Version-1 (July–August 2013)
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Abstract: The mechanism of incentive and disincentive given in formal organizations such as farmers, namely: Gapoktan, Forum of forest Farmers and farmers groups supporting forest governance of HLSW sustainable. The research explained that mechanism incentive and a disincentive to organizations formal farmers in group incentives indirectly, with category sector incentives and enabling incentives. The type of incentive that is measured by the variable response and socio-economic conditions of the Community farmer explained that the type of incentives issued by the holder of the regulation in the utilization of protected forest governance Sungai Wain (HLSW) fall into the category of quadrants I and IV. Quadrant I) explained that an incentive-based community empowerment is required by the farming community forests in protected forest Sungai Wain (HLSW) to preserve its sustainable conservation. (Quadrant IV) describes the response of the Community farmer's low against these types of incentives issued by the holders of protected forest management regulations Sungai Wain (HLSW). The type of incentive is so normative and not in accordance with standard quality of goods that are expected by farmers. (Quadrant IV) describes the response of the Community farmer's low against these types of incentives issued by the holder of the regulation of the management of Sungai Wain (HLSW). The type of incentive is so normative and not in accordance with standard quality of goods that are expected by farmers. Behavior villagers forest governance associated with HLSW categorized in support and maintain the conservation forest participate in the sustainable and sustainability. Behavior of villagers described three aspects, with forest social aspect, namely: economic aspect cultural aspect. Mapping the distribution of stakeholders based on the strengths and interests of the stakeholder group which produces: (1) great power and great interests consist of: UP HLSW, BLH, BP DAS Mahakam Berau, (2) the power of a small but substantial interests consist of: the community forest village, DTKP and Balikpapan Pertamina UP V, (3) the power of a small but small interests consist of: PT. Singlurus Pratama, and (4) Great power but small interests consist of: DISPORABUDPAR, DISDIK, BPMPPKB and DINKES. Factors supporting the socio economical that is being base main in formulating policies supporting the pattern incentives in governance HLSW with scored 0,788. Score who gets ranking I (first) showed factor supporting believed by group villagers forest area in HLSW and the parties related with governance HLSW sustainable and sustainability. Factor supporting social capital scored 0,165 while factor supporting socio ecological scored 0,182.
Keywords: Governance, Incentive-Disincentive Systems and Paradigm of Sustainable Forest.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Hazards of New Technology in Promoting Food Adulteration|
|Authors||:||Gautam Anita, Singh Neetu|
Abstract: Adulteration is the process by which the quality or the nature of a given substances is reduced through the addition of a foreign or an inferior substance and the removal of a vital element. And it's ugly face is come out in the form of it's harmful effects as stomach disorder giddiness and joint pain, diarrhea, liver disorder, dropsy, gastrointestinal problems, respiratory distress, oedema, cardiac arrest, glaucoma carcinogenic effects, paralysis etc. According to Singh, Anita; et al. (2011) milk is staple food for both the group of children urban as well as rural area. From both the regions a wide variation of adulterants mixing was observed which causes diarrhea eyesight problems headache etc. Kumar, Ashish. (2011) reviewed that adulteration were detected in milk to the tune of 70% with water, turmeric powder-43% with chalk powder, red chilli powder-100% with artificial color, sugar 37% with chalk powder. Khapre,M.P.,2011 found that 68.5% Households, wife (home-maker) buys the grocery. Majority of them never read the food labels. All the selected food items were adulterated ranging from 76 % to 11%. According to Srilakshmi, 2001 lead is a toxic element and its contamination with food cause nausea, abdominal pain, anaemia, brain damage etc. mercuric salts found in fish is most toxic. It effects the brain. According to "The Hindu, Life & Style>>Food, July 13, 2010," Danger lurks in the packaged food we find on kitchen shelves. Profiteers routinely adulterate food items like milk, dal, ghee, honey and so on. In recent years, food adulteration has evolved into a very profitable business, causing serious health hazards. Some can even cause cancer. The Hindu, Monday, Jul 20, 2009, Tamil Nadu-Chennai, "A chunk of the green leafy vegetables sold in Chennai is found to contain toxic metals that have the potential to harm various organs of the body. Above studies shows that instead of several food laws, acts, standards there is something lacuna which makes it still prevailing in our daily food items.
