IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

July - Aug 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 4

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison of Different Genetic Crossover operators for travelling salesman problem
Country : India
Authors : Poonam, Proff. Mrs. Shakti Arora
: 10.9790/0661-16440104     logo
Abstract: The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is the most well-known combinatorial optimization problem. TSP is used to find a routing of a salesman who starts from a home location, visits a prescribed set of cities and returns to the original location in such a way that the total distance travelled is minimized and each city is visited exactly once . This problem is known to be NP-hard, and cannot be solved exactly in polynomial time. Many exact and heuristic algorithms have been developed in the field of operations research (OR) to solve this problem . TSP is solved very easily when there is less number of cities, but as the number of cities increases it is very hard to solve, as large amount of computation time is required. The numbers of fields where TSP can be used very effectively are military and traffic. Another approach is to use genetic algorithm to solve TSP because of its robustness and flexibility . Some typical applications of TSP include vehicle routing, computer wiring, cutting wallpaper and job sequencing In genetic algorithms, crossovers are used as a main search operator for TSP. There were a lot attempts to discover an appropriate crossover operator. This paper presents the strategy which used to find the nearly optimized solution to these type of problems. It is the order crossover operator (OX) which was proposed by Davis, which constructs an offspring by choosing a subsequence of one parent and preserving the relative order of cities of the other parent.

[1]. Potvin ,Jean-Yves(n.d) Genetic Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem: Montréal (Québec)Canada H3C 3J7, Centre de Recherche sur les Transports Université de Montréal
[2]. Qi-yi, Zhang & Shu-chun, Chang (2009) An Improved Crossover Operator of Genetic Algorithm China: Transportation Command Department Automobile Management Institute of PLA
[3]. Rasheed, Khaled(1999)Guided Crossover:A New Operator For Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization,NewBrunswick,NJ08903,USA: Computer Science Department, Rutgers University
[4]. Shang, Yi &Li, Guo-Jie(1991) New Crossover Operators In Genetic Algorithms, P. R. China: National Research Center for Intelligent Computing Systems (NCIC).
[5]. Singh, Vijendra & Choudhary, Simran (2009) Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem: Using Modified Partially-Mapped Crossover Operator, sikar, Rajasthan, India: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Mody Institute of Technology & Science, Lakshmangarh
[6]. Su, Fanchen et al(2009) New Crossover Operator of Genetic Algorithms for the TSP, P.R. China: Computer School of Wuhan University Wuhan.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study of crossover operators for Genetic Algorithms to solve TSP
Country : India
Authors : Poonam, Student Mtech (Cse), Proff. Mrs. Shakti Arora
: 10.9790/0661-16440508     logo

Abstract : The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is the most well-known combinatorial optimization problem. TSP is used to find a routing of a salesman who starts from a home location, visits a prescribed set of cities and returns to the original location in such a way that the total distance travelled is minimized and each city is visited exactly once . This problem is known to be NP-hard, and cannot be solved exactly in polynomial time. Many exact and heuristic algorithms have been developed in the field of operations research (OR) to solve this problem . TSP is solved very easily when there is less number of cities, but as the number of cities increases it is very hard to solve, as large amount of computation time is required. The numbers of fields where TSP can be used very effectively are military and traffic. Another approach is to use genetic algorithm to solve TSP because of its robustness and flexibility . Some typical applications of TSP include vehicle routing, computer wiring, cutting wallpaper and job sequencing In genetic algorithms, crossovers are used as a main search operator for TSP. There were a lot attempts to discover an appropriate crossover operator. This paper presents the strategy which used to find the nearly optimized solution to these type of problems. It is the order crossover operator (OX) which was proposed by Davis, which constructs an offspring by choosing a subsequence of one parent and preserving the relative order of cities of the other parent.

