Version-1 (November 2014)
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Abstract: The serum samples of 100 HIV positive patients on medication (protease inhibitors) and 100 HIV positive patients not on medication (control) attending Faith Alive Foundation, Jos, were investigated for their serum glucose level using Dialab liquid reagent kits. The mean results of the serum glucose level were higher in female test (5.4302) and male test (4.9702) than in control female (4.8403) and control male (4.9435) respectively. The mean comparison was made using one way ANOVA and the result showed that the serum glucose levels of female and male tests against female and male control was not clinically significant (p > 0.05). However Comparison by age group made using the Post Hoc test shows that age group of 41 to 60years and above, shows a clinical significant difference (P < 0.05). This led to the conclusion that protease inhibitors have associated side effects of which glucose is among them and should therefore be monitored in the cause of treatment to prevent hyperglycemia that can lead to diabetes as well as other complications.
Key words: HIV, Glucose, Protease, Protease Inhibitors, Diabetes, Hyperglycemia.
. John Bernard Henry, M.D.(2001). Clinical diagnosis and management of by laboratory methods.
. Reeves JD, Doms RW (2002). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 2". The Journal of general virology 83 (Pt 6): 1253–65. doi:10.1099/vir.0.18253-0 (inactive 2014-02-04). PMID 12029140.
. Santiago ML, Range F, Keele BF, Li Y, Bailes E, Bibollet-Ruche F, Fruteau C, Noë R, Peeters M, Brookfield JF, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH (2005). "Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Free-Ranging Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) from the Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire: Implications for the Origin of Epidemic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2". Journal of Virology 79 (19): 12515–27. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.19.12515-12527.2005. PMC 1211554. PMID 16160179.
. American Diabetes, Association (Apr 2013). "Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012." Diabetes care 36 (4): 1033–46. PMID 23468086.16
. FDA (Food and Drug Administration), (2006). Grants Fast Track "Hostile takeovers: viral appropriation of the NF-kappaB pathway". Designation To Oral HCV Protease Inhibitor SCH 503034
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Abstract: The determination of β -carotene was carried out by solvent extraction, these solvent includes, petroleum spirit and ethanol and the absorbance measured with a spectrophotometer (spectronic min 20) @480nm with molar extinction co efficient of 2.23. β -carotene levels of the various vegetables were found to be; Zogale Moringa oleifera with β-carotene level of 0.18 ± 0.0013 mg/ L, Dinya Vitex doniana 0.17 ± 0.0024 and Red sorrel Herbiscus sabdarifa 0.17 ± 0.0014 mg/ L, β From the results as indicated the various levels of β-carotene content is a good indication that, these local vegetable if taken, will correct abnormally derived from the lack of vitamin 'A' Keywords: β-carotene, Spectrophotometer, Zogale, Dinya, red sorrel.
. Mushstaq A.  The essential of Medical Biochemistry, volume II 6th edition, page 101-103.
. Pearson S.  Chemical analysis of foods, 3rd edition, page 96-100.
. Tindall HD  Commercial vegetables growing London, Oxford University press.
. Monica J.C and Ford G.C  Chemical analysis of foods and Beverages, a university journals, page 46-61
. Allen SE, Grimshaw H M, Rowland AP.  Chemical analysis. In: Moore, PD, Chapman, SB. (Eds.), Methods in Plant Ecology, Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, pp. 285–344.
. Makker G. and Beaker M.  Nutritional Science for university colleges, 6th edition page 45,47 and 50.