Key words: Adulteration, Carcinogenic, Hazards, Toxic
. Srilakshmi, B.,Food Adulteration, Food science, New Age International(P)Limited Publisher, 2001, P.304
. Singh A. et al. (2011) Detection of ill-effect of urea adulterated milk in Varanasi, Food Science Research Journal, 2 (1): 46-49
. Sudershan R. V. et al. (2009) Food safety research in India: a review, Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. 2 (03), 412-433
. Khapre MP, et.al, Buying Practices and Prevalence of Adulteration in Selected Food items in a Rural Area of Wardha District: A Cross - Sectional Study, Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, vol.10, issue 3: jul.-sep,2011)V
. 6) The Hindu, Life & Style>>Food, July 13, 2010, Be a kitchen detective, Sujata C
. The Hindu, Monday, Jul 20, 2009, Tamil Nadu-Chennai, Adulteration threatens food products, Aloysius Xavier Lopez
. Bagchi K. Prevention of Food Adulteration Some Thoughts. Health and Population, Perspectives & Issues 7 (3): 167-175, 1984
. Swaminathan G. Home Kit to Detect Food Adulteration. Instruction Manual (accessed on 5th jan. 2012 at www.google.com)
. Kumar A. Tips For detecting the adulteration present in food items. ( acessed on 29th nov. 2011 at www.Google.com.)
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Abstract: Three common brands of seasonings labeled X, Y, Z were analyzed for proximate, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and mineral composition. The moisture content of the samples was found to range between 0.99 and 3.01%. Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were : 9.18-12.87 ; 2.50-3.50 and 54.00-75.00% dry matter (DM) respectively. MSG content ranged between 0.34 and 0.67%. The concentrations of some metals-copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), and lead(Pb) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and the results revealed that some of these metals were present in some brands but absent in others.
Keywords – Minerals, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Nigeria, Proximate Analysis, Seasonings
 J.Herndon,Medical benefits of food seasonings, http://www.livestrong.com/article/340034-medical-benefits-of-food-seasonings/ 2010,accessed 14/6/2013.
 K.Scott,Medical seasonings-the health benefits in herbs and spices; the medical benefits of garlic, Clinical Medicine Journal, 2012, http://www.ClassicalMedicineJournal.com/the-classical-medicine-journal/tag/benefits-of-seasonings ,accessed 22/6/2013
 O.B Ajayi, S.F Akomolafe and F.T Akinyemi, Food value of two varieties of ginger commonly consumed in Nigeria, ISRN Nutrition,2013(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/359727.
