IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

International Conference on Advances in Engineering & Technology – 2014 (ICAET-2014)

Volume 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Techniques For Load Balancing In Wireless Lan's
Country : India
Authors : Krishnanjali A.Magade, Prof.Abhijit Patankar

Abstract: Optimal load allocation strategies are proposed for a wireless sensor network which is connected in a star topology. The load considered here is of arbitrarily divisible kind, such that each fraction of the job can be distributed and assigned to any processor for computation purpose. Divisible Load Theory emphasizes on how to partition the load among a number of processors and links, such that the load is distributed optimally. Its objective is to partition the load in such a way so that the load can be distributed and processed in the shortest possible time. The existing strategies for both star and bus topologies are investigated. The performance of the suggested strategy is compared with the existing ones and it is found that it reduces the overall communication and processing time if allocation time is considered in the previous strategies. Wireless communications is one of the most active areas of technology development..

Keywords: Load balancing, WLAN, Min-Max Load balancing, Load, Access point, cell breathing, persistent, round robin, etc.

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[7] R. Akl and S. Park. "Optimal Access Point selection and Traffic Allocation in IEEE 802.11 Networks," Proceedings of 9th World Multiconference on Systemics Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2005): Communication and Network
[8] Y. Lee, K. Kim, and Y. Choi. Optimization of AP placement and channel
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[10] G. Tan and J. Guttag. "Capacity Allocation in Wireless LANs." MIT LCS Technical Report, MIT-LCS-TR-973, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Performance of RESTful Web Services
Country : India
Authors : G M Tere, R R Mudholkar, B T Jadhav

Abstract: RESTful Web services play important role in distributed web applications. Performance of Web services affects overall performance of applications. Using features of REST, HTTP, and the REST frameworks like Jersey, Restlet, RESTEasy the latency and system resource consumption of application is improved. Performance of RESTful web services is improved using techniques such as fast manipulation of strings, streaming large representations, compressing SOAP response, partial representation, using Caching techniques and using conditional methods. It is observed that performances of RESTful Web services increases by approximately 40% if above techniques are used. This paper describes those techniques for improving performance of RESTful Web services.

Keywords -Caching, compression, conditional methods, REST, Streaming

[1] Caching Guide, Mar 2012 a. URL:
[2] ETag, Entity Tag, Jan 2012 a. URL:
[3] Gourley D.; Totty B.; Sayer M.; Aggarwal A. and Reddy S. (2002), HTTP: The Definitive Guide, O'Reilly Media
JAX-RS, Java API for RESTful Services, 2011 a. URL:
[4] Jersey, RESTful Web Services in Java, 2011 a. URL:
[5] Mazzetti P.; Nativi S.; Bigagli L. (2008), Integration of REST style and AJAX technologies to build Web applications; an example of framework for Location-Based-Services, Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, ICTTA 2008. 3rd International Conference on, vol., no., 1 pp.6, 7-11 April 2008
[6] Meng J.; Mei S.; Zhao Y. (2009), RESTful Web Services: A Solution for Distributed Data Integration, Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering, CiSE 2009. International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1-4, 11-13 Dec. 2009
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[10] Takase T. and Tatsubori M. (2004), Efficient Web services response caching by selecting optimal data representation. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pages 188–197, Toronto, Canada. IEEE Computer Society.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hierarchical Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Computing Environment
Country : India
Authors : Abhishek Nachankar, Prof. Rajesh Dharmik

Abstract: Grid computing is increasingly being viewed as the next phase of distributed computing. Grid aims to maximize the utilization of an organization's computing resources by making them shareable across applications. In grid computing, job scheduling is an important task. Load balancing and proper resource allocation are critical issues that must be considered in managing a grid computing environment. Load Balancing is the technique which distributes the workload across multiple computers to reduce the latency of process execution with proper resource utilization. To resolve these issues, we are proposing hierarchical scheduling algorithm to provide a superior load balancing mechanism at grid level. And improved hierarchical scheduling algorithm which reduces makes span of the job and improves overall performance of the grid environment.

Keywords -Grid Computing,Hierarchical Environment, Job Scheduling,Load Balancing, ResourceUtilization.