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Abstract: We appraised in this study the public awareness of the imminent danger due to elemental concentration of the resident in Lapai local government areas and Tatiko, a village under Paikoro local government areas in Niger State, Nigeria about the constant usage of clay potteries in cooking, storage of drinking water, eating and drinking of water. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was employed and two irradiation regimes developed based on short lived and long lived radionuclides. The Nigerian Research Reactor-1 was employed and the irradiation time set to five minutes and six hours at operating fluxes of 2.5 × 1011 n/cm2/sec and 5.0 × 1011 n/cm2/sec respectively for the two regimes developed. The gamma-rays from the activated samples were measured using the HPGe detector and twenty four elements; Na, Mg, Al, Ti , V, K, Mn, Dy, Cr, Fe, As, Br, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta were obtained quantitatively. Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) known to be heavy metals fall in the range of 0.64 50 ± 0.16 ppm – 1.63 50 ± 0.06 ppm and 29.20 50 ± 0.36 ppm – 74.80 50 ± 0.23 ppm respectively. The concentrations of La, Sm, Co, Ba, and Cr also known to be toxic were obtained within the range of 56.20 ± 21 – 102.00 ± 43 ppm, 8.14 ± 0.32 – 13.10 ± 0.2 ppm, 6.22 ± 0.22 – 21.50 ± 0.26 ppm, 218.00 ± 28 – 711.00 ± 41 ppm and 29.20 ± 23 – 80.80 ± 21 ppm respectively in all the ten composite clay potteries samples. Furthermore the concentrations of Al and Ti in the samples were obtained at percentage levels in the range of 7.605 ± 0.006 % – 10.03 50 ± 0.026 % and 0.40 ± 0.03 % – 1.02 ± 0.07 % respectively. These detected metals may dissolve from the clay potteries onto the food during cooking, eating, drinking of water or storage of food/water and will result to serious health consequence.
Keywords: Toxic Elements, Research Reactor, Clay Potteries, Heavy Metal, Light Metals,
. Abugassa, I. O., Sarmani, S., and El-Ghawi, U., (2004) "Instrumental neutron activation analysis based on k0-standardization method as compared with other methods in the analysis of the IAEA inter-comparison test," Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 381–384.
. Ahlrichs, J. L., (1972) "The soil environment," in Organic Chemicals in the Soil Environment, C. A. I. Goring and J.W. Hamaker, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA.
. Ahmed, Y.A., Ewa, I.O.B., Umar, I.M. 2006. Variations in nuclear data and its impact on INAA. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(8), 1692-1697.
. Ames, BN, Elson-Schwab, I., Silver, EA, (2002). High-dose vitamin therapy stimulates variant enzymes with decreased coenzyme binding affinity: relevance to genetic disease and polymorphisms, Am J Clin Nut.,75(4):616-658.
. Anderson, M. and Jensen, B. (1993). Empty Harvest; Understanding the Link Between Our Food, Our Immunity and Our Planet, Avery Penguin Putnam.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of Industrial Effluents Discharge on the Quality of Nwiyi River Enugu South Eastern Nigeria|
|Authors||:||OGWO, P.A. || OGU, O. G|
Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the impact of industrial effluents on Nwiyi River Enugu, Nigeria. Four sampling points were established 100m apart from AMA Breweries, and samples were collected on 2 hourly bases over a period of a 24 hour period. The samples were then analyzed for pH, EC, TSS, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, acidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, sulphate, DO, BOD , COD, turbidity, oil and gas, phenol compounds, Mg, Ca, AS, Al, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd, cyanide, total plate count, and total coliform using standard methods. Results obtained were analyzed statistically using mean and compared with national and international regulatory agencies guidelines. Results show that EC, turbidity, phosphate, Fe, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total plate count, total coliform were significantly above FEPA/WHO permissible limits in water, while TDS, TSS and pH were within the limits but have the potentials to exceed the limits if the trend continues without checkmating. However, there were no traces of phenol compounds, oil and gas, As, Al, Cr, Cd, cyanide, Pb and Ni. The DO was reduced due to high BOD and COD contained in the water. The study revealed that the quality of Nwiyi River is poor and pollutants of organic, inorganic and fecal origin are entering into the river due to industrial effluent discharge. It was recommended that regulatory agencies should mandate industries to install efficient waste and wastewater treatment plants so that waste and wastewater emanating from their operations could be properly treated before being discharged into Nwiyi River.
Key words: Industrial effluents, Nwiyi River, water pollution, Enugu Nigeria.
