IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Jul. – Aug. 2018 Volume 10 - Issue 4

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Sns Thin Films Prepared By Chemical Spray Pyrolysis At Different Substrate Temperatures For Photovoltaic Application
Country : India
Authors : A.Anitha Ezhil || S.Seshadri
: 10.9790/4861-1004010106      logo

ABSTRACT: The preparation and analysis of morphological, structural, optical, vibrational and compositional properties of tin monosulfide (SnS) thin films deposited on glass substrate by chemical spray pyrolysis is reported. The growth conditions were evaluated to reduce the presence of residual phases different to the SnS orthorhombic phase. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the poly-crystalline nature of the SnS films with orthorhombic structure and a preferential grain orientation along the (111) direction. At high substrate temperature (450ºC), a crystalline phase corresponding to the Sn2S3 phase was observed. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the dominance of the SnS phase and the presence of an additional Sn2S3 phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that..........

 

Key Words: SnS, thin films, chemical spray pyrolysis, XRD, Raman spectroscopy,AFM, SEM, resistivity

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Annealing Temperature on the CdSe/FTO (SnO2:F) Nanowires Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition
Country : Turkey
Authors : Hulya Metin Gubur || Fethiye Septekin || Soner Alpdogan || Sevda Ildan Ozmen
: 10.9790/4861-1004010714      logo

ABSTRACT: The Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) nanowire thin films were grown on FTO substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 70 °C and annealed in an air atmosphere at a different temperature. Corn-like nanowire structure was observed when the CdSe/FTO nanowire thin films were annealed at 573, 673 and 773 K. It was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) that the diameters of the CdSe/FTO nanowires and corn-like nanowires were around 20–40 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that these films had a mixed phase of cubic and hexagonal. It was observed.........

 

Keywords: CdSe/FTO, corn-like nanowires, thin films,four-point probe method.

[1]. Dasgupta N P, Sun J, Liu C, Brittman S, Andrews S C, Lim J, Gao H, Yan R and Yang P2014 25th anniversary
article:semiconductor nanowires–synthesis, characterization, and applications Advanced mater.14 2137-84
[2]. Shi Y, Li H, Wang L, Shen W.and Chen H 2012 Novel Fe2O3/CdS Cornlike Nanorods with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance
Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 4800-06
[3]. Wang D, JakobsonH P, Kou R, Tang J, FinemanR Z,Yu D.and Lu L2006 Metal and Semiconductor Nanowire Network Thin Films
with Hierarchical Pore StructuresChem. Mater. 18 4231-37
[4]. Xia Y, Yang P, Sun Y,Wu Y,Mayers B, Gates B, Yin Y, Kim F and Yan H 2003 One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Synthesis,
Characterization, and ApplicationsAdv. Mater.15 353-89
[5]. Yang P, Yan R and Fardy M 2010 Semiconductor Nanowire: What's Next? Nano Lett. 10 1529-36.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Monthly Variation and Annual Trends of Rainfall across Major Climatic Zones in Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Taiwo Adedeji || E. U. Utah || T. E. Sombo
: 10.9790/4861-1004011528      logo

ABSTRACT: This study focused on analysing variability and trends in rainfall in ten meteorological stations across Nigeria namely, Port Harcourt (4.51˚N, 7.01˚E),Ikeja (6.35˚N, 3.20˚E), and Benin ( 6.340 N, 5.630 E ) in the Rain forest, Makurdi (7.70N, 8.50E), Ilorin (8.480 N, 4.540E) and Enugu (6.28˚N, 7.33˚E) in Guinea savanna,Kaduna (10.5°N, 7.44°E,) and Bauchi (10.300 N , 10.00E) in Sudan Savanna while Sokoto (13.01˚N, 5.15˚E) Maiduguri (11.51˚N, 13.05˚E) in Sahel savanna. Monthly rainfall data for this study for the period of 31years (1985 - 2015) were obtained from the archives of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) Oshodi, Lagos.The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to determine the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation in all the study areas.Simple linear regression analysis and a modified non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test were.........

 

Keywords: Rainfall, climate change, Trend, zone..