IEEE Papers:

[2] N. Malarvizhi and V.R.Uthariaraj, Hierarchical Load Balancing Scheme for Computational Intensive Jobs in Grid Computing Environment, ICAC, IEEE, 2009

[3] J. Watts, S. Taylor, A Practical Approach to Dynamic Load Balancing,IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, 1998, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 235-248. [4] B.Pradhan, A. Nayak and D.S. Roy, An Elegant Load Balancing Scheme in Grid Computing Using Grid Gain,International Journal of Computer Science and Its Applications, 2011, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp.254-257.

[5] Yun-han Lee, Seiven Len and Ruay-Shiung Chang, Improving job scheduling algorithms in a grid environment, Future Generation computer systems, 2011, vol.27, pp.991-998

[6] Leyli Mohammad Khanil, Shiva Razzaghzadehb and Sadegh vahabzadeh Zargaric, A new step towards load balancing based on competency rank and transitional phases in grid networks, Future Generation Computer systems, 2012, vol.28.pp.682-688.

[7] E. Ajaltouni, A. Boukerche and M. Zhang, An Efficient Dynamic Load Balancing Scheme for Distributed Simulations on a Grid Infrastructure,12th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications, 2008, pp. 61-68.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Personal Medical Records Management
Country :  
Authors : Sowjanya s

Abstract: describe a new approach which enables secure storage and controlled sharing of paitent's health records(PHR). To achieve fine-grained and scalable data control for PHRs, i leverage attribute-based encryption (ABE) techniques to encrypt each patient's PHR file. To assure the patients' control over access to their own PHRs, it is a promising method to encrypt the PHRs before outsourcing. In this paper, i propose a novel patient-centric framework and a suite of mechanisms for data access control to PHRs stored in semitrusted servers. Traditional control mechanisms, such as Role-Based Access Control, have several limitations with respect to enforcing control policies and ensuring data confidentiality. A high degree of patient privacy is guaranteed simultaneously by exploiting multiauthority ABE.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Personal Health Record, Multi-authority Attribute Based Encryption.

[1] Priyanka Korde, Vijay Panwar and Sneha Kalse, "SecuringPersonal Health Records in Cloud using Attribute BasedEncryption,"International Journal of Engineering and AdvancedTechnology (IJEAT), Issue-4, April 2013.

[2] Ming Li, Shucheng Yu, and Wenjing Lou, "Scalable and SecureSharing of Personal Health Records in Cloud Computing usingAttribute based Encryption", IEEE Transactions On Parallel AndDistributed Systems 2012.

[3] S. Ruj, A. Nayak, and I. Stojmenovic, "Dacc: Distributedaccess control in clouds," in 10th IEEE TrustCom, 2011.

[4] X. Liang, R. Lu, X. Lin, and X. S. Shen, "Ciphertext policyattribute based encryption with efficient revocation," TechnicalReport, University of Waterloo, 2010.

[5] S. Yu, C. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Achieving secure,scalable, and fine-grained data access control in cloudcomputing," in IEEE INFOCOM'10, 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : XML Based Query Engine
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Ahmar Ali, Dr. M. M. Raghuwanshi, Mr .Santosh Kumar Sahu

Abstract: XML (Extensible Mark-up Language) has emerged as the leading textual language for representing and exchanging data on web. With the popularity of XML technology and Native XML database, efficiently indexing, and retrieving XML data in Native XML database become an important research topic. This project describes the description of advanced features of XML data which enables the retrieval and restricting of XML document in a simple and intuitive way. After the basic features of XML the focus is on Complex Queries whose expressive power subsumes some well known relational operations (e.g. union, difference, car titian products) but goes well beyond these relatively simple operations. A single query engine can execute multiple queries at the same time and execution of a single query can be distributed across different servers. The distributed servers are totally symmetric and queries can be submitted to any server. The server conforms to XML and proposed XML-QL standards and all communication among servers follow these specifications. This makes sure that even the query engines from other vendors can participate in a distributed query execution. Keywords -Inverted index, Multithereaded pipelined,Native XML, XML-QL,

