IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Mar. - Apr. - 2016 Volume 8 - Issue 2

Version 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Lattice Dynamical Study of Indium Phosphide (Inp)
Country : India
Authors : Suresh Chandra Pandey || Jay Prakash Dubey || Kripa Shankar Upadhyaya

ABSTRACT: The complete lattice dynamics (phonon dispersion curves, Debye temperatures variation, combined density of states (CDS) curves, two-phonon Raman and anharmonic elastic properties) of InP with zinc-blende structure has been investigated by van der Waal's three body force shell model (VTSM). This model incorporates the effect of van der Waal's interactions and three-body interactions into the rigid shell model of zinc blende structure, where the short range interactions are operative upto the second neighbours......

Keywords: Phonons , van der Waal's interactions , Debye temperatures variation , Combined density of states curve , Raman spectra , Phonon dispersion curves , Lattice dynamics , InP. PACS No: 63.20.-e, 65.40.Ba, 78.30.-j

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dependence Of The Parameters Of The Power–Gap Law On The Collision Energy And The Determination Of The Rotationally Inelastic Cross Sections For N2-He System
Country : India
Authors : Kavita Agrawal || Vinod Garg

ABSTRACT: The cross sections, σ (o  jf), for the rotational transitions in N2 due to collisions with He have been computed using the quantum mechanical modified infinite order sudden approximation (IOSAM) method, at six different values of collision energy ranging from 0.1eV to 0.5eV and have been analyzed by using the power-gap law. The parameters of the power-gap law are found to depend on the collision energy through simple equations. It is observed that the equations so obtained for the fitting parameters can lead to the prediction of the cross sections at any value of collision energy, within the range explored, in good agreement with the cross sections computed by the IOSAM method.

Keywords: Atom-diatomic molecule collisions, cross-sections, N2-He system, power-gap law, rotational energy transfer.

[1]. M.H. Kabir, I.O. Antonov and M.C. Heaven, Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Rotational Energy Transfer in HBr + He Collisions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 2010, 11109–11116.
[2]. G.A. Amaral, F.J. Aoiz , L. Banares and J. Barr, Low-Temperature Rotational Relaxation of CO in self collisions and in collisions with Ne and He, J. Phys. Chem. A, 109, 2005, 9402-9413.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of Solar Radiation over Sahel and Coastal Zones in Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Adedayo K.D.

ABSTRACT: The main aim of this paper is to develop Multivariate and Angstrom-type models from where solar radiation can be evaluated over Sahel and coastal stations in Nigeria. Global radiation is an important parameter necessary for most ecological models and an input for different solar system. Solar radiation is the radiant energy emitted by the sun from nuclear fusion that creates electromagnetic energy; solar radiation is the most evenly distribution energy resource on earth and the most abundant......
Keywords: Solar Radiation, Multivariate, Angstrom-type and Climate System.

[1]. Adeyemi, B. and Ojo, O. S. (2004). Empirical modelling of solar radiation for selected cities using multivariate regression technique. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 8(10): 582–595.
[2]. Al-Salaymeh, A. (2006). Estimation of global solar radiation, energy and power. Science Alert,3(6):119–127.
[3]. Angstrom, A. (1924). Solar and terrestrial radiation. Quart. Jour. Roy. Meteorol. Soc, 50: 121–125.
[4]. Diamante, L. and Munro, P. (1993).Solarenergy.SolarEnerg.J.,51(3):271–276.
[5]. Falayi, E., Rabiu, A.,and Adepitan, J. (1999). Empirical models for the correlation of global solar radiation. Springer verlag, 3: 235–245.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evolution of the Collision Rate (CR) in the Process of Propagation of Laser-generated Plume (LGP) into an Inert Gas
Country : China
Authors : Y. L. Wang || G. I. Albokhary || X. C. Ding || L. Z. Chu || Z. C. Deng || W. H. Liang || G. S. Fu

ABSTRACT: O. Box 20, Sudan Abstract: The quantity of collision rate (CR) is one of the most important parameters that need to be taken into account when dealing with gas dynamics of unsteady regime due to its role in determining the final conditions of the gas-phase formed clusters. In the present work, the so-called direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method has been used as a computational tool to investigate the transportation modes of laser-generated Plume (LGP) of Si target into He inert gas......
Keywords:Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD); Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC); Nucleation and Growth; Nanoparticles (NPs); Collision Rate (CR).

