IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

July - Aug 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 4

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Emergency Vehicle Priority Preference at Multiple Wireless Network Sensors (MWNS) Intelligent Road Traffic Signal Control System
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Okunade Oluwasogo Adekunle, Osunade Oluwaseyitan
: 10.9790/0661-16460106     logo

Abstract: Traffic control management system has to be intelligent and equitable in signal allocation management system, especially priority order has to be given to emergency vehicles so as to prevent unforeseen circumstances, likeaccident and delay in emergency duties delivery. However we apply multiple wireless network sensors (MWNS) to intelligently control the road traffic system for equitable allocation of time frame; and to dynamically give priority preference to any sighted emergency vehicle on the road at any point in time; this will enable emergency vehicles to pass through signalized intersections withfewer interruptions from surrounding vehicular traffic.This approach increases road capacity, traffic flow, prevents traffic congestions, accident and thus increases society economic growth.

Keywords: Intelligent, Priority, emergency, TrafficIllumination, Radio frequency Identification Reader (RFIR), Multiple Wireless Network Sensors (MWNS)

[1] K. M. Yousef, J. N. AL-karaki and A. M. Shatnawi, Intelligent Traffic Light Flow Control System Using Wireless Sensors Networks. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 26, 2010, 753-768.

[2] C. T. Wannige and D. U. J. Sonnadara, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Traffic Signal Control for Multiple Junctions. IEEE International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 4, 2009, 262-267

[3] B. K. Sarika, and P. D. Gajanan , Design of Intelligent Ambulance and Traffic Control, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, (2)5, 2013, 211-214

[4] U. C. Osigwe, O. F. Oladipo and E. A. Onibere E. A, Design and Simulation of an Intelligent Traffic Control System, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 1(5), 2011, 47-57.

[5] A. K. Muhammad, PLC Based Intelligent Traffic Control System, International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences, 11(6), 2011

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Security Mechanisms for Selective Forwarding Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks: Review and Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Bhargavi Singh
: 10.9790/0661-16460713     logo

Abstract : Wireless Sensor Networks have emerged as technology of the 21st century and provide powerful combination of distributed sensing, computing and communication. With its growing application areas, particularly in mission-critical applications such as military monitoring systems and battlefield surveillance, security has become an important need in order to protect the sensitive data involved. This necessity of effective and efficient security techniques to secure sensor networks has attracted a great deal of researchers' attention making it hot research area in the recent years. Among the number of attacks on the sensor network, the Selective Forwarding attack, alias Grayhole attack, is a serious and hard-to-detect security attack that can render the network useless if left undetected. In this attack, the main goal of the attacker is to prevent the important sensitive data from reaching the base station. To achieve this goal, the malicious node selectively drops certain packets, based on some chosen criteria, and forwards the remaining. The attack becomes more effective when the attacker includes itself on the path of data flow. This paper intent to give an overview and analysis of existing approaches to counter selective forwarding attack in wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: DoS, Grayhole Attack, Insider Attacks, Selective Forwarding Attack, Wireless Sensor Network

[1] Chris Karlof and David Wagner, Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures, Ad Hoc Networks, 1(2-3), 2003, 293-315.
[2] Suk-Bok Lee and Yoon-Hwa Choi, A Resilient Packet-Forwarding Scheme against Maliciously Packet-Dropping Nodes in Sensor Networks, Proc. 4th ACM Workshop. on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, San Francisco, CA, 2006, 59-70
[3] Xie-Lei, Xu Young-jun, Pang Yong, Zhu Yue-Feil, A Polynomial Based Countermeasure to Selective Forwarding Attack in Sensor Networks, WRI International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, 2009,455-459.
[4] Hae Young Lee and Tae Ho Cho,Fuzzy-Based Reliable Data Delivery for Countering Selective Forwarding Attack in Sensor Networks, Proc. 4th International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing, Springer-Verlag, 2007, 535-544.
[5] H. Sun, C. Chen and Y. Hsiao, An Efficient Countermeasure to the Selective Forwarding Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE TENCON, October 2007, 1-4.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A novel semantic level text classification by combining NLP and Thesaurus concepts
Country : India
Authors : R. Nagaraj, Dr.V. Thiagarasu, P.Vijayakumar
: 10.9790/0661-16461426     logo