[1]. Sacks-Davis, R., Arnold-Moore, T., Zobel, J.: Database Systems for Structured Documents. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol. E78- D, No.11(1995)pp.1335-1341.
[2]. Wang Xiaoling, Lan Jinfeng, Dong Yisheng, Basing on GA to Store XML data in RDBMS[j]. Journal ofComputer Research and Development,2003,40(7):111- 1116.
[3]. ZHOU Ao-Ying, XU Zheng-Chuan, GUO Zhi-Mao, etat.Adaptation of XML Storage Schema in VXMLR[J]. Chinese Journal Of Computes, 2004, Vol.27 No.4: 433-441.
[4]. Xie Yi-wu; Wang Chen-Yang; Cao Zhi-Ying; Chen Yan : Research on Store XML Data in Relational Database Based on XML Schema. Network and Parallel Computing Workshop, 2007. NPC Workshops. IFIP International Conference on. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/NPC.2007.126. Publication Year : 2007, Page(s):1001-1005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Implementation of Aes By Modifying S-Box
Country : India
Authors : Vijay L Hallappanavar, Basavaraj P Halagali, Veena V Desai

Abstract: Security of data and messagesare an imperative issue because of fast evolution of digital data exchanges over unsecured network. Data security is achieved by methods of cryptography, which deals with encryption of data. Standard symmetric encryption algorithms provide better security for the multimedia data. In the existing AES algorithm we are modifying S-Box based on the some of the reference papers which we have gone through. After implementing modification the output is compared to original output, in terms of timing analysis, Hamming distance, Balanced output and Aavalanche effect and so on. Hence the efficiency of modified AES is verified after the comparison.

Keywords : Avalanche effect,Hamming distance, Polynomial for S-box, Symmetric encryption,Swapping words in S-box

[1] Lai, Xuejia, and Massey, James L., A Proposal for a New Block Encryption Standard, Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT '90, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, 1991: 389-404.

[2] Mediacrypt AG, The IDEA Block Cipher, submission to the NESSIE Project,

[3] Meier, W., On the Security of the IDEA block cipher, Advances in Cryptology [4] Menezes, A., van Oorschot, P., and Vanstone, S. 1996. Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press. This book may downloaded from

[5] Musa, M., Shaefer, E., and Wedig S. 2003. A Simplified AES Algorithm and its Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis. Cryptologia. 17 (2): 148 - 177.

[6] Phan, R. 2002. Mini Advanced Encryption Standard (Mini-AES): A Testbed for Cryptanalysis Students. Cryptologia. 26 (4): 283 - 306.

[7] Schaefer, E. 1996. A Simplified Data Encryption Standard Algorithm. Cryptologia. 20 (1): 77 - 84.

[8] Schneier, B. 1996. Applied Cryptography, Second Edition. Wiley.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Blind Image Steganalysis using Genetic Algorithm and Fusion Technique
Country : India
Authors : Sarita R. Visavalia, Dr. Amit Ganatra

Abstract: The Steganography is the science of communication of secret information using carrier/s between two or multiple entities. The secret information can be embedded into an existing image, audio or video or even as a complex combination of all three. In case the secret feature is visible, attention & attack is inevitable & evident, our primary goal is to creatively engineer concealment of the secret information/data on or within a given subject. Steganalysis is a creative art, a process of discovering hidden secrets and successfully extracting the information. In short, steganography is the harbinger of Steganalysis. The recent past has reported a large number of innovative & powerful steganalysis techniques. To make things simple, these techniques could be broadly categorized under two streams, specific-base or universal-base. Each category of techniques has a set of advantages and disadvantages. In real life situations, the steganalyst will not be able to know what or which steganographic technique is used. Here in this paper, we propose a novel method that enables identification of the steganographic technique used to introduce/embed secret information on a conventional item and also offer scalability.

