Version-1 (Nov–Dec 2013)
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Abstract: Millets have been neglected despite their nutritive value and therapeutic use. Barnyard millet is one of the underutilized nutritious minor millet. In developing countries like India with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food is increasing popularly. Among them, bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop value added barnyard millet cookies with acceptable sensory attributes. Three types of cookies namely plain, pulse and vegetable cookies were developed. Plain cookies were developed by incorporating sago flour to barnyard millet flour at different levels. Further trials were conducted for value addition of plain cookies with pulses (soybean flour and green gram dhal flour) and dehydrated carrot gratings to barnyard millet flour at different levels to develop pulse and vegetable cookies respectively. Consumer acceptability studies were conducted for identifying the best accepted cookies. The nutritional and storage quality evaluation of the best accepted cookies were estimated by standard procedures. The findings indicated that plain cookies prepared with 100 per cent barnyard millet flour; pulse cookies with 10 per cent incorporation of soy bean flour and green gram dhal flour and vegetable cookies with 10 per cent incorporation of dehydrated carrot gratings were best accepted. Among various types of cookies, pulse cookies were most accepted by consumers (85 %). There was significant increase in the macro and micronutrient composition of cookies after incorporation of pulses and carrot gratings. The developed cookies had a shelf life of 45-60 days.
Key Words: Barnyard millet, Cookies, Consumer acceptability, Shelf life.
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Abstract: Investigations revealed that tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces hepatic damage. Chitosan exhibits antioxidant properties and supplementations with antioxidants can influence hepatotoxicity. We evaluate effect of dietary low molecular weight chitosan (106-110 kilodaltons) in 3 multiplied doses (1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 g/ kg diet) against hepato toxic effects caused by a single oral dose (5 μg TCDD/ kg body weight) for 6 weeks in adult male albino rats. TCDD decreased body weight gain, food intake, feeding efficiency ratio, serum albumin and albumin / globulin ratio. While it caused an increase in liver relative weight, serum total protein, globulin, aspartate and alanine amino transferases and alkaline phosphatase. Also, TCDD caused basophilic hyper chromatic nuclei, hepatic degeneration and fibrosis. Chitosan alone showed a significant positive effect in measured items except feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio. Also it alleviated most of biochemical and histological hepatotoxic effects of dioxin. Chitosan is safe as a dietary supplement in rat's diet and can mitigate the hepatotoxic effects of TCDD by controlling the antioxidant status and free radicals production.
Keywords: antioxidants, chitosan, hepatotoxicity, Sprague Dawley rats, TCDD.
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Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the organic compounds removed from the leachates when treated with coagulation-flocculation and Fenton-Adsorption by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify toxic compounds that could be harmful for the environment or human health. Physico-chemical characterization of the raw leachates (RL) was carried out before and after the aforementioned combined treatment process. The effluent from each stage of this process was characterized: pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The organic compounds were determined by GC-MS. The removal of COD and BOD5 reached over 91% in compliance with the Tunisian Standards (NT 106.002-1989), which establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants present in wastewater discharges to urbanized streams. The chromatographic analysis from the Adsorption effluent proved that this treatment removed more than 99% of the organic compounds present in the initial sample. The phytotoxicity test showed that combined treatment process allowed a significant toxicity removed (92.2%). The mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid persisted, although it is not considered as toxic compound by the NT 106.002-1989) Therefore, the treated effluent can be safely disposed of into the urbanized streams.
Keywords: Adsorption; Coagulation-Flocculation; Fenton; Landfill leachates; Organic compounds; phytoxicity
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 S. Marttinen, R. Kettunen and J Rintalla, Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates, Sci Total Environ, 301, 2003, 1-12.
