IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 2 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Data Delivery For Secured Communication in Vanet
Country : India
Authors : Neha Verma || Rakesh Ku
: 10.9790/0661-0220108       logo
Abstract- As Vehicular networks become popular, it will provide the communication between Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and between Vehicles to Road side unit (V2R). Security is the main issue in VANET. As there are many aspects to improve security in VANET, but still security remains the delicate research. In this paper two methods have been proposed for maintaining the security. One method is Combo algorithm and other method is the Global System for Mobile computing (GSM) technique. The objective of combo algorithm is to achieve the principle of confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. This algorithm is designed by combining the two cryptography mechanism i.e. symmetric and asymmetric key; with the help of this technique we can solve the key distribution/exchange problem. The speed of encryption/decryption process is very fast in symmetric key cryptography so the process will not take much more time and the time complexity reduces. With the use of GSM technique, the authentication and confidentiality services have been achieved. Also, data transmitted in the form of voice and packets, and secure communication will takes place.
Keywords: Algorithm, GSM, RSU, V2R, V2V.
[1] Paolo Cencioni and Roberto Di Pietro, ―A mechanism to enforce privacy in vehicle-to-infrastructure communication‖, Elsevier, International Journal of computer communication, 31(12), 30 July 2008, 2790-2802.
[2] Neng-Wen Wang, Yueh-Min Huang and Wei-Ming Chen, ―A novel secure communication scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks‖, International Journal of computer communication, 31(12), 30 July 2008, 2827-2837.
[3] Yi Qian, Kejie Lu, and Nader Moayeri, ―A Secure VANET Mac Protocol for DSRC Applications‖, Proc. of Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2008,1-5.
[4] Eliana Stavrou and Andreas Pitsillides, ―A survey on secure multipath routing protocols in WSNs‖, Elsevier, Volume 54, Issue 13, 15 September 2010, Pages 2215–2238.
[5] Pandurang Kamat, Arati Baliga and Wade Trappe ―An identity-based security framework For VANET‖, Proc. of the 3rd international workshop on Vehicular ad hoc networks, 2006, 94-95.
[6] Raya, Maxim; Aziz, Adel; Hubaux and Jean-Pierre, ―Efficient secure aggregation in VANET‖, Proc. of 3rd international workshop on Vehicular ad hoc networks, September 2006.
[7] Surabhi Mahajan and Alka Jindal, ―Security and Privacy in VANET to reduce Authentication Overhead for Rapid Roaming Networks‖, International Journal of Computer Applications, 1(20), February 2010, 17-21. [8] Kenneth P Laberteaux, Jason J Haas, Yih-Chun Hu, ― Security certificate revocation list distribution for VANET‖, Proc. of fifth ACM international workshop on Vehicular Internetworking VANET, 2008, 88-89. [9] Samara, G., Al-Salihy, W.A.H., Sures, ―Security issues and challenges of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks‖, Proc. of 4th International Conference on New Trends in Information Science and Service Science (NISS) , May 2010, 393-398. [10] H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song, ―Secure hierarchical in-network aggregation in sensor networks,‖ Proc. of 13th ACM conference on Computer and Communications Security, November 2006, 278-287.
[11] Y. Yang, X. Wang, and S. Zhu, ―SDAP: a Secure Hop-by-Hop Data Aggregation Protocol for Sensor Networks‖, ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC), 11(4), July 2008, 18:1-18:43.
[12] M.Y. Hsieh, Y.M. Huang, H.C. Chao, ―Adaptive security design with malicious node detection in cluster-based sensor networks‖, Computer Communications, 30 (11–12), September 2007, 2385–2400.
[13] C. Boyd, A. Mathuria, ―Protocols for Authentication and Key Establishment‖, Information security and cryptography series, September 2003.
[14] Chung-Ming Huang and Yuh-Shyan Chen, Telematics communication technologies and vehicular networks: wireless architectures and applications (Information science reference Hershey, New York, 2010).
[15] www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM.
