IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 8 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect Of Budgeting Participation To Justice Organization, Organizational
Commitment And Organizational Performance In Papua Hospital
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Siti Rofingatun*, M.S. Idrus**, Ubud Salim**, Djumahir
: 10.9790/487X-0820106      logo

Abstract: In the framework of the implementation of special autonomy for Papua Province, one factor that concerns many people is a matter of budgeting that is often lacking in accordance with the needs of each regency / municipality in the province of Papua. This happens due to the lack of participation of various parties associated with the preparation of the budget in the area when preparing the budget. Another factor that may be the cause is the reluctance of the executive budget to follow the budget that has been set by the finance department. Another possibility is that the budget has been set too difficult to implement due to the preparation of the budget target is too high or too small to reach the target

Keywords: Budgeting Participation, Justice, Commitment, Performance

[1] Brownell, P. (1981). Participation in Budgeting: Locus of Control and Organizational Effectiveness, The Accounting Review 56
[2] Cohen, RL. (1987). Distributive Justice: Theory and Research, Social Justice Research 1:19-40.
[3] Chong dan Chong, 2000. Budget Goal Commitment and Infromational Effect of Budget Participation on Performance: A Structural
Equation Modelling Approach, Behavioral Research in Accounting, vol. 114.
[4] Earley, PC, and EA Lind, (1987). Procedural justice and Particiption in task selection: The role of control in mediating just ice
judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (6):1148-1160.
[5] Gilliland, SW, (1993). The perceived fairness of selection systems: An organizational justice perspective, Academy of Management
Review vol. 18 no 4, hal.694-734.
[6] Greenberg, J, 1990. Organizational Justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow, Journal of Management, 16 (2): 399-432.
[7] Greenberg, P., RH Greenberg, and H. Noun, 1994. Participative Budgeting: A meta-analytic examination of methodoloical
moderators, Journal of Accounting Literature 13:117-141.
[8] Hansen, D.R. dan M.M. Mowen, 1997. Management Accounting, Cincinnati, Ohio: South Western College Publishing, Fourth
[9] Kenis, I., 1979. Effects of budgetary goal charracteristic on Managerial attitudes and performance, The Accounting Review 54 (4):
[10] Kren, L., 1992. Budgetary Participation and Managerial Performance: The Impact of Information and Environmental Volatility, The
Accounting Review, July, hal. 511-526.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Competitive Strategy: As Mediation the Effect of External Business Environment and Total Quality Management Implementation Toward Company Performance(Study at ISO 9000 certified manufacture companies in East Java )
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Kismi Sulistyowati , Ubud Salim, Surachman, Solimun
: 10.9790/487X-0820720      logo

Abstract: This study aimed to test empirically: 1). Effect of external business environment adaptability to company performance. 2). Effect of external business environment adaptability to company performance through competitive strategy mediation. 3). Effect of implementation of Total Quality Management to company performance through competitive strategy mediation. 4). Effect of implementation of Total Quality Management toward company performance. This study uses a contingency approach that integrates external and internal aspects, as well as the important role in determining company's competitive strategy to improve company performance. The population was 154 units of ISO 9000 certified manufacture companies in East Java. The analysis unit is entire study population (census research) and the respondent is the operations manager. Research data is analyzed by Generalized Structured Component (GSCA). The findings of empirical study showed: (1). Ability to adapt to external business environment indirectly affect company performance improvement. (2). Adaptability of external business environment affect company performance improvement through competitive strategy mediation. (3). Implementation of Total Quality Management affect company performance improvement through competitive strategy mediation. (4). Implementation of Total Quality Management has indirect effect toward company performance improvement. The research novelty is that competitive strategy is a Completed Mediation between the variable of external business environment adaptation toward company performance and the implementation of Total Quality Management to company performance variables.

Keywords: External Business Environment, Total Quality Management Implementation, Competitive Strategy, Company performance.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Management Control Systems Concept Construction Of "Pangngadereng" Based On Local Wisdom Values
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Abdul Kahar, Iwan Triyuwono, Gugus Irianto, and Unti Ludigdo
: 10.9790/487X-0822130      logo

Abstract: The objectives of the study were: (1) Describing the meaning of company values in management control systems (MCS) practice at Alauddin Toyota workshop unit, and (2) Reconstructing the conventional management control concept. This research was conducted with interpretive paradigm and phenomenological method. The study location was management control systems practice at Alauddin Toyota Workshop. The results showed the stages characterized by two company values, namely: Kalla Way and Toyota Way. Eidetic overview produces the following meanings: (1) There was a value convergence in shaping the sound management control practices, (2) There are limited holistic management control elements in Alauddin Toyota Workshop. Management control systems concept construction generate Holistic management control system based on local wisdom of 'Siri' na Passe ". This concept then called management control systems of "Pangngadereng". The principle was "work hard together, successful together, prosperous together and save together afterlife." This concept has following control elements typology: (1) sara‟ (spiritual control), (2) ade‟ (self control), (3) bicara and wari‟ (organizational control), and (4) rapang (control culture).