[1]. Potvin ,Jean-Yves(n.d) Genetic Algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem: Montréal (Québec)Canada H3C 3J7, Centre de Recherche sur les Transports Université de Montréal
[2]. Qi-yi, Zhang & Shu-chun, Chang (2009) An Improved Crossover Operator of Genetic Algorithm China: Transportation Command Department Automobile Management Institute of PLA
[3]. Rasheed, Khaled(1999)Guided Crossover:A New Operator For Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization,NewBrunswick,NJ08903,USA: Computer Science Department, Rutgers University
[4]. Shang, Yi &Li, Guo-Jie(1991) New Crossover Operators In Genetic Algorithms, P. R. China: National Research Center for Intelligent Computing Systems (NCIC).
[5]. Singh, Vijendra & Choudhary, Simran (2009) Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem: Using Modified Partially-Mapped Crossover Operator, sikar, Rajasthan, India: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Mody Institute of Technology & Science, Lakshmangarh


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : I-ViDE: An Improved Vision-Based Approach for Deep Web Data Extraction
Country : India
Authors : Mrudula Varade, Vimla Jethani
: 10.9790/0661-16440922     logo

Abstract : Deep Web contents are accessed by queries submitted to Web databases and the returned data records are enwrapped in dynamically generated Web pages (they will be called deep Web pages in this paper). Extracting structured data from deep Web pages is a challenging problem due to the underlying intricate structures of such pages. Until now, a large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem, but all of them have inherent limitations because they are HTML language dependent .Visual features are not taken into consideration. All previous methods are mostly dependent on table tags. A Vision based approach for web data extraction has overcome the limitations of previous work by utilizing some interesting common visual features on the web page. But still this approach has one drawback that it can process web page containing only one data region. Due to processing of one data region it reduces the precision and recall rate. As precision give us the rate that how many correct data records are extracted from relevant data records and recall give us the rate that how many relevant data records are extracted from overall data records. The proposed Improved-ViDE approach handles multi data-region in deep web pages which can improve the precision rate and recall rate.

Keywords: Web mining, Web data extraction, visual features of deep Web pages.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dynamic Method for Load Balancing in Cloud Computing
Country : India
Authors : Nikita Haryani , Dhanamma Jagli
: 10.9790/0661-16442328     logo

Abstract : The state-of-art of the technology focuses on data processing and sharing to deal with huge amount of data and client's needs. Cloud computing is a promising technology, which enables one to achieve the aforesaid goal, leading towards enhanced business performance. Cloud computing comes into center of attention immediately when you think about what IT constantly needs: a means to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new human resources, or licensing new software. The cloud should provide resources on demand to its clients with high availability, scalability and with reduced cost. Cloud Computing System has widely been adopted by the industry, though there are many existing issues which have not been so far wholly addressed. Load balancing is one of the primary challenges, which is required to distribute the dynamic workload across multiple nodes to ensure that no single node is overwhelmed. This Paper gives an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm for cloud workload management by which the load can be distributed not only in a balanced approach, but also it allocates the load systematically and uniformly by checking certain parameters like number of requests the server is handling currently. It balances the load on the overloaded node to under loaded node so that response time from the server will decrease and performance of the system is increased.

[1]. S.Hemachander Harikrishna, R.Backiyalakshmi, "A Game Theory Modal Based On Cloud Computing For Public Cloud", IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, Volume 16, Issue 2, Ver. XII (Mar-Apr. 2014).
[2]. SHANTI SWAROOP MOHARANA, RAJADEEPAN D. RAMESH & DIGAMBER POWAR, "ANALYSIS OF LOAD BALANCERS IN CLOUD COMPUTING", International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) ISSN 2278-9960 Vol. 2, Issue 2, May 2013, 101-108.
[3]. R. W. Lucky, "Cloud computing", IEEE Journal of Spectrum, Vol. 46, No. 5, May 2009, pages 27-45.
[4]. M. D. Dikaiakos, G. Pallis, D. Katsa, P. Mehra, and A. Vakali, "Cloud Computing: Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research", IEEE Journal of Internet Computing, Vol. 13, No. 5, September/October 2009, pages 10-13.
[5]. http://www.isaca.org/groups/professional-english/cloud-computing/groupdocuments/essential%20characteristics%20of%20cloud%20computing.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Attack Graph to Graph Database
Country : India
Authors : Saurav Saraff
: 10.9790/0661-16442934     logo