[1]. Abeysingha, N.S., Singh, M., Sehgal V.K., Khanna M., andPathak H. (2014). Analysis of rainfall and temperature trend in Gomti River basin. Journal of Agricultural Physics, 14(1), 56-66.
[2]. Jain, A.K., and Kumar V. (2012). Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Data for India. Current Science, 102(1):37-49.
[3]. Khavse, R., Deshmukh R., Manikandan N., Chaudhary J.L., and Kaushik D. (2015). Statistical Analysis of Temperature andRainfall Trend in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh. Current World Environment, 10(1):305-312.
[4]. Banerjee, S., Mukherj A., Mukhopadhaya, A., Saikia B., Bandyaopadhaya S., and Chatterjee S. (2010). Agro-Climatic Characterization of Two Selected Stations in the Southern West Bengal, India. J. Sci. Foundation, 8(1and2), 49-54
[5]. Patra J.P., Mishra A., Singh, R., and Raghuwanshi, N.S. (2012). Detecting Rainfall Trends in Twentieth Century (1871-2006)over Orissa State, India. Climatic Change 111, 801-817..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Crystal Structure of 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5, 10-dihydro-4H-benzo[g] chromene-3-carbonitrile
Country : India
Authors : D. K. Sharma || A. Jayashree || B. Narayana || B. K. Sarojini || S. Anthal || R. Kant
: 10.9790/4861-1004012933      logo

ABSTRACT: The title compound 2-Amino-4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-5,10-dihydro-4H-benzo[g]chromene-3-carbonitrile crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P21/c with unit cell parameters: a=8.1258(5), b=11.8112(7), c=21.5768(16) Å, =92.194(7)o and Z=4. The crystal structure has been solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares procedures to a final R value of 0.1199 for 2629 observed reflections. In the crystal, molecules are linked via five intermolecular (N-H…N, N-H…O, O-H…O and C-H…O) hydrogen bonds. In addition, C-H...π and π-π interactions are also observed in crystal structure.

 

Keywords: Chromene, Single crystal, X-ray diffraction, Direct methods, Interactions

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[5]. A. Shaabani, R. Ghadari, S. Ghasemi, M. Milad Pedarpour, A. H. Rezayan, A. Sarvary and N. S. Weng, J. Comb. Chem., 11, 2009,
956-959.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Newton's Gravitation Law is Wrong
Country : Kenya
Authors : Mahmoud E. Yousif
: 10.9790/4861-1004013438      logo

ABSTRACT: The Gravitational constant G of the universal law of gravitation by Isaac Newton, also used by Einstein in his general relativity, is discovered to composed from angular velocity coefficients forming an odd formula, in which the square of orbital velocity of a planet is multiplied by its radial distance, the product is divided by the mass of the sun; when the constant G in the gravity formula is substituted by these parameters, the formula is transformed into Centripetal Force (𝐹𝐶) formula, thus the formula for the gravitation force in essence represent a slightly distorted version of the Centripetal Force (𝐹𝐶), the development of an alternative theory to replace the current one is an important process that would lead one day to a better understanding of the physical world and a theory explaining the force governing stars and orbiting planets..

 

Keywords: Gravitational Force; Gravitational constant G; Centripetal Force.

[1]. D DeYoung, Gravity The Mystery Force, Creation.com, http://creation.com/gravity-the-mystry-force
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[5]. T S Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA of UNIFIED SCIENCE, VOLUMES I AND II • FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNITY OF SCIENCE VOLUME II • NUMBER 2, 1970.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of Radionuclide's Levels and Absorbed Dose for Soil, Rock, Plant and Water in Gondola – Libya
Country : Libya
Authors : Amany T. Sroor || Nadia Walley EL-Dine || Samia.M. EL-Bahi || Hamad. M. Adress Hasan || Jemila Mussa Ali
: 10.9790/4861-1004014049      logo

ABSTRACT: The levels of natural radioactivity in some soil, rock, plant and water samples collected from different locations of Gandula-Libya were measured. The radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by direct γ‐ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. Based low background gamma-ray counting system with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentration in soil samples are 66.32, 59.52, 56.07 and 517.92 Bq.kg−1 for 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively. For rocks the average activity concentrations of same radionuclides are 26.01, 23.39, 25.13 and 100.97 Bq.kg−1 respectively. In addition the average activity of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K for plants................

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[3]. (USEPA) United State Environmental Protection Agency, (2014) Understanding Radiation in Your Life, Your World,. Available: www.epa.gov/radiation/understanding.
[4]. Faanu A, Ephraim, H.J, Darko, O.E., (2010), " Assessment of public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials from mining and mineral processing of Goldmine in Ghana", Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 180: pp. 15-29
[5]. Al-Fassi Z. B. and Lavi N., (2005), "The Dependence of The Counting Efficiency of Marinelli Beakers for Environmental Samples on The Density of The Samples" Applied Radiation and Isotopes V.63, pp. 87-92..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Standard Model and Quantum Field Theory versus Wu's Pairs and Yangon and Yangon Theory
Country :  
Authors : Edward T. H. Wu
: 10.9790/4861-1004015056     logo

ABSTRACT: Standard Model is a group of subatomic particles derived from a mathematical model based on quantum field theory and Yang Mills Theory. In contrast, Wu's Pairs, a physical model are proposed as the building blocks of all subatomic particles based on the Yangton and Yington Theory. In this paper, some critical issues of quantum field theory are discussed, such as "What are the subatomic particles made of?", "What are the symmetries of gluons?", "What are the Higgs Bosons and Higgs field?" and "What the quantum fields really are?" As a result, three innovative theories "Quantum Gravity Theory based on the gravitons of a string structure and the theory of particle radiation and contact interaction", "Quantum Fields based on the distributions of contact interactions caused by particle radiations" and "Unified field theory based on the string structures made of Wu's Pairs and Force of Creation" are proposed..