Abstract : Text categorization (also known as text classification or topic spotting) is the task of automatically sorting a set of documents into categories from a predefined set. Automated text classification is attractive because it frees organizations from the need of manually organizing document bases, but it can be too expensive or simply not feasible given the time constraints of the application or the number of documents involved. In the previous approaches only the Wikipedia concepts related to terms in syntactic level are used to represent document in semantic level. This paper proposes a new approach to represent semantic level with the use of Word Net. The semantic weight of terms related to the concepts from Wikipedia and Word Net are used to represent semantic information. The semantic vector space model of terms by combining the Word Net and Wikipedia is being further improved the classification accuracy of the Text classification. Because of, two different concept extractor are gives the concepts related to the terms in the syntactic level o find the better concept vector space for documents. So we obtain the improved classification by using this approach. In this study the classification framework are presented. In classification framework, the primary information is effectively kept and the noise is reduced by compressing the original information, so that this framework can guarantee the quality of the input of all classifiers. This proposed method can help to further improve the performance of classification framework by introducing Wikipedia with Word Net. We find that the proposed approach result in a high classification accuracy.

Keywords: Text classification, vector space model, Wikipedia, Word Net.

[1]. D. Blei, A. Ng, and M. Jordan, Latent dirichlet allocation, Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3, (2003), 993–1022.
[2]. S. Deerwester, S. Dumais, T. Landauer, G. Furnas, and R. Harshman, Indexing by latent semantic analysis, Journal of the Society for Information Science, 41(6), (1990), 391–407.
[3]. A. Hotho, S. Staab, and G. Stumme, Wordnet improves text document clustering. In Proceedings of the semantic web workshop at the 26th ACM SIGIR, (2003), 541–544.
[4]. O. Nouali, and P. Blache, A semantic vector space and features-based approach for automatic information filtering, Expert Systems with Applications, 26(2), (2004), 171–179.
[5]. Z. Syed, T. Finin, andA. Joshi, Wikipedia as an ontology for describing documents, In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on weblogs and social media, Washington, (2008), 136–144.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Priya Gopi
: 10.9790/0661-16462734     logo

Abstract : Due to restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes in wireless sensor network, forwarding packets is an important field of research in sensor networks. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of the available network resources. The main aim of this survey is to present the concept of multipath routing, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique. In addition, this paper presents a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols. This paper also highlights the objective behind the development of each protocol category. Finally, a detailed study has been made on the design and operation of the different protocols, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; alternate path routing; concurrent multipath routing; reliability; path discovery.

[1] Yick, J.; Mukherjee, B.; Ghosal, D. Wireless Sensor Network Survey. Comput. Netw. 2008, 52, 2292–2330.
[2] Couto, D.S.J.D.; Aguayo, D.; Bicket, J.; Morris, R. A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing. Wirel. Netw. 2005, 11, 419–434.
[3] Son, D.; Krishnamachari, B.; Heidemann, J. Experimental Study of Concurrent Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '06), Boulder, CO, USA, 31 October–3 November 2006; pp. 237–250.
[4] Kang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Nath, B. End-to-End Channel Capacity Measurement for Congestion Control in Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Sensor and Actor Network Protocols and Applications (SANPA '04), Boston, MA, USA, 22 August 2004.
[5] He, T.; Ren, F.; Lin, C.; Das, S. Alleviating Congestion Using Traffic-Aware Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON '08), San Francisco, CA, USA, 16–20 June 2008; pp. 233–241.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Close Approach to Iris Recognition System
Country : India
Authors : Deepika Prashar
: 10.9790/0661-16463538     logo

Abstract : Iris recognition, a relatively new biometric technology, has great advantages such as variability, stability and security, thus it is the most promising for high security environments. Among its applications are border control in airports and harbors, access control in laboratories and factories, identification for Automatic Teller Machines and restricted access to police evidence rooms. There have been several implementations of security systems using biometric, especially for identification and verification cases. The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). The pattern used in the biometric is the iris pattern in human eye. The iris pattern has been proved unique for each person. A literature review of the most prominent algorithms implemented in each stage is presented. This paper provides a review of major iris recognition researches. Keywords: Iris Recognition, Human eye, Normalization, Iris Localization, Matching.

[1] J. Daugman (2004), How iris recognition works, IEEE Trans. CSVT, 14(1), 21 – 30.

[2] C. Tisse, L. Martin, L. Torres, and M. Robert (2002), Person identification technique using human iris recognition, International Conference on Vision Interface.

[3] J.L Bently, Multidimensional binary search trees used for associative searching, Communication of the ACM, vol. 18, no 9, pp. 509- 517, 1975.