Keywords - MCS, phenomenology, Kalla Way, Toyota Way, Pangngadereng, Siri‟ na Passe

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1994, 289–299.
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sociaty, 28, pp.97-126.
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Accounting Research, Vol-3, 1991.p.131-158.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Strategy Formulation And Csr Implementation On Company Performance(Study At Industrial Area Makassar)
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Muhammad Yusuf, Eka Afnan Troena, Made Sudarma3, Khusnul Ashar
: 10.9790/487X-0823137      logo

Abstract: This study was based on condition of CSR activities reality that identical to generic CSR programs. Company carrying out CSR implementation because of high external pressures, not an company internal awareness to contribute to improve social environment and have no connection with main activities and corporate strategy. Consequently, this does not benefit to company performance and competitive advantage. Focus of this research is to develop a study to examine leadership behavior in formulating corporate strategy that oriented to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Efforts to improve corporate performance be done through implementation of integrated CSR strategy at industrial area of Makassar (PT KIMA). The analysis unit is company. Respondents that become samples are 81 people with leadership and chief general manager level, company-level functional manager. Analysis methods to test hypothesis is Structural Equation Model (SEM) with variance-based program of Partial least Square (PLS). The results of this study show that: antecedent variables, consisting of a transformational leadership style and ethical integrity significantly influence company strategy formulation with CSR orientation. Organizational learning culture did not significantly influence company strategy formulation with CSR orientation. Company strategy formulation with CSR orientation significantly influence implementation of CSR. Finally, CSR implementation significantly affect company performance.

Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Integrity ethics, Organizational Learning Culture, Strategy Formulation, CSR implementation and Corporate Performance.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Empirical Study on Effect of Transformational Leadership On Organizational Commitment In The Banking Sector Of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Bano Fakhra Batool
: 10.9790/487X-0823844      logo

Abstract: Transformational leadership is very popular research topic so many researcheshave been done on its every perspective. The objectiveof this paper is to investigate the impact of transformational leadership style a leader exhibits on his subordinate that effects the organizational commitment of his employees in the banking industry of Pakistan. This research was carried out by measuring the data gathered from the five point Likertscale.The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is used to measure transformational leadership and employee's commitment was measured through affective commitment questionnaire of Allen and Meyer (1996). Quantitative survey method was applied and a sample of 100 employees from the banking industry of Pakistan. Random sampling technique is used to answer the instrument of the study. SPSS software was used to analyze the data collected based on descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, percentage, T-test, and Pearson Correlation Coeffiecient). The findings indicate that the leaders of bankingindustry of Pakistan follow transformational leadership style. The result indicates that the relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment is positive and significant.

Key Words:, attitude, organizational Commitment, Transformational leadership, Pakistan, workplace,

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Transforming Microfinance Institutions: What about the poorest in Africa?
Country : Tunisia
Authors : Nihel Halouani, Prof Younes Boujelbene
: 10.9790/487X-0824555      logo

Abstract: In this paper we try to identify if the transformation of MFIs is associated with the "mission drift"? Specifically, considering that commercialization is characterized by sustainability, competition, and regulation, we evaluate its effect on the average size of loans provided and on the percentage of women borrowers. The empirical study is based on the OLS method from 96 MFIs operating in 22 African countries in 2005-2008, to study the impact of commercialization of MFIs on the average loan size and the percentage of women borrowers by groups of clients served. The results indicate that competition favor targeting the poorest and increase significantly access to cheaper and better microfinance services particularly for women. Whereas, viability is in favor of the mission drift of the MFIs no matter what the category of served clientele is. Finally, regulated MFIs lend increasingly fewer loans to women borrowers and hence deviate from their mission of serving the poor clients.

Keywords: Microfinance, Commercialization, Competition, Outreach, women.