Abstract : Databases are an integral part of almost any computing system today, and users heavily rely on the services they provide. When we interact with a computing system, we expect that any data be stored for future use, that the data is able to be looked up quickly, and that we can perform complex queries against the data stored in the database. There are many different emerging database types available for use, such as relational databases, key-value databases, object databases, graph databases, and RDF databases. Each type of database provides a unique set of qualities that have applications in various domains. Our work aims to investigate and compare the performance of relational databases to graph databases in terms of handling Attack Graph data. In this following project work, we transform the Attack graph data (stored in the xml format) to a Graph Database format using Neo4j. This converted format can be viewed using the Neo4j service & local host in the web browser. The further work of the project has also been attached.

[1]. R. A. a. C. Gutierrez., "Survey of graph database models.," 2008.
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[5]. J. D. S. G. W. C. H. D. A. F. Chang, "Bigtable: A distributed storage system for Structured System," ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., p. 26(2):1–26, 2008


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of P2P Botnet
Country : India
Authors : Avadhoot Joshi, Prof. M. S. Chaudhary
: 10.9790/0661-16443542     logo

Abstract : Today, centralized botnets are still widely used. In a centralized botnet, bots are connected to several servers (called C&C servers) to obtain commands. This architecture is easy to construct and efficient in distributing botmaster's commands; however, it has a weak link - the C&C servers. Shutting down those servers would cause all the bots lose contact with their botmaster. In addition, defenders can easily monitor the botnet by creating a decoy to join a specified C&C channel. Today several P2P botnets have emerged Just like P2P networks, which are resilient to dynamic churn (i.e., peers join and leave the system at high rates), P2P botnet communication won't be disrupted when losing a number of bots. In a P2P botnet, there is no central server, and bots are connected to each other and act as both C&C server and client. P2P botnets have shown advantages over traditional centralized botnets. As the next generation of botnets, they are more robust and difficult for security community to defend. Researchers have started to pay attention to P2P botnets. However, in order to effectively fight against this new form of botnets, enumerating every individual P2P botnet we have seen in the wild is not enough. Instead, we need to study P2P botnets in a systematic way.

Keywords: Botnet, Botmaster, KAD, P2P Botnet

[1]. Abhijeet B. Potey, Prof.Anjali B.Raut "Defending Sybil Using Social Network", International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science (IJECS) Volume 2 Issue, Page No. 196-199, 2 Feb 2013.
[2]. "Botnets - the evolving nature of adversaries, tactics, techniques and procedures" Georgia Tech Cyber Security Summit, 2011, Pages 6-7.
[3]. Joseph Massi, Sudhir Panda, Girish Rajappa, Senthil Selvaraj and Swapana Revankar "Botnet Detection and Mitigation" Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, Pace University, 2010.
[4]. Andrew White, Alan Tickle, and Andrew Clark "Overcoming Reputation and Proof-of-Work Systems in Botnets" Fourth international Conference on Network and System Security, 2010.
[5]. Zhou Hangxia "Mitigating Peer-to-Peer Botnets by Sybil attacks", International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communication and Asia-Pacific Conference on Information Technology and Ocean engineering © IEEE, 2010.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Importance of Selecting Test Cases for Regression Testing
Country : India
Authors : Kamna Solanki , Dr. Yudhvir Singh
: 10.9790/0661-16444351     logo

Abstract : There is a well-known discussion stating that "Under Testing is a crime and over testing is a Sin". Regression testing also faces the same challenge regarding the selection of test cases which needs to re-run when some changes are made in the source code. Regression Testing assures changed programs against unintended amendments. Since several well-known software failures can be blamed on not testing changes and amendments in a software system thoroughly and properly, many techniques have been developed to support efficient and effective Regression Testing. This paper discusses the Regression Testing Process in detail to describe the importance of selecting Test Cases for Regression Testing..