 E.Lingenfelter, The health benefits and uses of 14 herbs, seasonings and spices, 2011, http://www.articlesbase.com/supplements-and-vitamins-articles/the-health-benefits-uses-of-14hrerbs-seasonings-spices-5405335.html, accessed 28/6/2013
 G.Aukerman, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, 2007, http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/mediaroom/releases/pages/Seasonal-Seasonings-Can-Have-Surprising-Health-Benefits.aspx , accessed 22/6/2013
 A.A Bouba, N.Y Njintang, H.S Foyet, J.Scher, D.Montet and C.M.F Mbofung, Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin content of some wild plants used as spices in Cameroon, Food and Nutrition Sciences, (3),2012, 423-432
 G.A Otunola, O.B Oloyede, A.T Oladiji and A.J Afolayan, Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices-Allium sativum, L.zingiber officinale rocs and Capsicum frutescens L commonly consumed in Nigeria, African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(41), 2010,6927-6931
 C.U Ogunka-Nnoka and H.D Mepba, Proximate composition and antinutrient contents of some common spices in Nigeria, The Open Food Science Journal, (2), 2008, 62-67
 E.O Akpanyung, Proximate and mineral element composition of bouillon cubes produced in Nigeria, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 4(5), 2005, 327-329
 E.C Garcia, C.Cabrera, M.L Lorenzo and M.C Lopez, Chromium levels in spices and aromatic herbs, The Sci. Total Environ, 247, 2000, 51-56
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Natural Phytoestrogen For Menopause|
|Authors||:||Niharika M., Jyothi A.|
Abstract: The word "Menopause" literally means the "End of Monthly Cycles". It is from the Greek word pausis [Cessation] and the root men-[month]. The menopause is a normal part of life, like a puberty it is not a disease or a condition. During this phase due to lack of estrogen people can face many problems like hot flashes, night sweats, and mood swings, osteoporosis, lack of concentration and memory loss . They need to be controlled thenmenopausal people can lead normal life. Natural estrogens can be very helpful during menopause to mitigate the problems.Estrogen like chemicals found in plants such as soy, barley,wheat, ragi,red beans,chickpeas, sesame seeds, and black licorice which are called as natural estrogens or phytoestrogens. These food grains were used to prepare a diet mix to control menopausal symptoms and estimated the phytoestrogen contents. Significantly high level of phytoestrogen was observed in prepared product.
Key Words: Menopause, hot flashes, mood swings, estrogen, phytoestrogen
. Arena.S, et.al (2002) ―Anatural alternative to menopausal hormone replacement therapy.Phytoestogens‖ Minerva Ginecol, Feb;54(1): 53-7
. Aso T., et.al (1976) ―The influence of acupuncture stimulation on plasma levels of LH, FSH, Progesterone and estradiol in normally ovulating women‖ Am J clin Med,4;391-40
. Baron YM, Brincat MP (2005) ―Estrogen and the skin‖ Climacteric jun:8;110-23
. Carusi.D, (2000) ―Phytoestrogens as hormone replacement therapy:an evidence based approach‖ Prim-care update—Gyn,Nov 7: 253-259
. Chisato.N, Naoyoshi.T, et.al (2001) ―Severe Hotflushes are associated with chronic insomnia‖ Am.J Clin Nutr
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Incidents 0f Ogling In Kaduna Town|
|Authors||:||A. N. Sankey|
Abstract: This study examines the activities of Ogling in Kaduna town. It investigates those involved and the effect of Ogling. This is achieved through administration of questionnaire and interview 0f selected drivers. The people in Kaduna are very much aware of the major causes of accidents but they have less consideration for Ogling The study has revealed that over 70% accept they have been totally attracted by pedestrians'. The attraction seems to be more during the hot season which is put a nearly50 %. Probably because of heat people tend to wear light clothes. Nearly one half of respondents wish to see the person that attracts them again, while just over one half are not interested in seeing that person again. In Kaduna, because drivers cannot take their eyes 0ff beautiful women//hot guys, 49.5 % claim they have crashed in to the car in front of them while ogling About one quarter of those who have accidents careless on the experience while over 70% did not like the experience. But all of the respondents say they will not tell their spouses the real cause of the accident and over three quarters indicate they cannot stop ogling. In general, the ratio of men vs women ogling is 3:2. The men blame it on the women's provocative dressing. Thus, there is every need to imbibe decent code of dressing so that men who admitted been the major actors of ogling, will look less
. Urban: It's impact on the quality of life of the people. In Ogidiolu, A,, Muba, S.D. and Ifatihehin, O.O Contemporary issues in infrastructural development and management in Nigeria. Department of Geography and planning Kogi State University Anyigba Pp.9-20.
