts, R. Paulus, A K Jaiswal,"WSN Performance Parameters of AODV, DYMO, OLSR and IERP in RWP Mobility Model through, IJCA, March 2013.
[4]. C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, "Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing", Proceeding of 2nd IEEE Workshop, Mobile Computing System Applications, pp:90-100, 1999.
[5]. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, "Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, "draft-ietf-manet-aodv-13.txt, Feb. 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Knowledge-Based HIV/AIDS Framework for Lagos State: An Empirical Study.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Waliu Olalekan || Apena

Abstract: This study investigates non-clinical HIV/AIDS activities and explores the efficacy of contemporary E-Health initiatives, including systems focusing on deployment of healthcare information, telecommunications and information and communication technologies. The study evaluates non-clinical HIV/AIDS activities by studying students from Lagos State. Data was collected from selected secondary schools in all Lagos State administrative divisions, as well as Lagos State University. Schools were selected in each division (2-5 schools) using a stratified proportional random sampling principle.

[1]. Apena, W., Bali, R. K., Binnersley J., Naguib, R. N. G. and Odetayo M., (2014) "HIV/AIDS Behavioural Challenges in Lagos State Schools: An Empirical Study‟ International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, Volume 14(1), 99-109.
[2]. Apena, W., Bali, R. K., Binnersley J., Naguib, R. N. G. and Odetayo M., (2014) "Evaluation of HIV Health Service in Lagos State: An Empirical Study‟, International Journal of Services, Economics and Management, Volume 6(1), 1-13.
[3]. Apena W., Bali, R. K., Naguib, R. N. G. and Odetayo M (2010) "Issues in evaluating knowledge-based HIV/AIDS programmes: perspectives from Nigeria‟, Working Paper Series, Biomedical Computing and Engineering (BIOCORE), Applied Research, Group, Coventry University, United Kingdom.
[4]. Bali R. K., Mann R., Baskaran V., Naguib R. N. G., Richards A. C., Puentes J., Lehaney B., Marshall I. M and Wickramasinghe N (2011) "Knowledge-Based Issues for Aid Agencies in Crisis Scenarios: Evolving from Impediments to Trust‟, International Journal of Information System for Crisis Response and Management, 3(3), 16-35, July-September 2011
[5]. Balogun, M. and Odeyemi, K. (2010) "Knowledge and practice of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among traditional birth attendants in Lagos State, Nigeria‟, Pan African Medical Journal Research 5 (7).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Upscaling And Fuzzy ARTMAP Neural Network
Country : India
Authors : Gagandeep Singh || Gulshan Goyal

Abstract: In Image upscaling, a higher resolution image is processed from an available low resolution image. There are numerous scenarios and applications where image upscaling is required and performed. The paper proposes a simple image scaling algorithm and implements it with a fuzzy variant of the supervised ART neural network, ARTMAP. The method has been compared with nearest neighbor interpolation, bilinear interpolation and bicubic interpolation, both objectively and subjectively. The present paper is an attempt at understanding the Adaptive Resonance Theory networks while proposing a simple linear upscaling method.

Keywords: ARTMAP, Artificial neural network, bilinear, nearest neighbor, Upscaling

[1]. Gonzalez, Rafael C. Digital image processing. Pearson Education India, 2009. [2]. Purkait, P., and Chanda B., "Super resolution image reconstruction through Bregman iteration using morphologic regularization." Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on 21.9 (2012): pp 4029-4039.

[3]. Yang, Jianchao, et al. "Coupled dictionary training for image super-resolution."Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on 21.8 (2012):pp 3467-3478.

[4]. Zhang, Haichao, Yanning Zhang, and Thomas S. Huang. "Efficient sparse representation based image super resolution via dual dictionary learning."Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 2011 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2011.

[5]. Gunturk, B. K., et al. "Demosaicking: color filter array interpolation." IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 22 (2005):pp 44-54.

[6]. Han, Dianyuan. "Comparison of Commonly Used Image Interpolation Methods."Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering. Atlantis Press, 2013.

[7]. Yang, Jianchao, et al. "Coupled dictionary training for image super-resolution."Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on 21.8 (2012): pp 3467-3478.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Singer's Voice Identification and Authentication based on GFCC using K-means Clustering and DTW
Country : India
Authors : Swati Atame || Prof. Shanthi Therese S

Abstract: The use of computers has increased to a very large extent due to its immense use and growing technologies that gives rise to transfer of digital media over longer distances. As the audio data may travel over large networks it needs to be purified or cleaned during recording or while the processing the data so that it can be identified. Cleaning is related to removing the noise that may exist in the signal. There are 2 ways in which the audio can be cleaned. First, recording can be done in clean environment that includes no noise at all, even the fans may create disturbances, recording done in a closed room.