[4] S. Lim, K. Lee, O. Byeon, and T.Kim (2001), Efficient Iris Recognition through Improvement of Feature Vector and Classifier, ETRI Journal, 23(2), 61-70.

[5] J. Cui, Y. Wang, T. Tan, L. Ma, and Z. Sun (2004),A Fast and Robust Iris Localization Method Based on Texture Segmentation, SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, vol.5404, 401-408.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Multi-User Setting For Dynamic Data Invocation for Privacy-Preserving In Public Cloud Storage
Country : India
Authors : K. Sathish , Y. Jansi, M.Tech, Dr. M. Giri, M.Tech,Ph.D
: 10.9790/0661-16463945     logo

Abstract : Cloud Computing is an latest up growing technology which provide various services to internet, it enables to store the data in to a cloud storage and the on demand scalable services. The users should use the cloud storage data as it is local without verifying its integrity and correctness of data. The public auditing for cloud storage is important, so that to check the integrity of outsourced data in the cloud, the users will take the action to check the integrity of data in a Intermediate Cloud Accessor (TPA) . To securely introduced an effective Intermediate Cloud Accessor (TPA), the auditing processor should bring an new concerns for user data privacy, for that the watermarking for data storage security in cloud computing is proposed. It supports data dynamics where users can perform various operations on data like insert, update and delete as well as batch auditing where multiple user request for storage correctness will be handled simultaneously which reduces the communication and computing cost.

IndexTerms: Privacy preserving, public auditing, watermarking, Intermediate Cloud Accessor (TPA), Security.

[1] P. Mell and T. Grance, "Draft NIST working definition of cloud computing," Referenced on June. 3rd, 2009 Online at Html, 2009.
[2] M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith, A. D. Joseph, R. H. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M.
Zaharia, "Above the clouds: A berkeley view of cloud computing," University of California, Berkeley, Tech. Rep.
UCB-EECS-2009-28, Feb 2009.
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of-mass-email-deletions/, December 2006.
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doors/, July 2008.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : ASRMalNets: Acknowledgement Based Secure Routing Scheme for Malicious MANETs
Country : India
Authors : Sreelakshmi S, Preetha K G
: 10.9790/0661-16464651     logo

Abstract : A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless commu- nication network, where communicating nodes are not within direct transmission range of each other. Since the radio links between the nodes break frequently, routing is a key issue in MANETs. The wide distribution of nodes makes MANETs vulnerable to malicious attacks. Hence huge researches are going on in this area. Efficient routing always conflicts with secure packet transmission. Both these issues are highly challenging in MANETs and should go by hand. The paper presents a technique to address this tradeoff. Malicious nodes interrupt the communication by dropping all the data packets. The paper is an Acknowledgment based Secure Routing Scheme in Malicious MANETs. According to this mechanism, the packet delivery is ensured even in the presence of malicious nodes. The main objective of this scheme is to achieve reliable data delivery in a malicious network. Performance of the proposed system is compared with the existing routing algorithm AODV using Network Simulator.

Index Terms: Malicious networks, reliability, Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks: routing overhead, packet drop

[1] Satyam Shrivastava, Sonali Jain, A Brief Introduction of Different type of Security Attacks found in Mobile Ad-hoc Network , ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks Journal (ACM WINET), Vol. 9, No. 5, September 2003

[2] Sevil en, John A. Clark, Juan E. Tapiador, Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks , Department of Computer Science, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK , August 2003

[3] Y. Hu, D. Johnson, and A. Perrig, SEAD: Secure efficient distance vector routing for mobile wireless ad hoc networks, in Proc. 4th IEEE Workshop Mobile Comput. Syst. Appl., 2002, pp. 313.

[4] N. Kang, E. Shakshuki, and T. Sheltami, Detecting misbehaving nodes in MANETs, i5. in Proc. 12th Int. Conf. iiWAS, Paris, France, Nov. 810, 2010, pp. 216222.

