IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

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Nov – Dec 2014 Volume 16 - Issue 6

Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Version 5 Version 6 Version 7 Version 8

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Intent Search and Centralized Sybil Defence Mechanism for Social Network
Country : India
Authors : Julia George
: 10.9790/0661-16620106     logo

Abstract: Sybil attacks are the major problems occurred in the distributed systems without trusted identities. It occur when the one-to-one relationship between a node and its identity is violated. This is occurred by an attacker creates multiple pseudonymous identities and pretends to be multiple, distinct nodes in the system. Intent search is another important function in social network. It mostly depends on surrounding text features which leads to noisy search result. In this paper a new Sybil defence mechanism is introduced that is Sybil protector, in order to defend against attacks in social networks. It is efficient and scalable to large social network. Network topologies are used by the Sybil protector to defend against Sybil attacks in social networks. It can effectively identify the Sybil nodes and detect the Sybil community around a Sybil node. And also limits the number of attack edges in online social networks. Here also included a novel internet image search which only requires one-click user feedback. For that expanded keywords are used to create positive example images and to include more relevant images it enlarge the image pool. It consist of four steps.1) Adaptive similarity.2) Keyword expansion. 3) Visual query expansion. Intent image search is very effective because it has extremely simple user interface. IndexTerms: Sybil attack, Sybil identity, social networks, attack edge, keyword expansion

[1] H. Yu, M. Kaminsky, P. B. Gibbons, and A. Flaxman. Sybilguard: defending against sybil attacks via social networks. In SIGCOMM, 2006
[2] H. Yu, P. B. Gibbons, M. Kaminsky, and F. Xiao. Sybillimit: A near optimal social network defense against sybil attacks. In IEEE Symposium
[3] G. Danezis and P. Mittal, "SybilInfer: Detecting Sybil Nodes using Social Networks," in NDSS, 2009.K.Elissa, "Titleofpaperifknown," unpublished.
[4] N. Tran, J. Li, L. Subramanian, and S. S. Chow, "Optimal sybil-resilient node admission control," in INFOCOM, 2011.
[5] N. Tran, B. Min, J. Li, and L. Subramanian, "Sybil-Resilient Online Content Voting," in NSDI, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 5 Pen Technology
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Shweta A. Mohabe
: 10.9790/0661-16620713     logo

Abstract: Computer affects our life in a much bigger way then most of us might have thought. It has become a compulsory requirement in most professions to be able to use computer software. The first computer invented was the ENIAC in 1943 which was the same size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern PCs. Modern computers which are based on integrated circuits are small enough to fit into mobile devices. One of the most compacted computers out right now are table computers with the most popular being the IPad, but even that is 9.1inch and weighing about 700grams. But imagine having a computer that will fit into your pencil case. The P-ISM (Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package) consists of a package of 5 pens that all have unique functions, combining together to create a virtual computing experience. This is only a prototype under developing stage by NEC Corporation. In 2003, Geneva held the ITU telecom Word exhibition which exhibited a conceptual $30,000 prototype of a P-ISM designed by the Tokyo-based NEC Corporation.

Keywords: ENIAC:Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,NEC Corporation. : Company who provider of IT seriveces goods and products.

[1] Microsoft (2005), Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005 Hardware Requirements,, retrieved 2009-03-14

[2] Fingerworks, Inc. (2003), iGesture Game Mode Guide,, retrieved 2009-04-30
[3] Computerized Graphic Processing System: System User's Manual, Applicon Incorporated, 1973-09-01

[4] Lempesis, Bill (May 1990), What's New in Laptops and Pen Computing, Flat Panel Display News

[5] HP TouchSmart tx2z, HP, retrieved 2008-11-28

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Clustered Based Novel Approach of Graph Coloring
Country : India
Authors : Sapna Arya || Manish Dixit
: 10.9790/0661-16621417     logo

Abstract: An efficient graph coloring algorithm is proposed in this research paper that uses less number of colors for a graph coloring problem. The proposed algorithm is applicable for all types of graph. The algorithm works by dividing the vertices into two clusters i.e. non-visited type of clusters including the nodes that are not colored and visited type of clusters including the nodes that are already colored and finds maximum number of color that have been filled into visited nodes. An assumption is taken that k number of colors is already known and the colors are selected from the same k-colors. The proposed algorithm is implemented on random graphs along with well known ECG algorithm. In most of the cases the proposed algorithm provides better result and uses less number of colors as compare to ECG algorithm.

Key Words: Graph Coloring, Neighbors of a Vertex, Combinational Optimization.