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanium SBA-16 Mesoporous Materialusing Ultrasonic Treatment and Its Antibacterial Activities
Country : India
Authors : S.B.Shete || R. R. Rakh

ABSTRACT: Mesoporous molecular sieves in the hexagonal phase (SBA16) are synthesized from rice husk ash (R.H.A.) solutions using Pluronic F127 as template and R.H.A as silica source. It is found that R.H.A. effectively transformed into mesoporous materials depending upon the hydrothermal conditions. It is also found that a high concentration of Na+ ions is not critical in the formation of SBA - 16 when prepared under controlled pH of gel, calcinations temperature and calcinations duration conditions. We provide direct evidence of SBA -16.....

Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, Pluronic127, Rice husk ash (R.H.A.), SBA-16, Si/Ti ratio, Pseudomonas cf. monteilii 9, resistance

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Segmentation Of CT Head Image To Define Tumour Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Nurhasanah || R. Widita || O. Ivansyah

ABSTRACT: Radiation Treatment Planning (RTP) is an essential part of radiation treatment to help the radiologist to deliver radiation effectively, precisely, and accurately. In RTP, the information of the location, the size, and the shape of the target, and the anatomical structure is very crucial. This information will affect the dose calculation of each treatment. Based on this issue, this research aims to design and develop a segmentation program to define organs boundaries correctly......

Keywords: ComputerTomography (CT), K-Means clustering, Tumour

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[5]. K. H. Hohne, W. A. Hanson, Interactive 3D segmentation of MRI and CT Volumes using Morphological operations, J. Comp. Assist. Tomogr., 2, (1992), 285-294.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fine Particulate Distribution and Assessment in Nasarawa State – Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : J.U. Ugwuanyi || A.A. Tyovenda || T.J. Ayua

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to analyze fine particulate matter (PM10 ) distribution in the ambient air of some major towns in Nasarawa State-North central Nigeria using a high volume respirable dust sampler (APM 460 NL) model, also the meteorological parameters of the State have been correlated with the measured values. Ambient air laden with suspended particulates enter the APM 460 NL system through the inlet pipe, which separates the air into fine and coarse particles......

Keywords: particle size, toxicity potential, fine particle distribution and statistical analysis

[1]. Agu E, 2014. Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in the Ambient Air of the Industrial Cities of Northern Estonia. Energy and Environmental Engineering 2(6):121-128
[2]. Dordevic D, Vukmirrovic Z and Tosic M., 2004. Contribution of dust transport and resuspension to particulate matter levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 38: 3637-3645
[3]. Ediagbonya, T.F., Ukpebor, E. Okiemien, F. and Ogungbowa, G., 2013.Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter in rural Atmosphere of Nigeria. Environmental Skeptics and Critics 2(1): 20-29
[4]. Hare C. 2013.Assessing Ozone and PM2.5 Concentrations and trends in Ontario,Canada. Major Research Paper presented to Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 66pp
[5]. Hien D, Bac I and Tham C, 2002. Influence of meteorological conditions on PM2.5 and PM2.5−10concentrations during the monsoon season in Hanoi, Vietnam. Atmospheric Environment, 36(21): 3473-3484

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study Of Generated WIMSD-5B Multigroup Constants Library Based On JENDL-3.2 With JEFF-3.1.1,CENDL-3.0 And Original WIMS And Validation Ofgenerated Library Through Some Benchmark Experiments Analysis.
Country : Bangladesh.
Authors : M. Halder || S.M.T. Islam

ABSTRACT: This research work deals with the "Comparative Study of Generated WIMSD-5B Multigroup Constants Library Based on JENDL-3.2 with JEFF-3.1.1, CENDL-3.0 and Original WIMS and Validation of Generated Library through Some Benchmark Experiments Analysis". The basic evaluated nuclear data file JENDL-3.2 was selected for the generation of problem dependent few group neutron macroscopic cross section libraries for all of the materials in the core and its immediate neighborhood of TRIGA thermal reactor......