[5] Meenakshi Patel, Sanjay Sharma, Detection of malicious nodes in MANET using behavioral Approach , i5. in Proc. IEEE, 2012

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Eco-Friendly Hadoop
Country : India
Authors : Shiv Kumar , Shrawan kr.shrama , Hitesh kumar swarnkar
: 10.9790/0661-16465256     logo

Abstract : Hadoop is a framework to handle large amount of data. Most important part of Hadoop architecture is Map Reduce method to process the distributed data and second most important part is Hadoop distributed file system to store distributed data. The way Hadoop framework handles or manipulates or extract data we can say that it is eco friendly because it provides same CPU time to all job using JOB FAIR SCHEDULING algorithm to save power or work energy. Similarly Hadoop frame work also shares Hadoop cloud using Capacitive scheduling algorithm. So, once again electric power is saved using resource sharing. We can save energy, resources, cost and materials also by using Green building techniques, solar energy and time sharing. In this way, we can save our environment or we will reduce the effect on environment by using Hadoop framework, Green building methods, renewable energy like wind and solar, resource sharing methods as well as by time sharing. So, Our Eco system is not affected or if affected then in minimized amount which can be ignore. So, we can say that Hadoop is a Eco friendly frame work.

Keywords: hadoop; energy techniques; green building techniques; resource sharing techniques; time sharing techniques, hadoop as service techniques


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison of RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IGRP Routing Protocols in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) by using OPNET Simulator tool - A Practical Approach
Country : India
Authors : P. Kalamani, M. Venkatesh Kumar , M. Chithambarathanu, Reji Thomas
: 10.9790/0661-16465764     logo

Abstract : In Adhoc Network group communication is more important, in which routing protocols play a vital role for data transmission. With/Without using central server or access point, the Wireless network form a temporary network with collection of wireless nodes in which, each node changes randomly at different times. In order to establish data transmission between nodes, multiple hops are needed because of limited range i.e. transmission rate. In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated a proposed Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) using different routing protocols. The performances of different protocols are compared and analyzed using Optimum Network Performance (OPNET) simulator tool in which metrics like delay, throughput, packet delivery, load, Ethernet delay, are measured.

Keywords: Adhoc Networks, OPNET, WLAN, RIP, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP, Routing Protocol

[1] S. Shah, et al., "Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Using NS2 Simulation," Proceedings of the National Conference on Mobile and Pervasive Computing (CoMPC-2008), Chennai, India, August 2008.

[2] K. Gorantala, "Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Master Thesis, Department of Computing Science, Umeøa University, Sweden, June 2006.

[3] Z. Bojković, M. Stojanović, and B. Milovanović, "Current Developments towards the 4G Wireless System," Proceedings of International Conference TELSIKS, Niš, Serbia, September 2005, pp. 229-232.

[4] S. Barakovićand J. Baraković, "Comparative Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols,"Proceedings of the 33rd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO 2010), Opatija, Croatia, May 2010.

[5] Nurul I. Sarkar & Wilford G. Lol "A Study of MANET Routing Protocols: Joint Node Density, Packet Length and Mobility" 978-1-4244-7755-5/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE Page no. 515-520

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Performance Analysis of SALT and PEPPER Noise Removal
Country : India
Authors : Sakshi Tiwari , Prof. Akhilesh Bansiya , Prof. Raj Kumar Paul
: 10.9790/0661-16466570     logo

Abstract : Noise is an important factor which when get added to an image reduces its quality and appearance. So in order to enhance the image qualities, it has to be removed with preserving the textural information and structural features of image. There are different types of noises exist who corrupt the images. Selection of the de-noising algorithm is application dependent. Noise removal from a contaminated image signal is a prominent field of research and many researchers have suggested a large number of algorithms and compared their results. The main thrust on all such algorithms is to remove impulsive noise while preserving image details. These schemes differ in their basic methodologies applied to suppress noise. Some schemes utilize detection of impulsive noise followed by filtering whereas others filter all the pixels irrespective of corruption. In this section an attempt has been made for a detail literature review on the reported articles and studies their performances through computer simulation. We have classified the schemes based on the characteristics of the filtering schemes and described are below. At the end of paper, a comparative study of all these algorithms in context of performance evaluation is done and concluded with several promising directions for future research work.
Keywords: Noise, Textural information, Image de-noising algorithm..