. The Nation Newspaper Friday, September 7th (2012) " comments : Fatal Attraction" Vintage Press Limited Lagos P.19
. New 7th Edition Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
. Nzegwu, M.A. and Nzegwu, C.O (2007) Review of Causes of Road Traffic Accidents in Benin City, Nigeria. A 1 Year Study, August 2003 – July 2004.Journal compilations Australasian college of Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for emergency medicine P. 77-78.
. Riverside Webstar 11 New College Dictionary
. Supergal, O (2013.pp32-33 ) Men should look less on Ladies who dress to provoke .African Newspapers of Nigeria plc lagos
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Abstract: Some physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples obtained from twenty hand dug wells in Gambari, Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria were analysed in order to investigate and assess the drinking water quality. Conventional analytical methods were employed for the determination of the physicochemical parameters while heavy metals in the water samples were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results of physicochemical parameters in the water analysed showed various ranges as follows: pH (5.57 -7.1, mean; 6.454), conductivity (225.67-1353μscm-1, mean; 498.45 μscm-1), Alkalinity (0.43-4.73 mg/L, mean; 1.27 mg/L), Total hardness (30.33-86.33 mg/L, mean; 44.92 mg/L), Dissolved oxygen (0.73-7.5 mg/L, mean; 4.39 mg/L), Nitrates (0.00-5.0 mg/L, mean; 0.41 mg/L) and Sulphate (0.00-6.33 mg/L, mean; 0.34 mg/L). Also, from the results of the heavy metals analysed, high concentrations were recorded in certain wells especially in sample collected from GASP. The results indicated that the drinking water quality is becoming deteriorated because most of the water samples were found to be at minimum satisfactory level except for GASP (located within a cassava processing and milling industry) found to be at unsatisfactory level because ninety five percent of the parameters tested were found to be at high levels in concentration
. APHA (1998).Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edn. Washington, D.C.
. Y. Karikari and O. D. Ansa-Asare (2004).Physico-Chemical and Microbial Water Quality Assessment of Densu River of Ghana.CSIR-Water Research Institute, Accra, Ghana.
. Bay, S. M.; Zeng, E. Y.; Lorenson, T. D.; Tran, K.; Alexander, C., (2003).Temporal and spatial distributions of contaminants in sediments of Santa Monica Bay, California.Mar. Environ. Res., 56 (1-2), 255 – 276.
. Bhaskar, C.V., Kumar, K &Nagendrappa, G. (2010). Assessment of heavy metals in water samples of certain locations situated around Tumkur, Karnataka, India', viewed 12 June, 2010,<http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/.../Assessment%20of%20heavy%20metals%20in%20water%20samples.pdf>.
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. Fakayode, S.O. (2005): Impact Assessment of Industrial Effluent on Water Quality of the Receiving ALaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ajeam-Ragee . 10: 1-13.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Uptake Of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts In Zimbabwe.|
|Authors||:||Terence Darlington Mushore|
Abstract: Agriculture is mainly rain-fed in Zimbabwe and the provision of accurate rainfall information by the Meteorological Services Department is crucial to agricultural productivity in the country. The seasonal rainfall forecasts are used as an early warning tool produced with a lead time of at least 3 months such that it is important for the users to know their accuracy. Rainfall data and seasonal forecasts from the Meteorological Services Department were used to create 3 by 3 contingency tables for each homogeneous rainfall region which were then used to compute statistics which indicate the accuracy of the forecasts in the country. The study observed that national seasonal climate forecasts are finer and more accurate than regional (SARCOF) ones. In Zimbabwe, the forecasts were found to be 55 and 60% accurate for the rainfall region 3, 64 and 90% for region 2 and 73 and 80% for region 1 for the JFM and OND seasons, respectively. In all the regions the accuracy was found to be higher during the OND season than the JFM season. Limited uptake by farmers (Manatsa et al., 2012) was therefore, attributed to limited access and knowledge of the science (Patt, 2001) than to the accuracy of the forecasts. The study encourages the climate experts to reach out to the farmers to train them as well as to train all partners involved in distributing the forecasts to the users such as the Agricultural extension officers. The study also developed a new forecast interpretation tool which is handy for any user of climate data. Further research leading to forecasting of extremes such as dry spells ahead of a season and inclusion of other indicators such as the Indian Ocean Dipole could improve the accuracy of seasonal forecasts. The binary system which indicates whether there will be drought or not should be adopted into the national climate forecasting system replacing the current one which uses probabilities and three categories of possible outcomes.