[16] www.pcquest.ciol.com/content/technology/ 2009/109020101.asp.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : ASIC implementation of STM-1 Framer and De-Framer
Country : India
Authors : Anand T || Dr. Siva S Yellampalli
: 10.9790/0661-0220917       logo
Abstract : In this paper we present the ASIC implementation of STM-1 Framer and De-Framer. This paper mainly focuses on multiplexing digital data, transmitting and receiving the STM-1 frame. The design is implemented using Verilog HDL, simulated on Modelsim and Synthesized on Xilinx ISE 13.2. For power analysis and area calculation, the designed framer and de-framer are analysed using Cadence version 6.1.5. For debugging Chipscope Analyser has been used. The designed framer can be used for generation and analysis of STM-1 frame that has a data rate of 155.52Mbps.
Keywords - PRBS, STM-1 frame, Scrambler, Descrambler, BIP, SOH, POH.
[1] ITU-T Recommendation G.707/Y.1322, Network node interface for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU. Geneva, January 2007.
[2] Zhang Xiaoru and Zeng Lieguang, "An SDH STM-1 termination IC", ASIC 2nd International Conference, pp 179-182, 1996.
[3] ITU-T Rec. G.783, Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks, Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU. Geneva, March 2006.
[4] G. Cariolaro, G. Iudicello, "Signal theory for SONET STM-1" Telecommunication symposium 1990. Its‟90 symposium record, Sep 1990, pp 26 - 32.
[5] D. Bajic, J. Stojanovic, FTN Novi Sad, Fruskogorska, Mobtel Beograd, "Frame Alignment Monitoring For STM-1 Frame", IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2001. ICC 2001, Vol. 10, pp. 2953- 2957.
[6] Srini W. Seetharam, Gary J. Minden, Joseph B. Evans, "A parallel SONET scrambler/descrambler architecture", Circuits and Systems, ISCAS, IEEE International Symposium, May 1993, vol 3, pp. 2011 - 2014.
[7] R. Clauberg "Data aggregation architectures for single chip SDH/SONET framers", IBM J. RES & DEV. VOL. 47 NO.2/3 March/May 2003.
[8] D.W. Choi, "Frame Alignment in a Digital Carrier System - A Tutorial", IEEE Comm. Mag., pp. 47-54, Vol. 28, February 1990.
[9 ] Cisco Systems, "Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Graphical Overview", Oct 2006.
[10] Wei-Zen Chen, Guan-Sheng Huang, "A Parallel Multi- pattern PRBS Generator and BER Tester for 40+ Gbps Serdes Applications", IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Advanced System Integrated Circuits, Aug 2004, pp. 318-321.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evolution of Sha-176 Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Piyush Garg || Namita Tiwari
: 10.9790/0661-0221822       logo
Abstract : To maintain data integrity hash functions are generally used. Hash function is one type of cryptographic primitives, which provide an assurance for data integrity. NAS has designed SHA hash functions which are the set of cryptographic hash function. There are so many SHA function existing in which SHA-1 produces message digest that is of 160 bits long. Later in SHA-1 has been identified security flaws, namely that a possible mathematical weakness might exist. This point out that stronger hash function would be desirable. In this paper we are proposing a new hash function, say SHA-176 that has more strength than the existing. In this we are fulfilling basic security principle i.e. integrity. Basically this hash function is developed to improve the security. Presented results are showing the performance of the proposed SHA-176 in terms of efficiency and security.
Keywords: Computer Security, SHA, Hash, Message Digest
[1] L.Thulasimani and M.Madheswaran, Security and Robustness Enhancement of Existing Hash Algorithm IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing Systems 2009
[2] Ricardo Chaves, Georgi Kuzmanov, Leonel Sousa, and Stamatis Vassiliadis Cost-Efficient SHA Hardware Accelerators IEEE Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration(VLSI) Systems, VOL. 16, NO. 8, AUGUST 2008
[3] Harshvardhan Tiwari and Dr. Krishna Asawa "A Secure Hash Function MD-192 With Modified Message Expansion" (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. VII , No. II, FEB2010 .