Keywords: ENDF, Integral Parameters, JENDL-3.2, NJOY99.0, TRX and BAPL Benchmark Lattices, and WIMSD-5B

[1]. A Santamarina, D. Bernard and Y. Rugama, The JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library. validation results from JEF-2.2 to JEFF-3.1.1 ( JEFF Report 22. 2009).
[2]. D.E. Cullen, Report on the IAEN Cross Section Processing Code Verification Project (IAEA-NDS-39 Rev. V, 1989).
[3]. MacFarlane, R.E, et al., NJOY'99: Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B, RSICC Code Package PSR-480 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, 1999).
[4]. R.E. MacFarlane and R.M. Boicourt; NJOY – A Neutron and Photon Processing System (Trans. Am. Nuclear Society, 22, 720, USA, 1975).
[5]. R. E. MacFarlane, D.W. Munir and R.M. Boicourt, The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System (Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA-9303-M, Volume I (ENDF-324), New Mexico, USA, May 1982).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of The Second Cancer's Risk In Conformal Therapy And Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy For The Organs Inside The Primary Radiation Fields
Country : Egypt
Authors : Raghda A. Elgendy || Ehab M. Attalla

ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the second cancer's risk in conformal therapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy for the infield and out of field organs from the primary radiation fields. Material and methods: planning studies on two group of patients, first group suffering from prostate cancer and other group suffering from breast cancer, each patient has two plans one 3DCRT and the other IMRT plan, The analysis of data based on isodose distributions, Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) by taking mean absorbed doses for each organ in 3DCRT......

Keywords: Prostate cancer and breast cancer, radiation induced second primary cancer

[1]. Kim Dw, Chung Wk, Shin D, Hong S, Park Sh, Park Sy Et Al. Risk Of Second Cancer From Scattered Radiation Of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapies With Lung Cancer. Rad Oncol 2013; 8: 47
[2]. Stovall M, Blackwell Cr, Cundiff J, Novack Dh, Palta Jr, Wagner Lk, Websterew, Shalek Rj: Fetal Dose From Radiotherapy With Photon Beams: Report Of Aapm Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 36. Med Phys 1995,22(1):63–82
[3]. Van Der Giessen Ph: A Simple And Generally Applicable Method Toestimate The Peripheral Dose In Radiation Teletherapy With High Energy Xraysor Gamma Radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996, 35(5):1059–1068. Epub 1996/07/15
[4]. Mansur Db, Klein Ee, Maserang Bp: Measured Peripheral Dose In Pediatricradiation Therapy: A Comparison Of Intensity-Modulated And Conformaltechniques. Radiotherapy And Oncology : Journal Of The European Society Fortherapeutic Radiology And Oncology 2007, 82(2):179–184. Epub 2007/01/30.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Absorption Measurement in Gold Nanostructure
Country : Nigeria
Authors : N.E.J. Omaghali and S.O. Anikoh

ABSTRACT: In this paper we investigate the absorption in gold rod nanostructure on glass substrate. The gold nanostructure unit cell is composed of two gold rods of unequal lengths. The simulation results show absorption peaks at resonance wavelengths of 803.6 nm for the superradiant and 1089.3nm for the subradiant modes respectively. The experimental measurements show absorption peaks at the resonance wavelength of 781.2 nm and 1083.3nm respectively. The measured experimental absorption peaks in the fabricated structure
atresonance is found to be in agreement with the results from simulation

Keywords: Absorption, nanostructure, resonance

[1]. P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M.I. Stockman, Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimmers, Nano Letters, 4(5), 2004, 899-903.
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[4]. C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals, Physical Review Letters 94(11), 2005, 113901.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Temperature Dependence of Optical Properties of Pbse Thin Films
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Buba A.D.A. || Umar .M. And Gurku M.U.