. APHA (1992). Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; 16th edition. American Public Health Association. American Water Works Association and water Pollution Control Federation, Washington DC.
. APHA, (1998). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
. APHA (1999). Standard Methods for Analysis of water and wastewater, 19th edition.
. Ahaneku, I.E. and Adeoye, P.A. (2014). Impact of Pit Latrine on groundwater quality of Foko Slum Ibadan Southwestern, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied science and technology, 4(3):440-449.
. Bashir, H. and Kawo, A.H. (2004). Environmental Pollution: A case study of wastewater Effluent parameters of some Industries in Kano, Nigeria. Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal for the tropics 1(1).
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Abstract: The study investigated the concentration of heavy metal in soil around Nekede automobile mechanic village in Southeastern Nigeria. Sample plots were established in a randomized method along a transect at 100m interval for five (5) different locations within the study area, these sample point were constantly receiving spent engine oil (SEO) and were labeled treatment SA, SB, SC, SD, SE. A composite soil sample was drawn from depths of 0 – 15cm and 15 – 30cm for each of the five treatments. These were air dried, passed through a 2mm sieve and properly labeled for laboratory analysis. Soil samples were then analysed for heavy metal (Pb) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Two (2) soil samples were collected at each sample point and two (2) soil samples CF and CG were also collected 2 km away from the study area in an undisturbed forest as control. Soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and particle size distribution were also determined. Results showed that the concentrations of Pb from soil samples were random across sample point. The concentration of Pb in the contaminated soil at a depth of 0 – 15cm (topsoil) varies, the highest value was observed at SD (482.2mg/kg) and the lowest value at SE (146.8mg/kg). At the depth of 15 - 30cm (subsoil) concentration of Pb is highest at SB (397.6mg/kg) and lowest at SC (140.1mg/kg). The mean concentration of Pb in the contaminated soil sample has its highest concentration at SB (382.9mg/kg) and lowest at SC (157.8mg/kg). The level of Pb in the control site was lower (CF, 46.5mg/kg and CG, 11.8mg/kg) when compared to the various concentrations of the contaminated soil. pH range was between 5.43 and 6.79. CEC varied across the sample area and showed no variation within the control site. The highest value was observed at CF and CG (3.65cmol/kg) respectively while the lowest value was observed at SA (2.15cmol/kg). The % sand distribution varied across the sample point and showed a higher distribution in the study area than % clay and % silt, the soil texture (sandy loam) was not significantly affected by the SEO. The study concluded that improper disposal of SEO in the study area elevated the soil Pb content thereby causing Lead pollution. Keywords: Spent Engine Oil (SEO), Lead Pollution, Soil properties, auto-mechanic village
. Abioye OP, Agamuthu P, Abdul Aziz AR (2012): "Biodegradation of used motor oil in soil using organic waste amendments". Biotechnology Resource Institute, doi: 10.1155/2012/587041
. Ademoriti C.M.A (1996); Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, Ibadan.
. Adewole M.B and Aboyeji A.O. (2014). "Yield and Quality of Maize from Spent Engine Oil Contaminated soils Amended with compost under screenhouse conditions". Journal of Agrobiology. 30(1):9-19.
. Alloway B.J. (2003); Heavy Metals in soils. Blackie and sons Ltd, New York.