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Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic impact of desertification on rural livelihood in Toungo, Southeastern fringe of Adamawa State, Nigeria, situated in the Southern Guinea Savanna zone. A total of three hundred (300) respondents (farmers) interviewed were selected using purposive and random sampling techniques. The results of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (farmers) are presented in Table 1. On the causes of desertification, the respondents (56.7%) indicated that the main causes of desertification were human activities, 30% were of the opinion that this was cause by changes in the climate, while 13.3% of the respondents are ignorant of what causes desertification. When asked about the effect of desertification on their livelihoods, 43.3% of the respondents indicated that there was reductions in the amount of rainfall receive each year, 40% pointed out that there was increased in temperature, and 16.7% maintained that they noticed drying of water bodies. There was a diverse response concerning the impact of desertification on farmer's agricultural activities. 43.3% of the respondents pointed out that they recorded poor harvest as the result of desertification in the previous years, 36.7% maintained that they notice an increase in wind erosion, 13.3% shows that the situation was tending towards a decrease in the availability of pasture for livestock, while 6.7% revealed that there was a drastic reduction in soil fertility as observed on their farmlands. The results of this study shows that majority of the farmers in the study area are aware about the causes, effects and impact of desertification as it's seriously affects their agricultural productions in diverse ways. At the same time, 56.7% of the respondents indicated that Aforestation is one of the best strategies for combating desertification, 43.3% believe that the practice of proper irrigation will be a good strategy, while 10% maintained that establishment and maintenance of shelter belts will reduce the impact of desertification in the study area. An important issue is how to support the rural poor to use the soils, the biota and other natural resources without destroying those resources, and without affecting the climate adversely.
Keywords: Livelihood, Desertification, Impact, Farmers, Forest, Socio-Economics
. Adams, M.W and Mortimore, M. (1997). Agricultural Intensification and Flixibility in the Sahel. The Geographical Journal. Vol. 163, No. 2 pp. 150-160
. Adekunle, V. A. (2009). Contributions of agroforestry practice in Ondo State, Nigeria, to environmental sustainability and sustainable agricultural production. Afrika Focus -Volume 22, Nr. 2, 2009 -pp. 27-40
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. Carney, D. (Ed) (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What contribution we make? London: Department for International Development.
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. Hermann, S.M. and Hutchinson, C.F (2005). The Changing Contexts of the Desertification Debate. Journal of Arid Environments. 63. Pp 538 -555.
. Kawu, U. (1987). "Drought and Desertification in the Sahel and Sudan- Sahel" in Sagua, V. O et al (Edited) Ecological Disasters in Nigeria: Drought and Desertification. Lagos: Federal ministry of Science and Technology pp. 105 - 113.
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Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of attendants of cancer patients regarding cancer diet therapy since diet therapy for cancer patients will help them to regain strength, overcome the side effects of cancer therapies and aid better quality of Life. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the level of the knowledge about the diet therapy among attendants of cancer patients in Indo-American Cancer hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad and (ii) to seek correlation of selected variables with the level of knowledge regarding diet therapy among attendants of cancer patients. The population in the present study includes attendants of cancer patients between the ages of 25-55 years admitted in Indo-American Hospital. The data for the main study was collected from 10-9-2009 to 13-9-2009 in Indo American Cancer Hospital, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad. Sample size was 30 patients and simple random sampling technique was felt appropriate as study was done on cancer patients who can read and write English and Telugu. The statistics used for the study was descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and data was interpreted. The sample characteristics were taken in accordance with the age, gender, marital status, educational status and monthly income. The findings related to knowledge revealed that 26.66% of the samples are having below average knowledge, 70% of the samples are having average knowledge and 3.33% of the samples are having above average knowledge levels. Mean knowledge score was higher in people having monthly income >Rs.9000. Hence it is recommended that all the attendants of cancer patients must be given adequate planned teaching program to contribute to prognosis of cancer patients.
Keywords: Diet therapy, cancer patients, knowledge, alternative therapy, good nutrition
. Angel Mary gold, "Good and Nutrition for Nurses", First edition, Frontline Publications, 2004
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of biofuel utilization in engine fuel: an ecofriendly product|
|Authors||:||Devendra Pratap Singh, Dharmendra Kumar Tiwari|
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Abstract: Biofuel initiative has been backed by government policies in the quest for energy security through partially replacing the limited fossil fuels and reducing threat to the environment from exhaust émissions and global warming. The main fuel found to be an increasingly important alternative to petroleum is bio-fuel. It is biodegradable, and produces significantly less air pollution than fossil fuel. In a large excess Biofuels (Bioethanol, Biodisel) are produced by agroresidues and from algal biomass. Agro residues are the main source of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic materials composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, are the world's most widely available low-cost renewable resources to be considered for ethanol production. Sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, wheat straw, rape straw, wheat bran, barley straw and cassava stalks are agricultural and agro-industrial residues that could be considered for bioconversion. Bioethanol is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation, which is prepared by these agro residues in different steps. Pretreatment is the first step to degrade the biomass component. There are different types of methods of pretreatment one of which dilute acid pretreatment. After pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis is used to ferment pre-treated biomass either by using simultaneous saccharification or by further acid treatment. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is favoured for producing ethanol from the major fraction of lignocellulosic biomass, cellulose, because of its low cost potential.