[4] P.P Charles & P.L Shari, "Security in Computing: 4th edition", Prentice-Hall, lnc., 2008.
[5] Charles Fleeger, Cryptography and network Security Principles and Practices.
[6] Secure Hash Standard: Federal Information Processing Standards Publication180-2
[7] Ilya Mironov, Hash functions: Theory, attacks, and applications Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley Campus.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Augmented Reality Tracking Techniques: A Systematic Literature Review Protocol
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Ihsan Rabbi || Sehat Ullah || Siffat Ullah Khan
: 10.9790/0661-0222329       logo
Abstract : Context– Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology through which the view of real world environment is augmented by computer generated elements/objects. Tracking and registration are the key challenges in AR system. Objective– This research paper aims to perform a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) for the identification of challenges during tracking an object in augmented reality environment and how these challenges can be overcame. Method–We have used a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) for Augmented Reality Tracking Techniques (ARTT). SLR is based on a structured protocol, and is therefore, different from ordinary literature review. We have developed the SLR protocol and are in the process of its implementation.
Expected Outcome– The expected outcomes of the review will be the identification of a list of challenges and its proposed solutions while tacking objects in augmented reality environment.
Keywords - Systematic Literature Review, Augmented Reality, Tracking
[1]. Milgram P, Drascic D, Julius J, et al. Merging Real and Virtual Worlds. Proceedings of IMAGINA '95 (Monte Carlo) 1995:218-230
[2]. Milgram P, Takemura H, Utsumi A, Kishino F. Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. In, SPIE Proceedings: Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies (Boston, MA); 1994:282-292
[3]. Kitchenham B. Procedures for Performing Systematic Reviews. Joint Technical Report, Keele University TR/SE-0401 and NICTA 0400011T1 2004:33
[4]. Hoff WA, Nguyen K. Computer vision-based registration techniques for augmented reality. Proceedings of Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XV, SPIE 1996, Boston 1996;2904:538-548
[5]. Azuma RT. A Survey of Augmented Reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1997:355-385
[6]. Azuma RT. The Challenge of Making Augmented Reality Work Outdoors. In: Tamura YOaH ed, Mixed Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds. USA: Springer-Verlag; 1999:379-390
[7]. Fuhrmann AL, Splechtna R, Přikryl J. Comprehensive Calibration and Registration Procedures for Augmented Reality. In, In Proceedings Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Environments; 2001
[8]. Zhou F, Duh HB-L, Billinghurst M. Trends in Augmented Reality Tracking, Interaction and Display: A Review of Ten Years of ISMAR. IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 2008 2008:193-202
[9]. Schmalstieg D, Fuhrmann A, Hesina G. Bridging Multiple User Interface Dimensions with Augmented Reality. In, In International Symposium of Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR "00); 2000:20-29
[10]. Fournier A. Illumination Problems in Computer Augmented Reality. 1994.......................

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detection of Intruders and Flooding In Voip Using IDS, Jacobson Fast And Hellinger Distance Algorithms
Country : India
Authors : A. Rahul || S.K.Prashanth || B.Suresh kumar || G.Arun
: 10.9790/0661-0223036       logo
Abstract:- VoIP services are becoming increasingly a big competition to existing telephony services (PSTN). Hence, the need arises to protect VoIP services from all kinds of attacks that target network bandwidth, server capacity or server architectural constrains. SIP Protocol is used for VoIP connection establishment. It works based on either TCP or UDP Protocols. This protocol structure is almost as same as HTTP Protocol, i.e. for every request there will be some response, even though the request is invalid. HTTP Protocol is prone to flooding attacks, like SYN-Flood attack. Because of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is same as HTTP, SIP is also prone to Flooding attacks. The proposed Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is used to detect the intruders in telephony system. Genetic algorithm is used to recognize the authorized user. VoIP Flood Detection System (VFDS) is aimed to detect TCP Flooding attacks and SIP Flooding attacks on SIP devices using Jacobian Fast and Hellinger distance algorithms. The Jacobian Fast Algorithm fixes the threshold limit and Hellinger distance calculation is a statistical anomaly based algorithm uses to detect deviation in traffic
Key words: VoIP, attacks in VoIP, flood attacks, IP telephony, Jacobian Fast, Hellinger Distance, Intrusion Detection System, Genetic algorithm.