Keywords -Steganography, Image Steganalysis, Information Fusion

[1] Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, Nasir Memon, "Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice", Lecture Note Series, Institute for Mathematical Sciences, NationalUniversity of Singapore (2004
[2] Abbas Cheddad, Joan Condell, Kevin Curran and Paul Mc Kevitt, "Digital Image Steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods", Signal Processing, March 2010, Pages 727-752
[3] Xiang-Yang Luo, Dao-Shun Wang, Ping Wang, Fen-Lin Liu, "A review on blind detection for image steganography", Signal Processing, Volume 88, Issue 9, September 2008, Pages 2138-2157
[4] Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, Nasir Memon, "Benchmarking steganographic and steganalysis technique", Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5681, pp. 252-263 (2005)
[5] Ismail Avcibas, Mehdi Kharrazi, Nasir Memon, Bulent Sankur, "Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measure-s", EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, January 2005, Pages 2749 - 2757
[6] Siwei Lyu. Hany Farid, "Steganalysis Using Color Wavelet Statistics and One-Class Support Vector Machines", SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging, Volume 5306, Pages 35-45,January 2004
[7] Siwei Lyu. Hany Farid, "Detecting Hidden Messages Using Higher-Order Statistics and Support Vector Machines"
[8] Ismail Avcibas, Nasir Memon, Bulent Sankur, "Steganalysis Using Image Quality metrics", IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 221–229, Feb. 2003.
[9] Mehmet U. Celik, Gaurav Sharma, A. Murat Tekalp, "Detecting Universal Image Steganalysis Using Rate-Distortion Curve", Lecture notes in Computer Science, Volume 2578/2003, Pages 340-354
[10] Tomas Penvy, Jessica Fridrich, "Multi-class Blind Steganalysis for JPEG Images", Proc. SPIE, Volume 6072, 60720O(2006)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Web Page Access Model Study for Secure Execution and Prevention of Source Code Theft of Web Pages
Country : India
Authors : Ishit Shah, Nisha Shah

Abstract: Web applications are one of the most prevalent platforms for information and services delivery over Internet today. As they are increasingly used for critical services, web applications become a popular and valuable target for source code stealing and other security attacks. Although a large body of techniques have been developed to fortify web applications and mitigate the attacks toward web applications, there is little effort devoted to drawing connections among these techniques and building a big picture of web application security research. This paper surveys the area of web application security, with the aim of the development of a new web page access model middleware into a big picture that reduces the risk of source code theft by inserting a layer between user request and web page. We organize the existing research works on securing web applications into three categories based on their design philosophy: security by construction, security by verification and security by protection. Finally, we summarize the lessons learnt and discuss future research opportunities in this area.

Keywords -Web access model, web page encryption, source code security, web access middleware, web security, intranet source code security, source code encryption.

[1] Abbasi, Abdul Ghafoor, Sead Muftic, and Ikrom Hotamov. "Web Contents Protection, Secure Execution and Authorized Distribution." In Computing in the Global Information Technology (ICCGI), 2010 Fifth International Multi-Conference on, pp. 157-162. IEEE, 2010.
[2] Zhongying, Bai, and Qin Jiancheng. "Webpage Encryption Based on Polymorphic Javascript Algorithm." In Information Assurance and Security, 2009. IAS'09. Fifth International Conference on, vol. 1, pp. 327-330. IEEE, 2009.
[3] Huang, Yao-Wen, Fang Yu, Christian Hang, Chung-Hung Tsai, Der-Tsai Lee, and Sy-Yen Kuo. "Securing web application code by static analysis and runtime protection." In Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, pp. 40-52. ACM, 2004.
[4] De Peol, N. L. "Automated security review of php web applications with static code analysis." Master's thesis (2010).
[5] Anant Kochar. Whit paper Source Code Disclosure over HTTP, by SecureEyes Infusing Security " "
[6] Verizon 2010 Data Breach Investigations Report, " 2010-data- breach-report en xg.pdf."
[7] Web Application Security Statistics, " SecurityStatistics."
[8] White Hat Security, "WhiteHat website security statistic report 2010."
[9] W Halfond, W. G., Jeremy Viegas, and Alessandro Orso. "A classification of SQL-injection attacks and countermeasures." In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Secure Software Engineering, Arlington, VA, USA, pp. 13-15. 2006
[10] MySpace Samy Worm, "," 2005.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Semantic Analysis of Context Aware Recommendation techniques
Country : India
Authors : Mohammad Daoud, S.K Naqvi, Alok Nikhil Jha

Abstract: The paper entails the existential importance of recommendation engines & showcases the dependency of electronic business on feedback mechanism & recommendation systems evaluation methodologies. The paper also presents the semantic evaluation & analysis of the available algorithms for recommendation engines, strategies & technologies used in backend engines on web server or as application server within a domain. Finally the paper discusses our proposed model of recommendation with the aspects for recommending any object on the digital domain with provisions of subjective evaluation & measurable semantic relationship considering the sentiments of the users, scaled to a self-learning model.