ABSTRACT:Lead Selenide (PbSe) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates (25.4mm x 76.2mm x 1.0mm) by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. All the chemicals used were of Analytical Grade.Pb (NO3)2, Na2SeSo3, [C3H4 (OH) COONa]3. H2O and NaOH as complexing agents, were used for the deposition and the deposited films were annealed at temperatures of 373K and 473K. The influence of the annealing temperature on the optical properties of the films was investigated.

Keywords: PbSe films, Chemical bath deposition, annealing temperature, optical properties, solar cells

[1]. Oluyamo S.S., OjoA.S. and Nyagba M.S.Characterisation of Nanostructured Lead Selenide (PbSe) Thin Films for Solar Device Applications. IOSSR journ. Appl. Phys. (IOSR-JAP). Vol. 7(1),2015,Ver.I. Pp 10-15.
[2]. Shikha D., Sharma J.K. and Sharma J.Review of Effect of Deposition Parameters and Annealing on Structural Properties of NanocrystallineMSe Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition. J. Engr. Tech., Vol. 2(5B), 2014, Pp 761-768.
[3]. Isi P.O. and Ekwo P.I.Growth and Characterization of Lead Selenide (PbSe) Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition. Res. Journ. Of Engr. Sci. Vol. 2(7), 2013, Pp 15-19.
[4]. Barote M.A., Yadav A.A., Surywanshi R.V., Deshmukh L.P. and Masumdar E.U.Chemical Bath Deposited PbSe Thin Films: Optical and Electrical Transport Properties. Res. Journ. Of Chem. Sci. Vol. 2(1), 2012, Pp 15-19.
[5]. Kassim A., Ho S.M., Abdullah A.H. and Nagalingam S.XRD, AFM and UV-Vis Optical Studies of PbSe Thin Films Produced by Chemical Bath Deposition Method. Transaction C: Cem. And Chem. Engr. Vol. 17, No. 2, 2010, Pp 139-143.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Nonionic Surfactant Impact on Polyaniline-Graphite Nanocomposites
Country : India
Authors : M.A.Gadyal || K.S.Venkatesh

ABSTRACT: Composite materials have many advantages over monolithic materials are playing an vital role in the field of materials science and the nano-composites provide reinforcing efficiency because of their high aspect ratios. The polyaniline has the numerous applications and graphite is a good electrical and thermal conductor. A surfactant is a surface active agent which tends to accumulate at a surface or interface. The nanocomposites treated with surfactants may alter the morphology and the particle.

Keywords: Polyaniline Graphite. surfactant, triton x-100,Lauryl alcohol, nanocomposites.

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[4]. M Pedro Henrique Cury Camargo, Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana*, Fernando Wypych,Nanocomposites:.A. Gadyal and K.S. Venkatesh,Synthesis of Polyaniline-Graphite Nano-Composites, Material Science Research India, 12(1), 2015, 85-88.
[5]. Wenge Zheng ,Shing-Chung WongElectrical conductivity and dielectric properties of PMMA/expanded graphite composites, , Composites Science and Technology, 63(2), 2003, 225–235.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measurement of Lifetime of an Yrast Iπ = 2+ state in 152Sm via γ – γ coincidences usingNaI(Tl) Scintillators
Country : South Korea
Authors : I.J Lugendo

ABSTRACT:An experiment was conducted to study the performance of thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillators in measuring the lifetimes of nuclear excited states that are just above 1 ns. A bench top setup with two similar NaI(Tl) detectors was used to measure the lifetime of Yrast Iπ = 2+ state in 152Sm via γ – γ coincidences. Results showed high precision of the timing system used and the accuracy of measurement confirming the suitability of NaI(Tl) scintillators in measuring lifetimes longer than 1 ns.