[1] Mohammad Sazzadul hoque , Md. Abdul mukit2 and Md. Abu Naser bikas ―An implementation of intrusion detection system using genetic algorithm ― International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.4, No.2, March 2012
[2] Hemant Sengar, Haining Wang, Duminda Wijesekera, and Sushil Jajodia, ―Detecting VoIP Floods Using the Hellinger Distance‖, IEEE Transactions On Parallel And Distributed Systems, Vol. 19, No. 6, June 2008.
[3] R Jones, J Cruz, "Carrier Class Voice over IP", August 1999, 9 pages,.
[4] M. Handley, ACIRIH .Schulzrinne Columbia U E. Schooler Cal Tech J. Rosenberg ,Bell Labs ,March 1999 "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", March 1999, 132 pages, ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2543.txt
[5] Rakesh Arora, Voice Over IP: Protocols and Standards http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/cis788-99/voip_protocols/index.html ,
[6] V. Jacobson and M.J. Karels, ―Congestion Avoidance and Control,‖ Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '88, pp. 314-329, Aug. 1988.
[7] W. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated Volume-1, first ed. Addison-Wesley, 1994.
[8] D. Pollard, Asymptopia, first ed., book in progress, http://www.stat.yale.edu/pollard/, 2000.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Lucrative Method for License Plate Recognition
Country : India
Authors : Betsy Kurian || Dr. N.Krishnan
: 10.9790/0661-0223738       logo
Abstract : Recent research initiatives have addressed the need for improved performance of license plate recognition accuracy that would profit many applications, ITS in particular. Different image processing techniques have been implemented for this purpose specifically edge detection, binarization, segmentation algorithm and tesseract. Each of these steps has its own strengths and weaknesses and it has been proved that using each of these methods individually does not provide a suitable solution that answers today's character recognition needs. This project endeavors to provide improved license plate recognition accuracy by using a novel approach that involves integrating image processing techniques and tesseract according to some constraints. Experimental results prove that this integration provides better recognition accuracy than using traditional techniques for license plate recognition. Keywords – character, image processing, license plate, recognition, tesseract
[1] Hontani, H., and Koga, T., (2001), "Character extraction method without prior knowledge on size and information," Proceedings of the IEEE International Vehicle Electronics Conference (IVEC'01).
[2] Yao-Quan Yang, Jie Bai, Rui-Li Tian and Na Liu, A Vehicle License Plate Recognition System Based on Fixed Color Collocation, Proc. of the Fourth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2005.
[3] Thanongsak Sirithinaphong and Kosin Chamnongthai, The Recognition of Car License Plate for Automatic Parking System, Proc. of the Fifth International Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications, 1999.
[4] E.R. Lee, P.K. Kim, and H.J. Kim, 1994, "Automatic Recognition of a Car License Plate Using Color Image Processing," Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks –Edrleach
Country : India
Authors : Ebin Deni Raj
: 10.9790/0661-0223944       logo
Abstract: The Cluster-head Gateway Switch Routing protocol (CGSR) uses a hierarchical network topology. CGSR organizes nodes into clusters, with coordination among the members of each cluster entrusted to a special node named cluster-head. The cluster head selection is done with the help of any of the algorithm for cluster head selection. Energy is the primary constraint on designing any Wireless Networks practically. This leads to limited network lifetime of network. Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) and LEACH with deterministic cluster head selection are some of the cluster head algorithms that enable to optimize power consumption of WSN. There are various factors like density & distance, threshold based, power efficient. Load balancing and scalability are the other factors which plays important role in the selection of Cluster head. Algorithms based on load balancing reduce communication cost to a great extent. The algorithms that this study is focused are A Density and Distance based Cluster Head, An Energy Efficient Algorithm for Cluster-Head Selection in WSNs, Consumed Energy as a Factor for Cluster Head. These three algorithms are analyzed and studied in this paper. The analysis of these algorithms gave birth to a new algorithm called EDRLEACH, which is proposed through this paper.