Keywords: seasonal forecast, rainfall region, rainfall, climate experts, Indian Ocean Dipole, Meteorological, early warning, ENSO, climate, seasons, forecast, dry spell
. MANATSA, D., & MUKWADA, G. 2012. Rainfall Mechanisms for the Dominant Rainfall Mode over Zimbabwe Relative to ENSO and/or IODZM. The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2012 (2012), 15.
. MANATSA, D., UNGANAI, L., GADZIRAI, C. & BEHERA, S. 2012. An innovative tailored seasonal rainfall forecasting production in Zimbabwe. Natural Hazards, 1-21.
. METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES ZIMBABWE. 2011. Forecast for the 2011/12 Rainfall Season.
. METEROLOGICAL SERVICES ZIMBABWE. 1981. Climate Handbook of Zimbabwe.
. PATT, A. 2001. Understanding uncertainty: forecasting seasonal climate for farmers in Zimbabwe. Risk decis Policy, 6(2), 1-15.
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. UNGANAI, L. S. 1996. Historic and Future Climatic Change in Zimbabwe. Climate Research, 6, 137-145.
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Abstract: The main objective of the study was to define socio-economic and health status with the context of climate change in the interior coastal region of the Bay of Bengal. There were selected three villages of Dumuria upazila, Khulana, Bangladesh in order to address the objectives. Both secondary data and primary data through participatory approaches e.g. Personal Interviews (15 participants per village) were considered. From the field survey, the stratification of wealth group indicated that the poor groups embodying the largest number of household and the major economic activity among the respondents is agriculture, the most vulnerable sector of climate change are high level of vulnerability of communities in the study area. The local people (64.44% of the respondents) perceived the increase in temperature and precipitation over the 7 years. From the empirical climatic data, there were also observed the fluctuations of humidity and rainfall; temperature trend was also observed that the winter is becoming cooler but the summer is hotter. Therefore, there were also found that the fluctuations of the crops production with seasonal variations. On the context of health concern, nutritional status was found well with adequate food and safe drinking water and also using hygiene sanitation. There were also reported some health problems those are related to climatic phenomenon.
Keywords: Climate change, People Perception, Crop Production, Health Status
. Warrick, R., E. Barrow, and T.M. Wigley, Climate and sea level change: observations, projections and implications1993: Cambridge University Press.
. IPCC, 4th Assessment Report: The Physical Science Basis-Summary for Policy Makers. Working Group I. 2007.
. Huq, S., H. Reid, and L.A. Murray, Climate change and development links2006: IIED.
. GoB, Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008, 2008.
. Rahman, A.a.A., M, Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in Least Developed Countries, Working Paper 2: Bangladesh Country Case Study, 2003, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED): London.
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. Ahmed, A.U., Bangladesh climate change impacts and vulnerability: A synthesis 2006: Climate Change Cell, Department of Environment.
. Pender, J. Community led Adaptation in Bangladesh: Case study. in the 2nd international workshop on community based adaptation to climate change, Dhaka. 2007. Dhaka.
. Banglapedia Climate in Bangladesh. yearly, 2008.
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Abstract: In present study pot experiments for Tomato plant were conducted to evaluate the effect of Carbendazim (fungicide), 2,4-D and Metribuzin (herbicides) on certain beneficial microorganisms of rhizosphere. Total counts of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were lower in the treated soil than the untreated soil. The significant negative effect of the herbicides and fungicide on counts of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB were observed. The period of retardation or stimulation in growth differed according to the type of pesticide and type of micro-organisms under study.