Keywords: Accuracy, Coincidence, Lifetime, Nuclear State, Precision, Yrast state

[1]. P.H. Regan et al., Precision Lifetime Measurements Using LaBr3 Detectors With Stable and Radioactive Beams, EPJ Web of
Conferences 63, 011008 (2013). DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/2013630100
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microwave AssistedSynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ipomoea staphylina Leaf Extract and Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity against Human Blood Cells
Country : India
Authors : P.Anitha || P.Sakthivel

ABSTRACT: We report for the first time, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ipomoea staphylina leafextract.0.1N of silvernitrate is mixed with leaf extract & incubated for a period of 30 minutes. After that, the colour of the mixture changes from pale yellow to dark brown which confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles.The synthesized AgNPs is characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy(UV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission.......

Keywords: Ipomoea staphylina leaf, Silver nanoparticles, Anti-inflammatory activity.

[1]. Leela A, Vivekanandan M. Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7(17):3162-5.
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[3]. Dillon AC, Mahan AH, Deshpande R, Alleman JL, Blackburn JL, Parillia PA, et al. Hot-wire chemical vapor synthesis for a variety of nano-materials with novel applications. Thin Solid Films 2006;501(1-2):216-20.
[4]. Sobhani M, Rezaie HR, Naghizadeh R. Sol-gel synthesis of aluminum titanate (Al2TiO5) nano-particles. J Mater Process Technol 2008;206:282-5.
[5]. Nadagouda MN, Speth TF, Varma RS. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of silver nanostructures. AccChem Res 2011;44(7):469-78.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Radiative Forcing: Miscreant, Climate Change and Adaptive Measures in Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Anoruo C.M || Chineke T.C || Nwosu I.E || Ewurum N .B || Nwofor O.K || Okoro U.K || Emmanuel A || Ugboma E || Orji P.O2.Okoro E. C

ABSTRACT: Climate change has been a topic of great current concern around the world. Radiative forcing of earth's atmosphere is increasing at unprecedented rate due to increase of greenhouse gases - CO2, CH4 and N2O. This paper discusses the deliberate human attempts in modifying the climate through emission of particulates, which affect public health and ecosystem.......

Keywords: Climate effect, forcing, rainfall, Adaptive measures

[1]. Andrews, D.G. (2010). An introduction to atmospheric. Physics 2nd edition Cambridge university press, Cambridge. Uk
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[4]. Ayoade J.O. (2004). Introduction to Climatology for the tropics. Spectrum Publishers, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[5]. Bauer, E.M. Claussen, and V. Brovkin. (2003). Assessing Climate forcing of the earth system for the past millennium. Geophysical Research letters 30, 001: 10:1029/ 2002G 016639

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Verification of a Developed Automatic Counting System for Cr-39 Detectors Using Different Image Resolutions
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : M. Alssabbagh || B. Z. Shakhreet

ABSTRACT: This study is an extended research done by the research team based on their recently published research. The aim of this study is to verify a system software that was developed and verified using only one digital microscope with high specification as described in the previously published research, which automatically counts and characterizes ion tracks of irradiated CR-39 to alpha particles, by comparing the output images that were obtained from two different digital microscope models with different specifications........

Keywords: CR-39, Solid states nuclear track detectors, Microscope, Auto tracks counting

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[4]. Sidorov, M. and Ivanov, O. Nuclear Track Detectors: Design, Methods and Applications, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2010, p. 275.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Structural, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of High Iron Content Sodium Borosilicate Glass
Country : Egypt
Authors : M. M. Eltabey || H. A. Othman || Samia. E. Ibrahim || L.M. Sharaf El-Deen || M.M. Elkholy

ABSTRACT:A series of high iron content sodium borosilicate glasses having composition 10 SiO2-40 B2O3-50 Na2O:x (CoO-Fe2O3);0≤x≤50 wt% were prepared by conventional melt quench method. Density of these glasses was found to increase in the range of 2.47-3.03 g/cm3, along with increasing glass molar volume. FTIR showed the gradual conversion of BO3 units to BO4 units along with enhanced B-O-Si linkage with the increasing of (CoO-Fe2O3) content. AC electrical conductivity and dielectric properties were investigated at room temperature within frequency range 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Dielectric parameters such as dielectric constants ε′ and ε'' with the ac........