Key Words: Agro residues, Biomass, Ethanol, Pretreatment, Hydrolysis, Octane number, Emission.
 Ramanathan, M., 2000, Biochemical conversion ethanol production from root crops. In: Biomass Conversion Technologies for Agriculture and Allied Industries. Short Course Manual organised by Department of Bioenergy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 4-13 July, pp.157-162.
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 Kojima, M & T Johson (2005) Potential for Biofuels for Transport in Developing countries, Washington. DC , World Bank.
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 Water Phase Separation in Oxygenated Gasoline, David Korotney, Chemical Engineer, EPA Fuels and Standards Branch, 1995, website: http://www.epa.gov/oms/regs/fuels/rfg/waterphs.pdf.
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Abstract: Heavy metals were analyzed in soils, food crops and male scalp hair samples collected from two age group subjects; adults (18 - 45 years) and old age (46 - 55 years) males from polluted and relatively less polluted areas in Eldoret Municipality environs, Kenya. The samples used were collected from same sites as the individuals who had stayed in the sampled regions for more than five years. The samples were digested using acids and analyzed using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry (AAS). The results revealed that the consumption of food crops grown on contaminated soils have significantly increased the concentrations of selected metals in the human hair. Pd and Cd concentrations in soils and food crops showed elevated levels above the WHO recommended limits. Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in male scalp hair samples collected from polluted area as compared to control area. In conclusion, consumers in the study area are exposed to high health risks associated with bioaccumulation of heavy metals through ingestion of heavy metals resulting from contamination of food crops grown in the study area and should be sensitized on the dangers of heavy metals on their health.
Key words: bioaccumulation; heavy metals; male scalp hair; food crops
. Alloway, B.J. Heavy metals in soils. Chromium and Nickel. (Blackie and Sons Ltd. John Wiley and Sons Inc., Glasgow and London, New York, 1990).
. Amaral, A.F.S., Arruda, M., Cabral, S., Rodrigues, A.S., Essential and non-essential trace metals in scalp hair of men chronically exposed to volcanogenic metals in the Azores, Portugal. Environ. Int. 34, 2008, 1104–1108.
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Abstract: The present study deals with the investigation of erstwhile undocumented fifty four samples of West Bengal honey from ten different floral origins - sesame (Sesamum indicum), hizal (Barringtonia acutangula), mustard (Brassica spp.), drumstick (Moringa oleifera), litchi (Litchi chinensis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.), karanza (Pongamia glabra), khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), goran (Ceriops decandra) and bain (Avicennia officinalis) for its quantification and comparison of antioxidative capacity by chemometrics. The average total polyphenol and flavonoid content of honeys varied from 9.9 ± 0.6 (bain) to 44.7 ± 2 mg (hizal) gallic acid equivalent and 5.12 ± 0.23 (drumstick) to 19.4 ± 1.38 (bain) mg of quercetin per 100 g respectively. Dark brown hizal honey with ABS450 value of 2055.6 mAU exhibited the most potent DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenger (IC50 = 23.92 ± 1.12 mg/mL) and a FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) value of 381 ± 1.9μM Fe (II).
Keywords : DPPH, FRAP assay, principal component analysis, sundarban honey, total phenolic content
 G. Beratta, P. Granata, M. Ferrero, M. Orioli, and R.M. Facino, Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/fluorimetric assays and chemometrics, Analytical Chimica Acta, 533, 2005, 185–191.
 D.D. Schramm, M. Karim, H.R. Schrader, R.R. Holt, M. Cardetti, and C.L. Keen, Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection in healthy human subjects, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2003, 1732-1735.
 L. Chen, A. Mehta, M. Berenbaum, A.R. Zangerl, and N.J. Engeseth, Honeys from different floral sources as inhibitors of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetable homogenates, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2000, 4997–5000.
 N. Gheldof, and N.J. Engeseth, Antioxidant capacities of honeys from various floral sources based on the determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidation in human serum samples, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(10), 2002, 3050–3055.