Keywords-Cluster head,energy efficient algorithms,selection head algorithms, wireless sensor,networks.
Journal Papers
[1] MohammadJavadHajikhani, BahmanAbolhassani, "n Energy Efficient Algorithm for Cluster-Head Selection in WSNs, 2010 5th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST'2010).
[2] Kyounghwa Lee, Joohyun Lee, Hyeopgeon Lee, Yongtae Shin A Density and Distance based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm in Sensor NetworksFeb. 7-10, 2010 ICACT 2010
[3] DesalegnGetachewMelese, HuagangXiong, QiangGaoConsumed Energy as a Factor For Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks" 978-1-4244-3709-2/10/ 2010 IEEE
[4] Hung-Chin Jang and Hon-Chung LeeEfficient Energy Management to Prolong Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network"L. Ying and Y. Haibin, "Energy Adaptive Cluster-Head Selection forWireless Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the Sixth IEEEInternational Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing,Applications and Technologies , Dec.2005
[5] Sungju Lee, Jangsoo Lee, Jangsoo Lee,Hongjoong, Sin, SeunghwanYoo, Sanghyuck Lee, Jaesik Lee, Yongjun Lee, and Sungchun Kim, An Energy- Efficient Distributed Unequal Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor networks.World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology 48, 2008.
[6] John A. Stankovice, Research Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks. July 2004.
Books
[7] Wiley Series on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing FUNDAMENTALS OFWIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSpublished in 2010
[8] CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC COMPUTER and INFORMATION SCIENCE SERIESHandbook of Algorithms for Wireless Networking and Mobile Computing 2006

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design of Lane Detecting and Following Autonomous Robot
Country : India
Authors : Tushar Wankhade || Pranav Shriwas
: 10.9790/0661-0224548       logo
Abstract : This paper presents a robot which is designed to autonomously navigate through a track by detecting lanes and centering itself between them by using a camera. We are proposing basic and easy algorithm for tracking and detecting lanes without considering any cameras' parameters. The car detects lanes through image input from a camera mounted at its front. All computations based on data from camera are handled by Laptop which is carried by car. The car controlling part is carried by ATmega8 microcontroller. Object tracking algorithms based on color, shape is used for tracking lanes. Based on the information retrieved, data/signals will be transferred to the controller, which will control the movement of motor. This project uses OpenCV library for digital image processing under LINUX environment.
Keywords - Lane detection, Hough transform, USART, PWM
[1] Transportation: Motor Vehicle Accidents and Fatalities [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/transportation/motor_vehicle_accidents_and_fatalities.html
[2] P. Slavíková, M. Mudrová A. Michalcová and A. Procházka "Hough Transform Use in Image Processing of Microscopic Alloy Images", Institute of Chemical Technology Prague.
[3] Yue Wanga, Eam Khwang Teoha, Dinggang Shenb "Lane detection and tracking using B-Snake", Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
[4] Mohamed Aly "Real time Detection of Lane Markers in Urban Streets", Computational Vision, Lab Electrical Engineering California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125
[5] [Book] Gonzales, woods "Digital Image Processing"
[6] [Book] Mark S. Nixon, Alberto S. Aguado "Feature Extraction and Image Processing"
[7] Serial programming guide for POSIX operating systems [Online]. Available: http://www.easysw.com/~mike/serial/serial.html
[8] RS232 Specifications and standard [Online]. Available: http://www.lammertbie.nl/comm/info/RS- 232_specs.html
[9] The RS-232 Standard [Online]. Available: http://www.omega.com/techref/pdf/rs-232.pdf
[10] Ghassan Hamarneh, Karin Althoff, Rafeef Abu-Gharbieh "Automatic Line Detection", Image Analysis Group Department of Signals and Systems Chalmers University of Technology
[11] Datasheets of ATmega8, L298, MAX232.
[12] Linux manual page