Keywords: Boro-Silicate glass; Electrical properties; Magnetic properties; Structure.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of Photon Interaction Parameters of CaO and MgO for Multi-Energetic Photonsusingγ-Ray Attenuation Technique
Country : India
Authors : A.S. MadhusudhanRao || Hagos Tsegay

ABSTRACT: Mass attenuation coefficients(μm) ofCaO and MgOat different γ-energies were determined experimentally using narrow collimated beam transmission method. The samplewas irradiated with radioactive point source of different γ-energies viz. Am (0.0595MeV), Cs (0.66MeV), Co (1.173MeV & 1.332MeV). The transmitted γ- photons were detected and recorded by a NaI(TI) scintillation detector with resolution of 8.5% for 0.662MeV of 137Cs. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule.........

Keywords: Mass attenuation coefficient, linear attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, effective electron density.

[1]. J.H. Hubbell, Photon mass attenuation and energy-absorption, International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 33 (1982) 1269–1290.
[2]. J.H. Hubbell, S.M. Seltzer, Tables of X-ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy-Absorption Coefficients 1 keV to 20 MeV for Elements 1 6 Z 6 92 and 48 Additional Substances of Dosimetric Interest, National Institute of Standards and Physics Laboratory, NISTIR, 1995, p. 5632.
[3]. M.J. Berger, J.H. Hubbell, (XCOM) Photon Cross Section on a Personal Computer NBSIR, Vol. 87, NIST, 1987, p. 3597.
[4]. Gerward, L.,Guilbert,N.,Jensen, K.B and Levring, H., WinXcom-A Program for Calculating X-Ray Attenuation Coefficients, Radiat, Phys.And Chem., Vol.71,pp.653-654,2004.
[5]. G.J. Hine, The effective atomic numbers of materials for various gamma interactions, Physics Review, 85 (1952) 725–737.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanostructures on Seed Layer Coated Substrates and their Characterization
Country : India
Authors : Shrisha B. V || Shashidhara Bhat || Parvathy Venu M || K Gopalakrishna Naik

ABSTRACT: Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on ZnO seed layer deposited glass, ITO coated glass, quartz and p-silicon (p-Si) substrates by hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the grown ZnO nanostructures were characterized by XRD, FESEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. The elemental compositions of the samples were investigated by EDS.

Keywords: ZnO, Nanostructures, Spincoat, Hydrothermal.

[1]. J. G. Lu, P. Chang, Z. Fan, Quasi-one-dimensional metal oxide materials-Synthesis, properties and applications, Materials Science
and Engineering R, 52 (2006) 49–91.
[2]. Z. L. Wang, Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and Applications, J. Phys.: Condens.Matter, 16 (2004) R829–R858.
[3]. U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin,S.J. Cho, and H. Morkoç., A comprehensive
review of ZnO materials and devices, J. Appl. Phys., 98 (2005) 041301.
[4]. K. Radzimska and T. Jesionowski, Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review, Materials, 7 (2014) 2833-2881.
[5]. K. Byrappa, T. Adschiri, Hydrothermal technology for nanotechnology, Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of
Materials, 53 (2007) 117 – 166.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optical Transition Probabilities of Er3+ doped TiO2 Prepared via Sol-Gel
Country : Iraq
Authors : Hanaa M. Yaseen || Bassam G. Rasheed || Sabah N. Mazhir

ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic properties of Er:TiO2 samples have been investigated at room temperature, the samples are prepared with different doping rate by using Sol Gel method. A Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to analysis the UV- Visible spectra (in range of 400-900nm) and calculate the three Judd-ofelt of parameters; Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. From the obtained parameters, the radiative transition probabilities A(J;J'), radiative lifetime τrad and fluorescence branching ratio were calculated.........

Keywords: Sol-Gel; Spectroscopy; TiO2; laser active medium.

