IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 3 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Properties of Images in LSB Plane
Country : India
Authors : Kaustubh Choudhary
: 10.9790/0661-0350816       logo
Abstract: Each pixel of an Image (assuming 24 bit BMP) is stored in the three 8 bits corresponding to three colors. Bit Plane Slicing is the technique of breaking image into 8 planes corresponding to 8 different bit positions. The bit plane image corresponding to the plane of the most significant bit (MSB) has the maximum contribution to the total image and forms the majority of the visually significant image data and planes corresponding to other lower bit positions contribute only the subtle details of the image. And the bit-plane image corresponding to the LSB of the RGB value has the minimum contribution of only 1 out of total of 255 Intensity level to the total image. In spite of this the LSB Plane of the image is not insignificant. In fact it is used in Image Steganography for hiding secret information in the images. Image based Steganography is a potent tool used by Terrorists and Criminal organizations for securely broadcasting, dead-dropping and communicating malicious secret messages over the internet by hiding them in the images. Our cyber space is full of such mala-fide images containing hidden secret information. The most difficult aspect of tracking such malicious images is the lack of efficient and fast algorithms for identifying and isolating them from the bulk of innocent images. Analysis of the pixels in the LSB Plane of the image is very effective technique of identification of Distributing Spatial Domain Steganographic Algorithms. In this paper the properties of Information Pixels pixel present in the LSB Plane of any stego image generated by Distributing Algorithms is analyzed in detail. These properties will be very useful in identification of malafide stego images lurking in our cyber space. All the images and tables used in this paper are generated using MATLAB ©Image Processing Tool Box.
Key Words: Bit Plane Slicing, Cyber Crime, Distributing Steganographic Algorithms. Global Terrorism, Image Steganalysis, Multicolor LSB Transform, SDT based Image Steganography.
[1] Kaustubh Choudhary, Image Steganography and Global Terrorism, IOSR Volume 1, Issue 2, July 2012.http://iosrjournals.org/journals/iosr-jce/papers/vol1-issue2/14/N0123448.pdf
[2] Infosecurity Magazine article dated 02 May 2012 reports that Al-Qaeda uses Steganography to hide documents. http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/view/25524/alqaeda-uses-steganography-documents-hidden-in-porn-videos-found-on-memory-stick
[3] Daily Mail Online, UK article dated 01 May 2012 reported that a Treasure trove of Intelligence was embedded in porn video.http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2137848/Porn-video-reveals-Al-Qaeda-planns-hijack-cruise-ships-execute-passengers.html#ixzz1uIgxpire
[4] The New York Times article dated Oct 30, 2001 with title "Veiled Messages of Terror May Lurk in Cyberspace" claims 9/11 attacks planned using Steganography.
[5] Wired article dated 02nd July, 2001 nicknamed Bin Laden as "the Steganography Master"
[6] Kaustubh Choudhary, Novel Approach to Image Steganalysis (A Step against Cyber Terrorism) IOSR Volume 2, Issue 5, August 2012http://iosrjournals.org/journals/iosr-jce/papers/vol2-issue5/B0251628.pdf
[7] Kaustubh Choudhary, Mathematical Modeling of Image Steganographic System IOSR Volume 2, Issue 5, August 2012http://iosrjournals.org/journals/iosr-jce/papers/vol2-issue5/A0250115.pdf
[8] Kaustubh Choudhary, Identification of Stego Signatures in Images using Suspicion Value (special reference to Concentrating Stego Algorithms), IOSR Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2012
[9] Kaustubh Choudhary , Quick Identification of Steganographic Signatures of Distributing Stego Algorithms using Suspicion Value, IOSR Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : CPCRT: Crosslayered and Power Conserved Routing Topology for congestion Control in mobile ad hoc networks
Country : India
Authors : V. V. Appaji, Dr. Sreedhar
: 10.9790/0661-0351725       logo
Abstract: All nodes in a Mobile Ad hoc Network are having mobility and dynamically tied in a subjective approach. Due moving directions caused by mobility, the frequent link failure happens, which consequences in packet losses. The protocol used in transmission handling in general fails to identify the root cause of the packet dropping hence assumes that these packet losses are due to congestion only. This wrong assumption need packet retransmissions till packet arrive successfully at the receiver. The protocols used in mobile ad-hoc networks are based on the layered architecture. The layered approach is extremely rigid and strict since each layer of the architecture is only concerned about the layers immediately above it or below it. Current wireless protocols rely on significant interactions between various layers of the network stack. In this context in our earlier work we proposed a crosslayered routing topology in short CRT to improve the congestion detection and handling strategy. The CRT is Mac, application and physical layer centric in particular. With the motivation gained from CRT, here in this paper we propose a crosslayered power conserved routing topology (CPCRT) for mobile ad hoc networks. The goal is to improve transmission performance by distinguishing between packet loss due to link failure and arbitrary loss of packets along with power conservation that used for packet transmission. Hence in our proposed cross layer routing topology the strength of the communication signal between hop level nodes is used to determine link failure. The objective of the CPCRT is to distinguish between packet loss due to link failure and arbitrary loss of packets and ensure QOS at the application layer along with conserving power that used at node level to transmit packets. The experiment results emerged as an evidence for better resource utilization and power conservation in congestion controlling by proposing crosslayered and power conserved routing topology.