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Development – Surveys of Theory. Evidence and Policy edited by Christopher J. Green. Colin H. Kirkpatrick and Victor Murinde.
Edward Elgar.
[2] Bikker. J. and K. Haaf (2002). "Measures of Competition in the Banking Industry: A Review of the Literature". Economic and
Financial Modelling 9: 53-98
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Anatomy of Employee involvement and Internal branding and their Impact on the Emotional Intelligence of employees: Evidence from the nursing staff hospital sector of Pakistan.
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Fatima Nayyar Khan, Professor Dr. Hamayoun Naeem
: 10.9790/487X-0825661      logo

Abstract: Employee involvement and internal branding is a very important concept in organizations nowadays especially when organizations desire more profitability as well as stability to sustain in a competitive environment. Motivating employees to give in input in decision making does increase the performance and effectiveness of the organization thus adding to the creativity and innovative level of the employees. On top of that employees who are more involved in decisions and are motivated they have relatively more stability as far as their emotions are concerned like anger frustration etc. On the basis of various studies conducted the relationship between employee involvement, internal branding and emotional intelligence of employees was examined. The sample was taken from two hospitals from the twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad and research primary focused on the nurses of the two hospitals the first one was Al-Shifa Eye Hospital Rawalpindi and the second one was Shifa International Medical Hospital Islamabad both are the private sectors of Pakistan. Data that was gathered for these respective variables that is employee involvement; internal branding and emotional intelligence were analyzed and played an important role in the gathering of data respectively.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Internal Marketing in Employee Engagement Leading to Job Satisfaction of Employees in Private Banks of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Tahir shahzad, Prof. Dr. Hummayoun Naeem
: 10.9790/487X-0826268    logo

Abstract: This study aims to analyze the relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction with the mediating effect of employee engagement. The data was collected from the Banking sector of Pakistan. The questionnaires were used to collect the data. Convenience sampling was used in this study. The sample size of the study was 400 but we had received only 250. After applying regression and correlation we found that internal marketing have positive relationship with job satisfaction and employee engagement also have positive relationship as mediator.

Keywords: Internal Marketing, Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction, Regression. .

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Impact of Outsourcing External Recruitment Process on the Employee Commitment and Loyalty: Empirical Evidence from the Telecommunication Sector of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Rosheen Jamil, Dr. Hummayoun Naeem
: 10.9790/487X-0826975    logo

Abstract: Recruitment process outsourcing is a powerful strategy used by many organizations globally which helps to save the cost, time and improves the quality of recruitment. Outsourcing HR, specially recruitment process is a strategy used by many organizations all across the world but the human side of HR has suffered from it along with the profitability because the external agencies are not well aware with the structure, culture, values and system of the organization and therefore fail to nurture commitment and loyalty among employees. Generally the impact of outsourcing is negative on the engagement and commitment of employees along with the loyalty. In the light of these issues, a study was planned to find out the impact of outsourcing recruitment process on employee commitment and loyalty. The sample was taken from the two private telecommunication companies: Huawei and Zhongxing Telecom Pakistan situated in Islamabad.Tools for data collection for the three variables that is outsourcing recruitment process, employee commitment and loyalty were taken from the body of knowledge and used for the collection of data. These two independent sets of data were analyzed by applying t-test. The empirical evidence indicated that outsourcing recruitment process has no impact on employee commitment and loyalty.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Impact of human capital on Company performance and the mediating effect of employee's satisfaction
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Muhammad Arsalan Shafique Awan, Naintara Sarfraz
: 10.9790/487X-0827682      logo

Abstract: The principal of this research paper is to find the effect of human capital on performance of the firm with the mediating effect of employee's satisfaction with his job. The research type for this paper is quantitative and for the collection of data questionnaires were used.The sample size used for the paper was 200 and the target area was the telecom sector of Pakistanwhich included three leading companies in the telecom sector of Pakistan (i.e: Mobilink, Telenor and Ufone).The Results showed that Human capital investments has a strong relation with firm performance and employee's satisfaction mediates the process between both variables.

Key words: Human capital, performance, satisfaction, telecom, Pakistan

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cash Conversion Cycle and Firms' Profitability – A Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Raheem Anser, Qaisar Ali Malik
: 10.9790/487X-0828387      logo

Abstract: Cash conversion cycle is one of the most widely used measures to evaluate and measure the risks and returns associated to liquidity management Since every corporate organization is extremely concerned about how to sustain and improve profitability, hence they have to keep an eye on the factors affecting the profitability. The present study is concerned about evaluating how cash conversion cycle affects the profitability of manufacturing sector organizations listed at Karachi stock exchange of Pakistan. The specific research objective of the study is to investigate the existing literature on the role of cash conversion cycle in enhancing return on assets and equity of the companies and to measure the impact of cash conversion cycle on profitability of the manufacturing companies. The results of the study will be helpful for academics and industry experts for policy making and control purposes. The study takes return on equity and return on assets as measures of profitability to represent dependent variables. Firm size and debt ratio are taken as control variables. Cash conversion cycle is considered as independent or explanatory variable. Study takes into consideration 5 years financial statements data starting from 2007 to 2011. Results showed that manufacturing companies are having low average return on asset and high average return on equity with reasonable average cash conversion cycle. Regression results after adjusting for heteroskedasticity of data to minimize the effects of outliers, showed that cash conversion cycle is having significantly inverse association with both return on assets and equity indicating that lesser the cash conversion cycle greater would be the profitability measured through return on assets and equity. Hence the receivable collection period and inventory selling period must be reduced along with the extension of payment period to increase the profitability of manufacturing sector organizations. The study suggested that manufacturing companies are required to well estimate and evaluate the cash flows of the business, to well identify the long run and short run cash inflows and outflows to timely sort out the cash shortages and excess to formulate financing and investing strategies respectively.