[1]. Mohammed Alwan Hamzah, Anwar M. Ezzat, Majida A. Ameen, Hanaa M. Yaseen and Mnaa I. Khalif, " Preparations of Nd:TiO2 as Laser active medium by Sol-Gel method" , International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2014.
[2]. X. Chen and W. Luo, "Optical Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Ion-Doped TiO2 Anophosphors," Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2010, pp. 1482- 1494
[3]. Hanaa M. Yaseen, Bassam G. Rasheed, Sabah N. Mazhir, "Judd–Ofelt Analysis of Spectroscopic Properties of Er+3:Tio2 Prepared Via Sol-Gel", IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, Volume 6, Issue 2 Ver. III ( 2016), PP 30-33.
[4]. Mohammed Alwan Hamzah, Majida A. Ameen, Fuad M. Mutar and Hanaa M. Yaseen, "Optical properties of Nd3+:SiO2 Prepared via Sol-Gel", International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2014.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of the Temperature at (700 Hpa) on Surface Turbulence Over Iraq And Some Neighboring Countries
Country : Iraq
Authors : Hussain Abodi Nemah

ABSTRACT: The temperature is considered as the most important variable that control air masses in all of the atmosphere, and it also effect on general circulation model over earth because it is the main source of energy transfer for air masses. The propose adopted in this work is based on daily data analysis sourced from national centre for environmental prediction (NCEP) , The study select one turbulence day has cyclonic air mass with large dust storm on (5/6/2009) , and wind source direction was from north–west country of Iraq.....

Keywords: Temperature, Isothermal lines, Turbulence, National centre for environmental prediction, 700 hpa

[1]. Husain, A. , Neamah , 2009, : Seasonal ensembles analysis of geopotential height over middle east by using ecmwf data , Master Thesis , college of science .
[2]. Maurice , L. , Blackmon , 1976 , : A climatological spectral study of the 500 mb geopotential height of the northern hemisphere", Journal of Atmospheric Science , vol. 33 ,PP 1607-812 .
[3]. Yang , X. , Q. , Anderson , J. , L. , Stern ,W. , F. , 1998 , : Reproducible Forced modes in AGCM ensemble integration and potential predictability of atmosphere seasonal variation in the extratropics, Journal of Climate , vol. 11 , PP. 2942-1959 .
[4]. Jacobs , R. , E. , 1968 , : A comparison of Geopotential VS Wind input for A diagnostic Numerical Model, Master's Thesis , US. National Technical information service .

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Temperature dependent electrical properties of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction prepared by spray pyrolysis growth of ZnO thin film on p-Si
Country : India
Authors : Shashidhara Bhat || Shrisha B. V || K. Gopalakrishna Naik

ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide thin film was grown on p-Si substrate by spray pyrolysis method. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal wurzite structure of the grown ZnO thin films. The FESEM image shows the growth of flower like nanostructured ZnO thin films on p-Si. These n-ZnO film/p-Si substrate heterostructure....

Keywords: Electrical properties, n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction, Spray pyrolysis, ZnO thin film.

[1]. Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. a. Reshchikov, S. Doǧan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morko̧, A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices, J. Appl. Phys., 98(4), 2005, 041301–103.
[2]. S. Chu, J. H. Lim, L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, L. Li, and J. L. Liu, Sb-doped p-ZnO∕Ga-doped n-ZnO homojunction ultraviolet light
emitting diodes, Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(15), 2008, 152103-3.
[3]. B. K. Shin, T. I. Lee, J. Xiong, C. Hwang, G. Noh, J. H. Cho, and J. M. Myoung, Bottom-up grown ZnO nanorods for an antireflective moth-eye structure on CuInGaSe2 solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95, 2011, 2650–2654.
[4]. M. A. Abbasi, Z. H. Ibupoto, M. Hussain, O. Nur, and M. Willander, The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-
ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence, Nanoscale Research Letters, 8(1), 2013, 320(1)-(6).
[5]. P. Hazra and S. Jit, A p-silicon nanowire/n-ZnO thin film heterojunction diode prepared by thermal evaporation, J. Semicond., 35(1), 2014, 014001-5.

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