Keywords: Recommendation Parameters, Recommendation System, Semantic similarity, Sentiment Analysis, User generated feedback

[1] P. Resnick, N. Iacovou, M. Suchak, P. Bergstrom, and J. Riedl. Grouplens: An open architecture for collaborative ltering of netnews, In Proceedings of the 1994 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW'94), pages 175{186, New York, NY, USA, 1994. ACM.

[2] J. L. Herlocker, J. A. Konstan, A. Borchers, and J. Riedl, An algorithmic framework for performing collaborative ltering, In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pages 230{237, New York, NY, USA, 1999. ACM.

[3] U. Shardanand and P. Maes,Social Information Filtering Algorithms for Automating Word of Mouth, In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems (CHI'95), pages 210{217, New York, NY, USA, 1995. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

[4] C.-N. Ziegler, S. M. McNee, J. A. Konstan, and G. Lausen, Improving recommendation lists through topic diversication, ProceedingWWW '05 Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web Pages 22-32.

[5] L. Chen and P. Pu, Hybrid critiquing-based recommender systems, In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI'07), pages 22{31, New York, NY, USA, 2007. ACM.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : GamEd - Learning Data Structure Algorithm using Computer Game
Country : India
Authors : Nazneen Ansari, Noopur Parikh, Anagha Narvekar, Manjiri Phatapekar, Anita Yadav

Abstract: Games have been used throughout time as an instrument of instruction for all different aspects of life. Games provide a fun learning environment in which students can approach abstract topics in a visual manner. Learning should be fun. When a student is doing something that he deems as fun, he is able to grasp its concepts much more effectively. There isn't a student in the world that would object to homework if it were a fun experience; instead they would yearn for more. Thus, we are building a game that will teach sorting algorithms (BFS and DFS) from the I.T. and Computer engineering students' syllabus as well as provide a good gaming experience. Data Structures is a very important topic in the curriculum of Information Technology and Computer Engineering students. It forms as the basis for their course and is taught in the second year of their four year course. This game will allow students to enhance their knowledge and gain better understanding of the subject without them losing interest in the subject.

Keywords -Computer Games, Data Structures, Learning, Teaching, Undergraduate Engineering

[1] Jason R. Stewart & Arvin Agah, "Teaching a software engineering course on developing video games: a Unified Process versus Extreme Programming", Kansas, United States of America, Vol.10, No.1, 2012.

[2] Lu Yan, "Teaching Object-Oriented Programming with Games", Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK, 2009 Dave Moursund, "Introduction to Using Games in Education: A Guide for Teachers and Parents", University of Oregon, June 2007

[3] Rose W. Mwangi, Ronald Waweru, Cecila W. Mwathi, "Integrating ICT with Education: Designing an Educational Computer Game for teaching Functions in Undergraduate Mathematics, Islamabad, Pakistan , April 15, 2011

[4] Mary Jo Dondlinger, "Educational Video Game Design: A Review of the Literature", North Texas, USA, April 2007 [5] Colin A Depradine," Using Gaming to Improve Advanced Programming Skills", Cave Hill, Barbados, November 2011

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study on Age Invariant Face Recognition System
Country : India
Authors : Wangjam Niranjan Singh, Dipankar Medhi, Mrudula S.Nimbarte

Abstract: At present the Computer automated Face recognition systems are used for personal identification, but the Age variations of an individual poses a serious problem for it. Designing an appropriate feature representation and an effective matching framework for age invariant face recognition remains an open problem. In this paper we have focused on the use of appropriate Pre processing techniques for improving the quality of the input image and the use of Periocular region as the template for recognition as this region remains unchanged or stable for the lifetime in an individual. The modified PCA algorithm called the Self-PCA is used for creating the Eigen Face for feature extraction for the recognition process. The Self-PCA can be used in order to consider distinctiveness of the effects of aging of a person for age invariant face recognition.

Keywords- Biometrics, Eigen Space, Face Recognition, Illumination Normalization, Periocular, Preprocessing, Pose correction, Self-PCA.