Keywords: Test case Prioritization, Regression Testing, Software Testing, Test Cases, Test Suites

[1] D. Srinivasan and R. Gopalaswamy, Software Testing: Principles and Practices, 1st ed., New Delhi: Person Education, 2006
[2] G. Myers, The Art of Software Testing, NY,USA: John Wiley, 1979
[3] R. Ramler and K. Wolfmaier, "Economic perspectives in test automation and balancing automated and manual testing with opportunity cost," in International Workshop on Automation of Software Testing, 2006.
[4] W.E.Perry, Effective Methods for Software Testing, John Wiley Publication, 2006.
[5] M. Grottke and K. Trivedi, "Fighting Bugs: Remove, Retry, Replicate," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 107-109, 2007
[6] T. Shepard and M. Lamb, "More testing should be taught," Communications of ACM, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 103-108, 2001.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Machine Learning Approach to Beaconing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (A Review)
Country : India
Authors : Ramanjeet Kaur Kansla, Khushboo Bansal
: 10.9790/0661-16445255     logo

Abstract : Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) are classified as an application of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) that has the potential in improving road safety and in providing traveller comfort.VANET is an emerging field of technology that allows vehicles to communicate together in the absence of fixed infrastructure. The basic premise of VANET is that in order for a vehicle detect other vehicles in the neighborhood.This cognizance, awareness of other vehicles, can be achieved through beaconing. In the near future, many VANET applications will rely on beaconing to enhance information sharing. With respect to change in traffic we have to create an adaptive beaconing rate control mechanism to enable a compromise between network load and precise awareness between vehicles. In this paper we learn to improve the efficiency and accuracy by machine learning approach to beacons.

Keywords: VANET, MANET, Beacons, Machine Learning.

[1] Wireless access for vehicular environment (wave), December 2010.http://www.standards.its.dot.gov/fact sheet.asp f=80

[2] M. Torrent- Moreno, P. Santi and H. Hartenstein. Distributed fairtransmit power adjustment for vehicular ad hoc networks. In 3rdAnnual IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad HocCommunications and Networks, volume 2, pages 479_488. IEEE, 2007 [3] Nzouonta, N. Rajgure, G. Wang, and C. Borcea.Vanet routing on city roads using real-time vehicular traffic information. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(7):3609-3626, 2009

[4] E. M. van Eenennaam, G. Karagiannis, and G. Heijenk.Towards scalable beaconing in Vanet. In FOURTH ERCIM WORKSHOP ON EMOBILITY, pages 103–108, 2010.

[5] R. Fukui, H. Koike, and H. Okada. Dynamic integrated transmission control(DITRAC) over inter-vehicle communications in ITS. In IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, volume 1, pages 483–487, 2002


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study of Statistical Predictive Analytic Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Aditya Vakaskar, Uday Joshi
: 10.9790/0661-16445664     logo

Abstract : Prediction is very difficult, especially if it's about the future."- Niels Bohr Since the early days of mankind, man has always been fascinated by the idea of knowing future. Data is being captured at a rate never before seen in history. The retailer's goal is to translate that data into bottom line profits & Predictive analytics makes that possible. The data one captures about customers, or even consumers who interact with retail operation and don't make a purchase, is more revealing than one can think of. Customer data can provide insights on everything from large and systemic patterns of global markets, workflows, national infrastructures, and natural systems to the location, temperature, security, and condition of every item in supply chain. Predictive analytics offers access to reliable, timely information; understand customers, spot trends that drive better decisions to stay ahead in a competitive marketplace. Managers have many different decisions to make monthly, weekly, daily, sometimes even hourly. In 2012, worldwide Business Analytics software market grew 8.7% year over year with revenues reaching $34.9 billion [1] [2] and is also expecting accelerated growth which will be fueled by the quest to harness the power of big data. This paper gives Comparative Study of some of the Time Series Analytic Techniques which are the foundation blocks of Predictive Analytics.