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Storage Data Security of Data in Cloud Computing
Country : India
Authors : Srinivasulu.B, M M M Kumar Varma, H.Swapna Rekha
: 10.9790/0661-16467177     logo

Abstract : Cloud Computing refers to the many different types of services and applications being delivered in the internet cloud, and the fact that, in many cases, the devices used to access these services and applications do not require any special applications. Cloud Computing has been moves the application software and databases to the centralized large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This brings the problem of ensuring the integrity of data storage in Cloud. Cloud computing share distributed resources via network in the open environment thus it makes security problem. we consider the task of allowing a third party auditor (TPA), on behalf of the cloud client, to verify the integrity of the dynamic data stored in the cloud. The introduction of TPA eliminates the involvement of the client through the auditing of whether his data stored in the cloud are indeed intact, which can be important in achieving economies of scale for Cloud Computing. The support for data dynamics via the most general forms of data operation, such as block modification, insertion, and deletion, is also a significant step toward practicality, since services in Cloud Computing are not limited to archive or backup data only. While prior works on ensuring remote data integrity often lacks the support of either public auditability or dynamic data operations, this paper achieves both. We first identify the difficulties and potential security problems of direct extensions with fully dynamic data updates from prior works and then show how to construct an elegant verification scheme for the seamless integration of these two salient features in our protocol design. In particular, to achieve efficient data dynamics, we improve the existing proof of storage models by manipulating the classic Merkle Hash Tree construction for block tag authentication.

Key Terms: public auditability, data dynamics, cloud computing, TPA.

[1]. Q. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Enabling Public Verifiability and Data Dynamics for Storage Security in Cloud Computing," Proc. 14th European Symp. Research in Computer Security (ESORICS '09), pp. 355-370, 2009.
[2]. G. Ateniese, R. Burns, R. Curtmola, J. Herring, L. Kissner, Z. Peterson, and D. Song, "Provable Data Possession at Untrusted Stores," Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS 07), pp. 598-609, 2007.
[3]. A. Juels and B.S. Kaliski Jr., "Pors: Proofs of Retrievability for Large Files," Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '07), pp. 584-597, 2007.
[4]. H. Shacham and B. Waters, "Compact Proofs of Retrievability," Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security: Advances in Cryptology (ASIACRYPT '08), pp. 90-107, 2008.
[5]. K.D. Bowers, A. Juels, and A. Oprea, "Proofs of Retrievability: Theory and Implementation," Report 2008/175, Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2008

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Web Logs Analysis for Finding Brand Status
Country : India
Authors : Aditi B. Raut , Radha Shankarmani
: 10.9790/0661-16467885     logo

Abstract : Due to rapid development of the web there has been vast increase in the user generated contents available in the form of blogs ,product reviews sites, web- forums and online social networks etc. Such reviews are very useful to the companies, as they contain valuable information about what aspects of the product, are driving the sales up or down.But most of the available content is in the form of unstructured data from where extraction of information is a challenging task. In order to find potential risk, it is essential for companies to gather and analyze information about competitor products and strategies. Companies use opinion mining techniques to track customer's response, in order to efficiently market their products, identify new opportunities, weaknesses and manage their reputations. In this paper, brand status model is proposed based on the various parameters which affect brands reputation. Also, the products belonging to different brands will be compared on the basis of predefined aspects. This model uses aspect based sentiment analysis technique to find sentiments about product's features and brand.

Keywords: Brand comparison, Opinion orientation, Product aspects, Product reviews, Sentiment analysis

[1] Wenhao Zhang, Hua Xu, Wei Wan" Weakness Finder: Find product weakness from Chinese reviews by using aspects based sentiment analysis" Expert Systems with Applications 39 (2012) 10283–1029.
[2] Mohamed M. Mostafa , "More than words: Social networks‟ text mining for consumer brand sentiments"Expert Systems with Applications 40 (2013) 4241–4251
[3] Gamgarn Somprasertsri, Pattarachai Lalitrojwong "Mining Feature-Opinion in Online Customer Reviews for Opinion Summarization" Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 16, no. 6 (2010), 938-955 submitted: 15/9/09, accepted: 4/3/10, appeared: 28/3/10
[4] M. Hu and B. Liu, "Mining and Summarizing Customer Reviews" in Proc. of SIGKDD, pp. 168-177. Seattle, WA, USA, 2004.
[5] B. Liu, M. Hu, and J. Cheng, "Opinion observer: analyzing and comparing opinions on the web," in Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web, 2005, pp. 342-351.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study on Geomorphological Response for Runoff Prediction in Small Watershed
Country : India
Authors : Dr. B.R. Singh , Er. Sweta Singh , Dr. Papu Singh , Er. D.K. Mishra
: 10.9790/0661-16468694     logo