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 P. Dhar, A. Chaudhury, B. Mallik, and S. Ghosh, Polyphenol content and in vitro radical scavenging activity of some Indian vegetable extracts, Journal of Indian Chemical Society, 88, 2011, 199–204.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Dose and duration dependent toxicity of Dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) to few lysosomal enzymes in mice kidney|
|Authors||:||Jyoti Jigyasi, Rahul Kundu|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: TCDD, a highly toxic lipophilic Dioxin, causes many health problems in animals including human when exposed through dietary intake of fat. Present communication reports in vivo dose and exposure duration dependent cellular toxicity of environmentally available concentration of TCDD to few lysosomal enzymes in mice kidney. The study tests two hypotheses (a) environmentally available low concentration of TCDD provokes dose and exposure duration dependent toxic effects to lysosomal enzymes and, (b) Low dose TCDD exposure may trigger cellular apoptosis by altering different lysosomal enzymes. Groups of female Swiss albino mice were subjected to different concentration of TCDD (0.004 mg/kg bw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) by oral gavage for 2,4 and 6 days of exposure duration. The observed results suggested that significantly dose and exposure duration dependent effects were found in kidney cells of mice. The results indicate TCDD possibly causing oxidative stress and disturb cell homeostasis by increasing intracellular ions. ROS and increased ions may be responsible for the alteration of different physiological activity of cell. Though the exact process is not clear at present, but it is also possible that altered functions of key lysosomal enzymes might have evoked the process of cell destruction and cell apoptosis.
Keywords: Dioxin, TCDD, dose and duration dependent effects, lysosomal enzymes, kidney, mice
. Schwetz BA, Norris JM and Sparschu GL, Toxicology of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Environmental Health Perspectives, 5, 1973, 87-99.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In Vivo Dose and Duration Dependent Effects of a Dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) on Few Lysosomal Enzymes in Mice Brain|
|Authors||:||Jyoti Jigyasi, Rahul Kundu|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: 2,3,7,8 TCDD, a toxic dioxin, has a high rate of biomagnification by accumulating in adipose tissue of living organism. The present study reports that the in vivo exposure of even environmentally available low concentration of TCDD affects the lysosomal enzymes in mice brain cells. The study tested the hypothesis that low concentration of TCDD provokes dose and duration dependent effects to lysosomal enzymes in mice brain cells. Selected groups of animals were administered two very low doses of TCDD (0.004 mg/kgbw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) for 2,4 and 6 days of exposure durations. The results indicated TCDD caused significant exposure duration dependent effects to lysosomal enzymes in mice brain cells. Though it is not very clear at this point, but the results suggested that the observed alterations in the lysosomal enzymatic activity might have affected few metabolic pathways of the cell and disturbed cellular homeostasis by producing intracellular ions and ROS. These changes directly or indirectly affected the cellular metabolic pathways in different degrees depending on the dose and exposure durations of the dioxin and might have evoked apoptotic changes into the cells.
Keywords: TCDD, dose and duration, lysosomal enzymes, mice, brain
. Schwetz BA, Norris JM, Sparschu GL, Rowe VK, Gehring PJ, Emerson JL and Gerbig CG, Toxicity of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, Environmental Health Perspectives 5, 1973,87-99.
. Beatty PW, Vaughn WK and Neal RA, Effect of alteration of rat hepatic mixed function (MFO) activity on the toxicity of 2,3,7,8 tetra chloro di benzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 45, 1978, 513-519.
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. Jigyasi J and Kundu R, Low dose TCDD affects membrane bound ion dependent ATPases in mice liver. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 2, 2013a, 15-19.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Studies on Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Profile of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extract|
|Authors||:||Rajendra Prasad Bharti|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: The present study deals with Studies on antimicrobial activity and photochemical profiles of Mangifera Indica (kottukonamvarika) leaf extract. The leaf of mangifera indica; studies with the aim of determined the following photochemical parameters for these species microscopial characters. Leaf contents, photochemical content, about 6 extract (methanol, acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate, aqueous extraction) from the leaves of Mangifera indica was extracted. Hexane-ethyl acetate was characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of different extract was tested against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant role on inhibiting almost all tested pathogenic organisms.