Key words: Carbendazim, 2,4-D, Metribuzim, Non-target Microorganisms, Azotobacter, Azospirillum
 Miligi, L., Costantini, A.S., Veraldi, A., Benvenuti, A., and Vineis, P. 2006. Cancer and pesticides: an overviewand some results of the Italian multicenter case-control study on hematolymphopoietic malignancies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1076: 366-377.
 Vyas, S.C. 1988. Soil microorganisms and their activities. Nontarget Effects of Agricultural Fungicides. CRC Press, FL, Boca Raton. 258–275.
 Edwards C.A., Bater J.E. 1990. An evaluation of laboratory and field studies for assessment of the environmental effects of pesticides. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference on Pests and Diseases. 963–968.
 Khan M., and Sculion, J. 2000. Effect of soil on microbial responses to metal contamination. Environ. Pollut. 110: 115–125.
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 Edwards C.A., Subler S., Chen S.K., and Bogomolov D.M. 1996. Essential criteria for selecting bioindicator species, processes, or systems to assess the environmental impact of chemicals on soil ecosystems (In: New Approaches to the Development of Bioindicator Systems for Soil Pollution, Eds: N.M. van Straalen, D.A. Krivolutskii) – Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 1–18.
 Doran J.W., Zeiss M. R. 2000. Soil health and sustainability: managing the biotic component of soil quality. Appl. Soil Ecol. 15: 3–11.
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 Chisholm, R.D., et al., 1950. DDT residues in soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 43: 941-942.
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Abstract: This study involved a laboratory experiment on the efficiency of the plant duckweed Spirodela polyrrhiza in improving the quality of two polluted wetlands of Eloor industrial area, Ernakulam, Kerala. The efficiency was tested by measuring some of physicochemical characteristics of the control and plant treatments after each eight days. All the parameters show considerable rate of reduction. In wetland I, The highest rates of reduction after 8 days of treatment were for heavy metals, accounting 95%, 79%, and 66% for Lead, Copper and Zinc, respectively, followed by 53% for Chromium, 45% for Mercury, 26% for Cobalt, 20% for manganese and 7% for Nickel. Other factors like pH, BOD, COD, Nitrate, Phosphate , sulphate, TDS, TSS and Turbidity reduced by 12%, 37%, 49%, 100%, 36%, 16%, 53%,85% and 52% respectively. In wetland II also heavy metals were removed with Cd(100%), Fe(98%), Pb(91%), Cu(74%) Zn(62%) and Hg(53%) removed more efficiently. The results showed that this aquatic plant can be successfully used for wastewater pollutants removal. Other physiochemical parameters like pH, BOD, COD, Nitrate, Phosphate , sulphate, TDS, TSS and Turbidity reduced by 14%, 40%, 60%, 100%, 38%, 65%, 73%, 85%, and 51% after 8 days of treatment.
Key words: Phytoremediation, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Lemnaceae, Wetland, Heavy metals
. American Public Health Association "APHA", 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition. Washington, D.C.
. Cheng, J, Bergmann, B.A., Classen, J.J., Stomp, A.M. and Howard, J.W. (2002) Nutrient recovery from swine lagoon water by Spirodela punctata. Bioresource Technology.81:81-85.
. Culley, D.D. and Epps, E.A. (1973) Use of duckweed for waste treatment and animal feed. Research Journal of the Water pollution Control Federation.45:337-347.
. Dalu, J.M. and J. Ndamba, 2002. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment; a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe. In: 3rd WaterNet-Warfsa Symposium 'Water Demand Managementfor Sustainable Development'. Dar ElSalaam.
. DIN(2000) Duckweed growth Inhibition test: Determination of the non poisonous effect of water constituent s and waste water to duckweed, Deutsches Institut furcNormung e.V urchBeuth Verlag, Berlin, 19pp.