 

Keywords: Standard Model, Quantum Field Theory, Wu's Pairs, Yangton and Yington, String Theory, Unified Field Theory, Graviton, Quantum Gravity, Higgs Boson, Particle Radiation.

[1]. R. Oerter (2006). The Theory of Almost Everything: The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics (Kindle ed.). Penguin Group. p. 2. ISBN 0-13-236678-9.

[2]. Zee, Anthony (2010). Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691140346.
[3]. "Subatomic Particle" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
[4]. Edward T. H. Wu. "Subatomic Particle Structures and Unified Field Theory Based on Yangton and Yington Hypothetical Theory". American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2015, pp. 165-171. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp. 20150404.13.
[5]. Edward T. H. Wu, "Yangton and Yington–A Hypothetical Theory of Everything", Science Journal of Physics, Volume 2015, Article ID sjp-242, 6 Pages, 2015, doi: 10.7237/sjp/242..


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Oscillators with Nonpolar Magnetic Repulsion System and its Use in Rotary Nonresonant and Resonant Kinetic Energy Harvesters
Country : Germany
Authors : Lukas Kurmann || Yu Jia
: 10.9790/4861-1004015778     logo

ABSTRACT: Creating an asymmetric incommensurable torque signal over one full rotor revolution can be achieved when using a two degree of freedom (2DoF) system having a rotary and a translatory DoF with accordingly nonpolar magnetic repulsion techniques, as the magnetic field is known to be none conservative. This topic generally is popular in gray literature and is scarcely covered in peer reviewed scientific publications, as it often leads to the topic of permanent magnet motors, driven only by nonlinear magnetic spring configurations on the rotor and stator system, where the conservation of energy is violated. In this paper this problem is briefly discussed, while the focus is set to model the differential equation system and mathematically explore some of its major behaviors and properties. A working example of an existent magnetic motor is presented (the famous patented Yildiz............

 

Keywords: Parametric Resonance, Nonpolar Magnetic Repulsion, Kinetic Energy Harvesting (KEH)

[1]. M. Yildiz, "Device having an arrangement of magnets", WO 2009/019001 A3 2009/019001 A3.
[2]. A. D. T. Elliott, L. M. Miller, E. Halvorsen, P. K. Wright, and P. D. Mitcheson, "Which is better, electrostatic or piezoelectric energy harvesting systems?," J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 660, p. 12128, 2015.
[3]. P. D. Mitcheson, E. M. Yeatman, G. K. Rao, A. S. Holmes, and T. C. Green, "Energy Harvesting From Human and Machine Motion for Wireless Electronic Devices," Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 1457–1486, 2008.
[4]. F. U. Khan, "Review of non-resonant vibration based energy harvesters for wireless sensor nodes," Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 44702, 2016.
[5]. D. P. Arnold, "Review of Microscale Magnetic Power Generation," IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 3940–3951, 2007.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : ME Spectroscopy and Magnetic Susceptibility Studies of Some
Sodium-Boro-Phosphate Glasses Doped Two TMIs (Fe and Zn)
Country : Egypt
Authors : A. M. Abdel_Ghany
: 10.9790/4861-1004017987     logo

ABSTRACT:Some sodium-boro-phosphate glasses doped two transition metal cations (Fe, Zn) have been prepared. The effect of replacing B2O3 by P2O5 gradually from zero and up to 20 mol % in proportions of 5 mol % has been thoroughly investigated. The obtained ME spectra showed that three different iron states appeared and the obtained ME parameters of this states indicated that all Fe2+ occupy the glass network former positions while all Fe3+ occupy the glass network modifier positions. It was found that the gradual increase of P2O5 act to increase both experimental and empirical density and molar volume values while the single bond strength was found to decrease. The magnetic susceptibility values were found to increase as P2O5 was gradually increase also, which may be due to the increase of molar volume and Fe3+ cationsas well as the decrease of the single bond strength..

 

Keywords: Glass, Magnetic susceptibility, Mossbauer spectroscopy, Density and Ion Density

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