[1] Nana Rachmana Syambas, Untung Hari Purwanto. "Image Processing and ace Detection Analysis on Face Verification Based on the Age Stages",7th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Services and Applications, IEEE, 2012.
[2] Felix luefei-Xu, Khoa LUU, Marios Savvides, Tien D. Bui and Ching Y. Suen. ―Investigating Age Invariant Face Recognition Based on Periocular Biometrics‖ IEEE, 2011
[3] Zhifeng Li, Unsang Park, Anil K. Jain.‖ A Discriminative Model for Age Invariant Face Recognition‖ IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol. 6, no. 3, September 2011.
[4] Jyothi S. Nayak, Indiramma M.‖ Efficient Face Recognition with Compensation for Aging Variations‖ IEEE- Fourth International Conference on Advanced Computing, 2012.
[5] Jyothi S. Nayak, Indiramma M and Nagarathna N.‖ Modeling Self –Principal Component Analysis for Age Invariant Face Recognition‖ IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research 2012
[6] Haibin Ling, Stefano Soatto, Narayanan Ramanathan, and David W. Jacobs ―A Study of Face Recognition as People Age‖ IEEE 2007.
[7] Narayanan Ramanathan, Rama Chellappa ―Face Verification across age Progression‖ IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 15, no. 11, November 2006.
[8] Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross, Salil Prabhakar ―An Introduction to Biometric Recognition‖. IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 14, no. 1, January 2004
[9] Yunhong Wang, Zhaoxiang Zhang, Weixin Li, and Fangyuan Jiang. ―Combining Tensor Space Analysis and Active Appearance Models for Aging Effect Simulation on Face Images‖. IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics—part b: cybernetics, vol. 42, no. 4, August 2012
[10] Gayathri Mahalingam and Chandra Kambhamettu.‖ Age Invariant Face Recognition Using Graph Matching‖.IEEE 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of precoded orthogonal space-time block codes over fading MIMO channels
Country : India
Authors : Shital R. Shegokar

Abstract: Recent information theory research has shown that the rich-scattering wireless channel is capable of enormous theoretical capacities if the multipath is properly exploited. This is possible with one of the most promising technology for future generation wireless communication called as Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). MIMO architecture allows getting the diversity benefit or increased data rate. The work in the report will be aimed at evaluating performance of MIMO system targeted for improving data rate or capacity.Orthogonal space timecoding (OSTBC) have been developed in order to exploit the advantages of MIMO system such as Diversity gain. Pre-coding technique can be combined rate with OSTBC to adapt to the current channel condition without changing the fixed structure of the transmitters and receiver. MIMO Pre-coding techniques aim at improving the system performance. Finally we present simulation results that validate our analysis.

Keywords: Diversity gain, MIMO, OSTBC, PRE-CODER

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Digital One Time Proxy Signature Using Domain Keys Identified Mail (Dkim) In Cryptography Under Network Security
Country : India
Authors : K. Nirmala Devi

Abstract: One-time proxy signature scheme is a method for constructing a digital signature. Digital signature of a document is a piece of information encrypted by the signer's private key.Proxy signature is a digital signature where an original signer delegates her signing capability to a proxy signer, and then the proxy signer performs message signing on behalf of the original signer.Here, we propose two one-time proxy signature schemes with different security properties using Domain Keys Identified Mail where the domain name, the list of covered fields, the signing algorithm, and the method by which text snippets are simplified for signing purposes. In olden days.Other existing one-time proxy signatures are constructed from public key cryptography, From a verifier point of view, signatures generated by the proxy are indistinguishable from those created by the primary signer, a trusted authority can be equipped with an algorithm in public key cryptography our schemes are based one-way functions without trapdoors and so they inherit the communication and computation efficiency and complexity from the traditional one-time signatures. By using Domain Keys Identified Mail that allows the authority to settle differentiate between the signers. In our constructions, we use a combination of one-time signatures, oblivious transfer protocols using Domain Keys Identified Mail and its likely to make some kinds of phishing attacks easier to detect. We characterise these new protocols for DKIM and present constructions for them.

Keywords- Proxy signature scheme, Domain Key Identified Mail, one way function, primary signer ,oblivious transfer protocol,

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