. Eberius M(2001) Assesment of Inhibition values and comprehensive analysis of biotests. LemnaTec GmbH,Wurselen, online http://www.lemnatec.com/Literatur/LT003.pdf.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of Shea Butter Effluent on Biochemical and Heamatological Profiles of Clarias Gariepinus|
|Authors||:||Adewoye S. O., Adedigba A. E., Opasola O. A.|
Abstract: The toxicity of shea Butter effluent (SBE) was investigated with emphasis on hematological, and biochemical profiles of Clarias gariepinus. adults of 280g_+0.3. The haematological indices revealed that increased in the concentration of the effluent brings about a corresponding decrease in the PVC, RBC, and Hemoglobin of the test organism. In the other way round, the volume of white Blood cell decreased at concentration of 0.003, 0.005, 0.007, and 0.009 but increased sharply at 0.011ppt concentration.In the same vein, the shea butter effluents causes a decline in the biochemical composition of Clariasgariepnusvis-à-vis Albumin, protein, cholesterol, Glucose and Urea when compared to the control treatment. Therefore, Shea butter effluent is highly toxic to freshwater fishes, its discharged directly into water bodies, new fish farms or in areas close to aquatic environment should not be encouraged.
Keyword: Shea butter, Effluent, Clarias gariepinus, heamatological, biochemical
. APHA (1989): Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (17th Edition): prepared and published jointly by: American Public Health Association (APHA); American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), New York.
. Ayeni, J.S.O (1993): The Challenge of conservation and development of Nigerian quatic resources.Proceedings of the national conferences cadmium To jureniles of Clariasgariepnus(Teugels) and Orechromisniloticus (Trewavas).Journal of Environmental Science and Health.29(7); 1357.
. Canfield, P.J., Quartararo, N., Griffen, D.L., Tsoukalas and Cocaro, S.E. (1994): Haematological and biochemical reference values for captive Australian snapper, Pagrusauratus. Journal of fish Biology 44: 849 – 856.
. Etin,L., Ekanem, S.B and Utin, A (1999): Hematological profile of two species Of catfish, Chrysichthysnigrodigitatus(Lacepede) and Chrysichthys Fureatus(Gunter) from the Great Kwa River, Nigeria. Global J. Pure And Applied Sci. 5(1):1- 4.
. Fagade. S.O., Adebisi, A.A and Ugwumbu, O.A (1993): Conservation of aquatic resources through aquaculture. Proceeding of the national conference on Conservation and aquatic resources.Organized by National Advisory Committee on Conservation of Renewable Resources. In cooperation With Federal Department of Fisheries, Abuja and Nigerian Institute For oceanography and Marine Researches, Lagos. Pp 176 – 192.
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Abstract: In April 2012 , a survey was conducted by distributing questionnaires to all staff focusing on staff compliance and knowledge in managing hospital wastes. 500 questionnaires had been distributed. However only 363 questionnaires had been collected which is 72.6% of the sample. After the survey, various interventions had been carried out from May 2012 to September 2012 including producing the guidelines to manage hospital wastes, continuous teaching for all staff, monthly briefing at every department and monthly round by a team headed by outsource officer who is in charge of waste management to check the compliance, guidelines on audit of waste and training of head of departments on how to conduct waste audit. In October 2012 ,waste audit was conducted to find out the compliance among staff including clinical waste, chemical waste, domestic and food waste, electrical and electronic equipment waste. Audit check points include consignment notes, reports as required by laws and regulations, handling, segregation, storage, collection, transportation and disposal. Results were later compared to both national and international benchmarking .The clinical and chemical waste generated in KPJ Seremban were 39% compared to 20%-40% for Malaysian hospitals and 15% for American hospital. For domestic and kitchen waste, KPJ Seremban generated 61% compared to 60%-80% for Malaysia hospitals and 85% for American hospitals. Therefore KPJ Seremban was within the national and international standards.
Key Words: Hospital wastes, survey , waste audit, benchmarking
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