Keywords: Manet; routing protocol; congestion control; cross layer; CRT, CPCRT, Mac, Mobile ad hoc network routing, TCP
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[2]. Xiaoqin Chen, Haley M. Jones, A .D .S. Jayalath, "Congestion-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE, 2007.
[3]. Hongqiang Zhai, Xiang Chen, and Yuguang Fang, "Improving Transport Layer Performance in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks by Exploiting MAC Layer Information", IEEE, 2007.
[4]. Yung Yi, and Sanjay Shakkottai, "Hop-by-Hop Congestion Control Over a Wireless Multi-Hop Network", IEEE, 2007.
[5]. Tom Goff, Nael B. Abu-Ghazaleh, Dhananjay S. Phatak and Ridvan Kahvecioglu, "Preemptive Routing in Ad Hoc Networks", ACM, 2001.
[6]. Xuyang Wang and Dmitri Perkins, "Cross-layer Hop-byhop Congestion Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE, 2008.
[7]. Dzmitry Kliazovich, Fabrizio Granelli, "Cross-layer Congestion Control in Ad hoc Wireless Networks," Elsevier, 2005.
[8]. Duc A. Tran and Harish Raghavendra, "Congestion Adaptive Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", 2006.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "A Review of Status, Problem and Prospects of Library Automation in Engineering Colleges of Jabalpur City"
Country : India
Authors : Ashutosh Upadhyay, Varsha Pandey, B.P.Shrivastava
: 10.9790/0661-0353136       logo
Abstract: The study presents the review status of automation in Engineering College libraries and information centers of Jabalpur city in Madhya Pradesh. The uses of Information and communication Technology (ICT) facilitate easy & immediate access to Information. During the process of Automation understanding and analyzing the various problems faced by the Management and the staff. The methodology adopted for the present study is survey using a structured questionnaire. It was observed that 52.63% of the Engineering College libraries were not automated for reason such as, Lack of computer facilities, Inadequate finance, Lack of trained Manpower; Management is not interested in library automation, collection from library is very less, tentativeness and lack of attitude towards automation and unsatisfactory library software problems are the major hindrances to speedy automation. Only` 47.37% of Engineering College libraries are using automation to show that the libraries must be updated on the current scenario and the other libraries will follow these updates. This study also gives a status view of the software packages used by different engineering college libraries & the opinion of the librarians & library staff about the performance of software they use.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of SIP in Interoperable LMR/Cellular Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Network
Country : India
Authors : S.Kirubakaran, Dr.C.Manoharan
: 10.9790/0661-0353743       logo
Abstract : Public safety agencies are using LMR network, which has less service availability, less multimedia services and low data rates during the emergency communication. These less services may impact the life in the critical emergency situation. The commercial cellular network provides higher service availability, more multimedia services and higher data rates. The LMR network mobile node can access the cellular network services if cellular/LMR network are interoperable. For accessing the cellular network services, the LMR network mobile node should handoff to cellular network if there is resource available. Ongoing communication may disrupt by this handoff and radio resources very intensive. We have studied Traditional SIP and Seamless SIP method with the constraints of handoff delay and resource utilization. The study presents Session Schedule Manager SIP, which achieves the optimal handoff and increase the radio resource utilization. This Paper intends optimal handoff and maximizes the resource utilization in the interoperable heterogeneous network which provides efficient communication between Disaster responder and Disaster commander.
Keywords – Hand off delay, Heterogeneous Network, Radio resource, Packet loss, SIP
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study in Employing Rough Set Based Approach for Clustering on Categorical Time-Evolving Data
Country : India
Authors : H. Venkateswara Reddy, S. Viswanadha Raju
: 10.9790/0661-0354451       logo
Abstract : The proportionate increase in the size of the data with increase in space implies that clustering a very large data set becomes difficult and is a time consuming process. Sampling is one important technique to scale down the size of dataset and to improve the efficiency of clustering. After sampling, allocating unlabeled data point into proper cluster is difficult in the categorical domain and in real situations data changes over time. However, clustering this type of data not only decreases the quality of clusters and also disregards the expectation of users, who usually require recent clustering results. In both the cases mentioned above, one is of allocating unlabeled data point into proper clusters after the sampling and the other is of finding clustering results when data changes over time which is difficult in the categorical domain. In this paper, using node importance technique, a rough set based method proposed to label unlabeled data point and to find the next clustering result based on the previous clustering result.
Keywords: Categorical Data, Data Labeling, Node Importance, Rough Membership Function.
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