Abstract : Hydrological data of Arki sub-watershed comprising an area of 2460 hectares of a hilly catchment of Upper River Gambhar, located in mid hills of Solan district of Himachal Pradesh were analyzed to study the geomorphological response for estimation of direct runoff by using GIUH model. GIUH model was based on storm basis incorporating geomorphological parameters with the hydrological characteristics of the watershed. Geomorphological parameters were derived from topographic maps of the watershed satisfying Horton's1 (1945) law when ordered according to Strahler2 (1957) ordering procedure. The GIUH of the watershed was calibrated using the observed direct runoff hydrograph data. Direct runoff hydrographs were obtained from GIUH and these were compared with the observed DRHs to judge the performance of the model. The model performed well for all the test data sets with high coefficient of efficiency, lower relative squared error and absolute relative error in computed peak flow rates values and near zero Coefficient of Residual Mass values. The percentage absolute error in time to peak between computed and observed direct runoff hydrograph was found to be zero percent. The performance of the model showed that it simulates components of direct runoff of hydrographs well.

Key words: Watershed, Runoff, Instaneous Unit Hydrograph and Rainfall

[1]. Horton, R.E. 1945. Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: hydrological approach to quantitative morphology. Bulletin Geological Society of America, 56 : 275-370.
[2]. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 38 : 913-920.
[3]. Gupta, V.K. and Waymire , E. 1983. On the formulation of an analytical approach to hydrologic response and similarity at basin scale. Journal of Hydrology, 65 : 95-123.
[4]. Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. and Valdes, J.B. 1979. The geomorphologic structure of hydrologic response. Water Resource Research, 15 (6) : 1409-1420.
[5]. Gupta, V.K., Waymire, E. and Wang, C.T. 1980. A representation of an instantaneous unit hydrograph from geomorphology. Water Resources Research, 16 (5) : 855-862.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Portable Content Management System
Country : India
Authors : Srijita Mukherjee, Tarif Mohammad
: 10.9790/0661-16469597     logo

Abstract : This report describes the design, implementation and usage of an efficient Content Management System.The aimof content management systems is to store and organize files, and provide version-controlled and user-controlled access to data. This project also includes Web-based publishing, search and retrieval of scientific data. In this project, every user can upload and view his/her own uploaded file. The uploaded files are organized and stored in the specific folders. They can send messages to each other. The sender's name along with all the previous messages is available with the new messages. A public area "Forum"is provided for all the users where they can choose a topic or subject they like to and view the related posts and can post their own queries.

[1]. Ask the user to choose one of the following options:

[2]. When an existing user logs in he/she views the Home Page where he/she gets 4 options

[3]. New user can register and start accessing
[4]. From Home Page, if the user chooses

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Compression Combined Robust Watermarking Scheme using SVD Replacement Technique
Country : India
Authors : Gangadhar Tiwari, Marpe Sora
: 10.9790/0661-164698103     logo

Abstract : This paper proposes a novel compression combined digital image watermarking scheme based on singular value replacement technique. Image compression is achieved using Huffman encoding technique. Huffman encoding is an entropy encoding algorithm offering lossless image compression. The proposed watermarking scheme combines Integer wavelet transform (IWT) with singular value decomposition (SVD). For watermark embedding, the singular values (SV's) of high frequency (CD) band of cover images are replaced with the singular values of watermark signal. Choosing a sample image as watermark signal depends on the relation between energy of singular value of high frequency component of cover and sample image. The combination of Huffman encoding with IWT-SVD domain watermarking results in a robust watermarking scheme that provides good compression ratio with better signal quality. Experiments suggest that the watermarked and original images are perceptually similar. Also, watermarked images are robust against image processing distortions and geometrical attacks. Further, the recovered images are distortion free.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Distortion free data hiding, Huffman encoding, Integer Wavelet Transform, Singular Value Replacement

[1]. I Cox, M Miller and J Bloom, Digital Watermarking (Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 2002)
[2]. C.S. Lu, Multimedia Security: Steganography and Digital Watermarking Techniques for Protection of Intellectual Property (Idea Group Publishing, 3 Henrietta Street, London, 2005)
[3]. Wei Zhihui and Xiao Liang, An Evaluation Method for Watermarking Techniques, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, New York, USA, 2000, 373 – 376
[4]. E.Masataka and M.Akio, A Wavelet-Based Watermarking for Digital Images and Video, IEICE Trans .Fundamentals, E83–A, 2000, 532-540
[5]. M S Raval and P P Rege, Discrete wavelet transform based multiple watermarking scheme, TENCON Conference on Convergent Technologies for Asia-Pacific Region, 2003, 935–938

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