Keywords: predictive analytics, time series forecasting, demand planning, exponential smoothing, ARIMA

[1]. http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS24194613 , Last Accessed On: 24-06-2014
[2]. http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=241689 , Worldwide Business Analytics Software 2013–2017 Forecast and 2012 Vendor Shares , Last Accessed On: 24-06-2014
[3]. Michalewicz, Z., Schmidt, M., Michalewicz, M., Chiriac, C, Adaptive Business Intelligence (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007)
[4]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forecasting, Last Accessed On: 24-06-2014
[5]. http://www.forecastingprinciples.com/index.php/faq, Last Accessed On: 24-06-2014
[6]. http://www.igd.com/our-expertise/Supply-chain/Strategy-planning-technology/3586/Demand-Planning--Forecasting/ , Last Accessed On: 24-06-2014


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An efficient process mining model for Petri Nets in process discovery
Country : India
Authors : V.Priyadharshini, Dr. A. Malathi
: 10.9790/0661-16446568     logo

Abstract : Process mining is a process management system used to analyze business processes based on event logs. The knowledge is extracted from event logs by using knowledge retrieval techniques. The process mining algorithms are accomplished of inevitably discover models to give details of all the events registered in some log traces provided as input. The theory of regions is a valuable tool in process discovery: it aims at learning a formal model (Petri nets) from a set of traces. The main objective of this paper is to propose new concepts for noise filtering and label splitting problem. The experiment is done based on standard bench mark dataset HELIX and RALIC datasets. The performance of the proposed system is better than other existing methods.

Keywords: Process Discovery, Process Mining, Noise filtering, Label splitting, HELIX and RALIC Datasets

[1] Aalst, W.M.P.v.d., et al., Workflow Mining: Discovering Process Models from Event Logs. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 16(9) (2004) 1128–1142.
[2] S.J.J.Leemans et al, Discovering block-structured process models from event logs- A constructive approach.
[3] Joonsoo Bae et al, Development of distance measures for process mining, discovery and integration, International journal of web services research, Vol.10, No.10, 2010.
[4] Process Mining Manifesto. IEEE Task Force on Process Mining.

[5] Arya Adriansyah, Peter van den brand et al, Process mining manifesto, Business process management, Volume 99, 2012, pp. 169-194.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Video To Animated Cartoon Conversion
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Munira Akther , Md. Jahirul Islam
: 10.9790/0661-16446975     logo

Abstract : the logic of animation making from real video fully depends on various image processing techniques and various kinds of filtering like Gaussian filtering, bilateral filtering, and flow based bilateral filtering, mean-shift filtering etc. It also includes edge detecting methods like canny edge detector, dog edge detector, flow based dog edge detector etc. All this technique works differently on the measurement of quality and run time factor. In this research we have gone through all this techniques and proposed a suitable approach which is convenient to the subject.

Index Terms: Animation,Image Processing;Bilateral Filtering;Edge Detection;Bigo Notaion.

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[2]. Danny Barash and Dorin Comaniciu. A common framework for nonlinear diffusion, adaptive smoothing, bilateral filtering and mean shift. Image and Video Computing, 22(1):73–81, 2004.
[3]. H.Winnemöller, S.C.Olsen, and B.Gooch, "Real-time video abstraction," ACM Siggraph, pp.1221–1226,2006.
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[5]. F. Durand and J.Dorsey, "Fast bilateral filtering for the display of high-dynamic- range images," ACM Siggraph,vol. 21, pp. 257–266,2002.



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