[1]. Md. Moinuddin, Arunkumar N. Kanthi, "Speaker Identification based on GFCC using GMM",International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163,Volume 1 Issue 8 September 2014.
[2]. VenkateshDeshak, ArunkumarKanthi, "Audio Clustering", International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) , ISSN: 2349-2163 Volume 1 Issue 8, September 2014
[3]. H. Zha, C. Ding, M. Gu, X. He and H.D. Simon,"Spectral Relaxation for K-means Clustering", Neural Information Processing Systems vol.14 (NIPS 2001).pp. 1057-1064, Vancouver, Canada. Dec. 2001.
[4]. J. A. Hartigan and M. A. Wong, "A K-Means Clustering Algorithm", Applied Statistics, Vol. 28, No. 1, p100-108, 1979.
[5]. Abdul SyafiqAbdullSukor, "Speaker identification system usinsg MFCC procedure and Noise reduction",University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, January 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Data Hiding Inside the Image Using Uniform Embedding Techniques
Country : India
Authors : J. S. Harini, Student

Abstract: The main aim of steganography is to hide data in the text media such as image, text, audio and video so that it cannot be identified by others. One of the advantages of steganography is that it can be used to transmit the secret messages without knowing the fact of transmission being discovered.

[1]. (Piyush Goel),Data Hiding in Digital Images: A Steganographic Paradigm
[2]. (Dr. Oleg Victorov), Enhancement of A Steganographic algorithm for Hiding Text Messages in Images
[3]. T. Filler, J. Judas, and J. Fridrich, "Minimizing additive distortion insteganography using syndrome-trellis codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. ForensicsSecurity, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 920–935, Sep. 2011.(Ref no.1.)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Implementation of Automatic Irrigation Control System
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Oborkhale,Lawrence I || Abioye, A. E. || Egonwa B. O. || Olalekan T. A.

Abstract: The objective of irrigation is to keep measure on food security and the aim of automatic irrigation control system is to minimize the intervention of the human operator (gardener) in irrigation activities. The automatic irrigation control system is used to achieve this aim. This control system is built around ATMEGA32microcontroller programmed using embedded C language. Inputs are the signals from four sensors namely soil moisture sensor using hygrometer module, water level sensor using the LM 324 Op-amp was configured here as comparator, light sensorwith the aid of Light dependent resistor and temperature sensor using LM 35.

[1]. S. K. Agodzo, E. Y.Bobobee, Policy issues of irrigation in Ghana.1960-1990. Proceedings of the XIIthWorld Congress on Agricultural Engineering, Milano,1994,Vol.1pp335-343.
[2]. Hudson, "Irrigation‟ In Field Of Engineering for Agricultural Development, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975, Pp. 117
[3]. M. Yildirim, M. Demirel,"An Automated Drip Irrigation System Based on Soil Electrical Conductivity", The Philippine Agricultural Scientist,2011, Vol.94, No.4, p.343-349.
[4]. M.A. Mazidi,J.GMazidi,.andR.D.McKinlay, The 8051 Microcontroller and EmbeddedSystemsUsing Assembly and C.Second Edition.1999,pp 50-80
[5]. V. E.Ejiofor, O. F. Oladipo, Microcontroller basedAutomaticWater levelControl System, InternationalJournalofInnovativeResearchinComputer andCommunicationEngineering,2013, Vol.1,Issue6.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Spectrum Scheduling using Markov Chain Model in Cognitive Radio Networks
Country : India
Authors : Dr. ArunKumar B R || Reshma C R

Abstract: Cognitive radio is an emerging technology for the effective frequency utilization. The fixed spectrum allocation has resulted in spectrum holes.The Cognitive Radio solves the problem for unused spectrum by the mechanism of spectrum assignment. This research work proposes an efficient spectrum assignmentby Markov scheduling, banker's algorithm for deadlock avoidance and applying the graph coloring problem for the fair allocation of resources.The CRN spectrum assignment problem is modeled using Bigraph and Markov analysis carried out has demonstrated to show the efficient scheduling and indicated the possible performance improvement in spectrum allocation/ scheduling in CRN.

Keywords: Cognitive Radios, Markov chain, scheduling, communication,bipartite, Bankers algorithm.

[1]. F Koropi, s.Talebi, H.Salehinejad " CRN Spectrum Allocation: An ACS perspective" ScientiaIranica.
[2]. V. Vinothia, Dr. R Sridaran dean, Dr. PadmavathiGanapati " A Survey on Resource Allocation Strtegies in cloud computing" IJACSA, vol3,No6,2012.
[3]. Didem Gozupekmordechai shalom, FatihAlagoz" A Graph Theortic Approach to scheduling Cognitive Radio Network,IEEE/ACM,2012.
[4]. Elias Z Targos, SheraliZeadlly, Alexandros G Fragkiadakis and vasilios " Spectrum Assignment in Cogitive Radio Network: A Comprehensive study" IEEE Communications surveys and tutorials.
[5]. D M Blough" Approximation algorithm for wireless link scheduling with SINR Band Interference, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Network December,2010.

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