[1]. M. Bessedic, R. Laib, A. Boulmerka, "Ant Colony System for Graph Colring Problem" CIMCA-IAWTIC'05
[2]. Brelaz, D., "New methods to color vertices of a graph" Communications of the ACM 22, pp. 251 –256, 1979
[3]. Hertz, A. and D. de Werra, "Using tabu search techniques for graph coloring" Computing 39 (4), 345–351, 1987
[4]. Turner, J. S., "Almost all k-colorable graphs are easy to color" Journal of Algorithms 9 (1), pp. 63–82, 1988
[5]. Galinier, P. and J-K. Hao, " Hybrid evolutionary algorithms for graph coloring" Journal of Combinatorics, 3(4), pp. 379 –397, 1999
[6]. Marino, A. and Damper, R. I., "Breaking the symmetry of the graph colouring problem with genetic algorithms" Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2000), 2000

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of Cyber Security on Selected Mobile Phone Payment System in Nairobi Central Business District, Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Constantine Matoke Nyamboga || Wekesa Nelson Barasa
: 10.9790/0661-16621822     logo

Abstract: The study aimed at examining effects of cyber security on selected mobile phone payment systems in Nairobi County, Kenya. A purposive complete census was conducted to collect data from the selected mobile phone service providers; Safaricom. A cross-sectional survey research on the other hand was employed to a population comprising of; mobile phone users and mobile phone money merchants. To collect data, questionnaires and scheduled interviews were conducted. Content Validity Index was used to measure the relevance of the questions in relation to the variables under study. Also, reliability test was conducted to determine the consistency of the scales used to measure the study variables. Once data had been collected, it was cleaned, coded and stored as a database of statistics and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, weighted averages, and descriptive variables, correlations and linear regression models. From the findings, it was observed that there is a lack of sufficient awareness education and information on the use and existence of mobile phone money services, those who know about it majorly use it as a money transfer service (sending and receiving money) from one mobile phone user to another. Only a few respondents use the service to effect core business transactions (paying bills and buying of goods and service).

Keywords: Mobile money; cyber security; mobile phone; mobile money service

[1]. Turban, E., Lee, J., King, D., & Chung, H. M. (2004). Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. (2nd ed.). Singapore: Addison Wesley Longman.
[2]. Nduati, L. (2012, April 3). Mobile money transactions to be audited by banks regulator. The Daily Nation. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from
[3]. Tamanikaiwaimaro, S. (2010). Cyber Security in the Republic of Fiji. Presented at the Internet Governance Forum, Diplo Foundation. Retrieved from security-republic-fiji
[4]. Abrazhevich, D. (2004). Electronic Payment Systems: a User Centered Perspective and Interaction Design. Universiteitsdrukkerij Technische Universiteit, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
[5]. Ko, M., & Dorantes, C. (2006). The Impact of Information Security Breaches On Financial Performance of the Breached Firms: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Information Technology Management, 7(2), 13–22.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Theoretical Analysis of Experimental Research
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Dr. Mcchester Odoh || Dr. Ihedigbo Chinedum E.
: 10.9790/0661-16622329     logo

Abstract: Among the various research methods, the experiment is particularly suitable for cause and effect relationships. Through observation one finds many things that occur together, but observation alone cannot determine whether one thing is the cause of another. All the alternative explanations must be ruled out. A classic example is the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Doubts about the contribution of cigarette to lung cancer were removed when experiment on animals showed that the substances in cigarette were carcinogenic (cancer causing). Other environmental factors such as air pollution may also affect the relationship. The experiment enables each of these factors to be tested in a systematic way. An artificial situation is created in which events that generally go together may be pulled apart (Sommer & Sommer 1980).

Keywords: Experiment, Environmental factors, Observation and Research

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation Theory
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Dr. Mcchester Odoh || Dr. Ihedigbo Chinedum E.
: 10.9790/0661-16623035     logo

Abstract: In discussing estimation theory in detail, it will be essential to recall the following definitions. Statistics: A statistics is a number that describes characteristics of a sample. In other words, it is a statistical constant associated with the sample. Examples are mean, sample variance and sample standard deviation (chukwu, 2007). Parameter: this is a number that describes characteristics of the population. In other words, it is a statistical constant associated with the population. Examples are population mean, population variance and population standard deviation. A statistic called an unbiased estimator of a population parameter if the mean of the static is equal to the parameter; the corresponding value of the statistic is then called an unbiased estimate of the parameter. (Spiegel, 1987). Estimator: any statistic 0=0 (x1, x2, x3.......xn) used to estimate the value of a parameter 0 of the population is called estimator of 0 whereas, any observed value of the statistic 0=0 (x1, x2, x3.......xn) is known as the estimate of 0 (Chukwu, 2007).