Keywords: Cash Conversion Cycle, Return on Assets, Return on Equity, Profitability, Size, Debt

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Applied Finance, 15(8), 20-30.
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Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 12(1).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gender Discrimination: A myth or truth Women status in Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Farah Yasmin Bukhari, Prof Dr. Muhammad Ramzan
: 10.9790/487X-0828897      logo

Abstract: Naturally human beings are divided into two genders and both are given responsibilities and rights which suit them, discrimination is the practice of granting or denying rights or offer privileges based on the gender. The aim of this study is to enrich the understanding of existence of gender discrimination in Pakistan in reality in Islamic perspective. It further explores is there any relationship between practiced gender roles in Pakistan and gender roles described in religion Islam and what are reasons of discrimination. Methodology for paper was thematic and secondary data was analyzed thematically. Qualitative data was collected based on previous literature and current reports to explore the discrimination in Pakistani culture is real or is a myth. Neutral studies about this topic were found limited. Studies are done by religious scholars in one extreme and moderate scholars on another extreme. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. The data analysis process was done using the principles recommended by Spiggle 1999) and others (Strauss and Corbin 1990; Arnould and Wallendorf, 1994) for the analysis and interpretation of qualitative data.

Key words: gender discrimination, women role, feminism in under developed countries, Islamic perspective of gender, cultural influence on gender

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparative Study of Cultural Dimensions and Motivation Level of Pakistani and American Female Managers
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Usman Qayyum Qureshi, Asst Prof Nain Tara Sarfraz Raja
: 10.9790/487X-08298103      logo

Abstract: Culture is an important part of every individual's life. It determines an individual's life style. In every field of life there is a culture which creates or maintains the working of that field. If we talk about the cultural differences in working environment of Pakistan and America we can easily see a big difference and when it comes to the working women the gap or the difference goes even bigger. Women have been seen as different from men, universally lacking the necessary personal characteristics and skills to make good managers. The attitude and belief of employees in American and Pakistan depends on educational and economic development. The methodology adopted for study would be quantitative analysis with sample size of n=200 employees. The hypothesis generated had been evaluated through SPSS which shows that culture influence positively on American and Pakistani females. The level of motivation between Pakistani and American female also shows no significant difference.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Factors that Influence the Choice of Business Major Evidence from Jordan
Country : Jordan
Authors : Dr Ahmad Nahar Al-Rfou
: 10.9790/487X-082104108      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of personal factors and future job factors on choice of business as a major field of study. The study also aims to investigate the relationship between students' gender, general secondary average and the branch in general secondary, and the choice of business as a major, from the perspective of business students at Tafila Technical University (TTU) in academic year 2011/2012. The study reached that the parents have a significant influence on the major selection, siblings and friends also consider important source to select the major, while the teachers and media are least amongst the selected factors. The respondents give more importance for future job factors; they agreed that the future earning, career option, occupational prestige and type of work are the most important factors that affect the selection of the business major. The results also, mentioned that there is a significant relationship between independent variables (i.e. gender, general secondary average and the branch in general secondary) and dependent variable (i.e. choice business as a major field of study).

Keywords: Academic Choice, Choice of Majors, Business Students, Tafila Technical University (TTU).

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determinants of Individual Investors' Behaviors: Evidence from Tunisian Stock Market
Country : Tunisia
Authors : Yosra Mefteh Rekik, Younes Boujelbene
: 10.9790/487X-082109119      logo

Abstract: Recent studies on individual investors' have shown that they do not act in a rational manner. However, several behavioral factors influence their investment decisions in Stock Markets. The present study considers the theory of individual investors' irrationality and investigates into their behavior with regard to investment decisions. In this sphere, we attempt to find out whether some psychological as well as demographic factors affect Tunisian individual investors' behavior and then try to examine the factors that are more influencing than others. To achieve our aims, we used a survey approach and developed a questionnaire that included sixty three items dealing with six biases. Then, we conducted a descriptive and factorial analysis on the biases of the collected data. Therefore, results have indicated that the Tunisian investors' behaviors are subject to five behavioral biases: representativeness, herding attitude, loss aversion, mental accounting, and anchoring. Apart from these biases, when attempting to categorize Tunisian investors on the basis of demographic variables, we have also found that gender, age and experience have an interaction with behavioral financial factors in investment decisions.

Key Words: Behavioral finance, behavioral biases, demographic factors, factorial analysis.

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