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action from aqueous decoction of mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.). Molecules 2009; 14: 1098-1110.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Geospatial Mapping of Health Facilities in Yola, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Abubakar Sadiq Bukhari, Ibrahim Muhammed|
|Downloads : Times|
Abstract: This paper investigates the spatial distribution of health facilities and their attribute information by creating a database and producing a visual map of these facilities in Yola town. Twelve facilities were mapped consisting of hospitals, clinics, maternities and dispensaries using handheld Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and satellite imageries provided by Google MapsTM. Additional information comes from questionnaires issued to the facility management and that serves as attribute data for both the database and visual map. Both attribute and spatial data are linked in AutoCad and ArcGIS environments to allow querying of information. Results show that 12 health facilities exist, of which 10 are public and 2 are private. Although the facilities are fairly distributed, their standards differ and that ignores the pattern of distribution. We hereby used the population data of 1993 and 2006 and the World Health Organisation (WHO) criterion for location of new health facilities in developing countries to propose 2 new sites. It is suggested here that, only if the standards are improved and the proposed ones built that Yola town can have adequate health facilities to the standard of WHO. The database produced would undoubtedly assist in management, planning and fostering new directions to health administration
 Abbas, I.I., Auta, S. Z., and Muhammad, R. (2012). Health Care Facilities Mapping and Database Creation Using GIS in Chikun Local Government, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human, Social Science, Geography & Environmental GeoSciences.Vol 12, Issue 10, No 1.  Burrough, P. (2001). Principles of Geographic Information Systems Spatial Information Systems and Geo-informatics. New York; Oxford University Press PP.20.  CDC, C. f. D. C. a. P (1997) Screening young children for lead poisoning: Guidence for state and local public health officials, Atlanta, GA.  Cromley, E.K., McLafferty, S., (2002). GIS and public health.New York: Guilford Press.  Dongus, S., Mwakalinga, V., Kannady,K., Tanner, M. and Killeen, G. (2001) Participatory Mapping as a Component of Operational Malaria Vector Control in Tanzania. In Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health, Geotechnologies and the Environment 4, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-0329-2_16.
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Abstract: research was conducted to explore the effect of yellow, white and transparent polyethylene packaging on storage life extension of plum fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±oC) and refrigeration temperature (1-4oC). Experiment was designed with simple randomized complete block design. The fruits were washed with tap water and surface dried under a fan. The fruits were divided into six polyethylene bags of different colors and the samples were numbered as T0, YR, WR, TR, YF, WF and TF. YR, WR and TR were stored at room temperature in yellow, white and transparent polyethylene packaging respectively. YF, WF and TF were stored at refrigerated temperature in yellow,
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life of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit ripening. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 464(1): 487.
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Abstract: Advanced oxidation process O3/H2O2 treatment for solution of chlorpyrifos leads to formation of harmful metabolites like 2-Hydroxy 3,5,6 trichloropyridinol or chlorpyrifos oxon which are more toxic than parent chlorpyrifos gets generated. Silver nanoparticles generated by radiolytic reduction of Silver nitrate 300 milli molar solutionof AgNO3 in presence of capping agent polyethylene glycol PEG when made to interact with 100ppmsolution of chlorpyrifos it leads to annihilation of chlorpyrifos completely without forming harmful products as confirmed by GC-MS analysis.
. BarronMG,Wood Burn KB.Eco toxicity of Chlorpyrifos.Rev.EnvironContamimToxicol,1995;1441-93
. Elias Saion, Elham Gharibshahi, and Kazem Naghavi. Size-Controlled and Optical Properties of Monodispersed Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by the Radiolytic Reduction Method Int J Mol Sci. 2013 April; 14(4): 7880–7896.
. Remediation of Pesticide chlor pyrifos by Ag nano particle generated by radiolytic reduction of AgNO3D.Mitra Lalit Varshney, NSRP 2013,  NEHU, ShillongMeghalaya March20-22
. Durand,G and Barcelo,D. Confirmation of organo pesticides in soil samples using GC-MS with electron impact ionization Anal.chemacta1991,243,259-271
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Abstract: The accumulation of certain elements in vitally important media such as water, soil, and food is undesirable from the medical point of view. It is clear that the fertilizers vary widely in their heavy metals and uranium content in the phosphate fertilizer and its components collected from Abu-Zaabaland Abu-Tarturfertilizers and chemical industries in egypt and are elementally analyzed. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn (environmental pollutants i.e. toxicelements), and Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na (common elements) in phosphate rocks used for production of fertilizer.Thedata showed major concentrations of 17 elements (P , S , Ca ,Ti , V , Mn , Fe, Zn, As, Sr , Y andZr) and rare-earth element ( Rh, Pr , Gd , Tb and Tm ).The results for the input raw material rock phosphate and the output product as final fertilizerarepresentedanddiscussed.
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