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Method for Modeling Noise in PET Images
Country : India
Authors : Manolekshmi.I
: 10.9790/0661-16624547     logo

Abstract: This paper will deal mainly with the performance study and analysis statistical properties of the noise found in various PET images. The method is specifically designed for types of noise produced by acquisition and transmission sequence in PET images. Here signal fluctuations generally originate in the physical processes of imaging rather than in the tissue textures. Various types of noise (transmission and quantization) often contribute to degrade PET images; the overall noise is generally assumed to be additive with a zero-mean, constant-variance Gaussian distribution. However, statistical analysis suggests that the noise variance could be better modeled by a nonlinear function of the image intensity depending on external parameters related to the image acquisition protocol. We present a method to extract the relationship between image intensity and the noise variance and to evaluate the corresponding parameters. The method was applied successfully to PET images with different acquisition sequences and transmission sequence. Keywords: Image processing, Positron emission tomography image, noise measurement.

[1]. S. I. Olsen, ―Noise variance estimation in images,‖ presented at the 8thScandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, Tromsø, Norway, May 25–28, 1993.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Advanced Intrusion Prevention Technique using MEDS
Country : India
Authors : P. Rajapandian || Dr. K. Alagarsamy
: 10.9790/0661-16624855     logo

Abstract: Network security is a grouping of policy and necessities for make certain the protection of its possessions and the entire network interruption. It is evident in an execution of security rule and other computer network devices. The communication within the networks would deals with a range of hazards. Hence, the provision of protection system definitely needs within the communication channels. In existing scheme, the broadcasted information secured by many kind of Encryption Schemes and protect attacks by using Signature schemes to avoid intrusions during the transactions, but it may also leads in intrusion behaviors in some situation. Therefore, the priority based encoding encryption scheme is involved to prevent the intrusions within the channel allocation and in transactions using dynamic patterns. In some case, it may also cause security issues and make interruption in transactions, if any outflow of the encoding encryption patterns by the intruder. Thus, the objective of this paper is to construct a tough security strategy to prevent intrusions within the network transactions. In this paper, the Matrix Encoding and Decoding Scheme (MEDS) is included with the encryption scheme to build a hard-hitting intrusion protection system. This Scheme classifies the data packets in a matrix format and allows the encoding progression in a probabilistic manner to avoid the leakage of the security patterns.

[1] Sumedha Kaushik and Ankur Singha, "Network Security Using Cryptographic Techniques", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 12, 2012.

[2] Donald Graft, Mohnish Pabrai, Uday Pahrai, "Methodology for Network Security Design", IEEE Communications Magazine, 1990. [3] Natarajan, S., Wolf, T., "Security issues in network virtualization for the future Internet", Computing, Networking and Communications, pp. 537 – 543, 2012.

[4] Yang Xiao, Chaitanya Bandela, Xiaojiang Du, Yi Pan, "Security mechanisms, attacks and security enhancements for the IEEE 802.11 WLANs", International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing, Vol. 1, Nos. 3/4, 2006

[5] Paula, F.S.,de Castro, L.N. ; Geus, P.L., "An intrusion detection system using ideas from the immune system", Evolutionary Computation, 2004. CEC2004. Congress, Vol.1, pp. 1059 – 1066, 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy based routing Protocols Comparison for Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : C. Rajivegandhi, K. Raghavi, K.S. Jeyshree
: 10.9790/0661-16625661     logo

Abstract: As A Result Of Recent Advances In Microelectronic System Fabrication, Progress In Ad-Hoc Networking Routing Protocols, Integrated Circuit Technologies, Wireless Communications, Microprocessor Hardware And Nano-Technology, Pervasive Computing, Embedded Systems And Distributed Signal Processing, Wireless Sensor Networks (Wsns) Have Emerged In The Past Decade. Recent Advances In Wireless Sensor Networks Have Led To Many New Protocols Specifically Designed For Routing, As Routing Protocols Are Application Specific. Efficient Routing In A Sensor Network Requires That The Routing Protocol Must Minimize Energy Dissipation And Maximize Network Life Time.

[1]. Sarjoun S. Doumit, Dharma P. Agrawal, "Self- Organizing and Energy-Efficient Network of Sensors", IEEE, pp. 1-6 (2002).
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[3]. C. Rahul, J. Rabaey, "Energy Aware Routing for Low Energy Ad Hoc Sensor Networks", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), vol.1, March 17-21, 2002, Orlando, FL, pp. 350-355.
[4]. K. Akkaya, M. Younis, "A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks," Vol 3, pp. 325-349, May 2005 .
[5]. Rajashree.V.Biradar, V.C .Patil, Dr. R. R Mudholkar, Dr. S. R. Sawant, "Classification And Comparison Of Routing Protocols In Wireless Sensor Networks",Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal volume 4, pp.704-711, 2009.
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[7]. D. Braginsky and D. Estrin,"Rumor Routing Algorithm For Sensor Networks", International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS'01), November 2001.

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