. American Society for Testing and Materials, (1991) ASRM Volume 11.01
. Anoliefo, G O; Vwioko, D E (2001). "Tolerance of Chromolaena odorata (L) K. and R. grown in soil contamination with spent lubrication oil". Journal of Tropical Biosciences, 1:20-24.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Mangrove Vegetation Structure and Its Carbon Stock Potency in Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi|
|Authors||:||Joi Daniel Kimbal || Soemarno || Bagyo Yanuwiadi || Sudarto|
Abstract: Aims of this research are to describe structure of mangrove vegetation and its potential of carbon stock in northern area of the Bunaken National Park. Totally, there are about 18 mangrove species growing in coastal area of Bunaken. In Teling areas, R. mucronata and S. alba become two co-dominant species in plot 1, S. alba become important species in plot 2, and R. apiculata is the important species in plot 3. Avicennia marina become the most important species in Rap-rap. In Pungkol, B. sexangula has highest value of important value index in Plot 1, followed by R. mucronata in Plot 2 and B. parviflora in plot 3. In Wawontulap areas, B. parviflora has the highest value of important value index. The highest carbon stock was found at Rap-rap (ca. 1784,68 Mg/ha) and the lowest was found at Wawontulap (390,03 Mg ha-1). The highest necromass was found at Teling (ca 208,79 Mg ha-1) and the lowest was found at Wawontulap (ca. 21,30 Mg ha-1). Mangrove ecosystem in the Bunaken National Park is important for global warming mitigation through their ecosystem ability to absorb CO2 and store carbon into vegetation biomass and necromass.
Keywords: Bunaken National Park, mangrove, Global warming, biodiversity conservation, Carbon stock
. P. Saenger, E.J. Hegerl and J.D.S.Davie, Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystem (IUCN-UNEP & WWF, 1983).
. IPCC, Good practice guidance for land use, in J. Penman et al., eds., Land‐Use Change and Forestry (Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) for the IPCC), Kanagawa, Japan 2001.
. DM. Alongi, Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests. Environmental conservation, 29(03), 2002. 331-349.
. JB. Kauffman, C. Heider, G.C. Thomas, A.D. Kathleen and D.C.Donato. Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Micronesian Mangrove Forests. Article Wetlands February, US Government, 2011.
. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). Annual Report Seeizing The Green Opportunity. Produced by UNEP Division of Communications and Public Information, Publishing Service Section Nairobi, 2009.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Assessment of Water Quality Index in Subarnarekha River Basin in and around Jharkhand Area|
|Authors||:||Nirmal Kumar Bhuyan || Baidhar Sahu || Swoyam P.Rout|
Abstract: The present investigation is aimed at assessing the current water quality standard along the Subarnarekha river in Jharkhand .Eight samples were collected along the stretches of Subarnarekha basin during the period (Water Year) June-2012 to May-2013 on the first working day of every month.Various physico-chemical parameters like pH,TDS, EC,DO, BOD, Total Hardness, Total alkalinity sodium,potassium,calcium,magnesium etc. were analysed. Eight parameters namely pH,Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand ,Nitrate,Phosphate,Total Dissolved Solids and Faecal Colliform were considered to compute Water Quality Index (WQI) based on National Sanitation Foundation studies.Our findings highlighted the deterioration of water quality in the rivers due to industrialization and human activities.
Key Words: NSF Water Quality Index, TDS, EC, DO, BOD, Total Hardness,Faecal Colliform
. Wills Martin and Irvin N.Kim,Middle states geographer,1996,95-104.
. APHA-2005,Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water (21st edition),American Public Health Association,American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Fed.Washington D.C.
. Brown R.M.,McLelland,N.I.Deininger,R.A. and Tozer,R.G.1970,A Water Quality Index-Do We Dare? Water and Sewage Works October:339-343
. G.J. Henery and G.W. Heinke, 2005, Environmental Science Engineering (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
. House,M.A. and Ellis,J.B.1987.The Development of Water Quality Indices for Operational Management.Water Science and Technology 19(9):145-154
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Effect of Storage Temperature (4°C, 15°C and 25°C) on The Shelf Life of Whole Marine Fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta)|
|Authors||:||Sami A. Humaid || Mamdoh T. Jamal|
Abstract: Organoleptical and microbiological shelf-life evaluations of whole Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) were monitored during storage at 4°C for 144 hours, 15°C for 72 hours and at 25°C for 24 hours. The Organoleptical shelf life of Indian mackerel was found to be 151 hours at 4°C, 59.7 hours at 15°C and 19.4 hours at 25°C. Bacteria of Indian mackerel were dramatically grown at 4°C, 15°C and 25°C exceeding the bacterial spoilage limit of fish (7 log cfu/g) that limited by International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, and reached to about, 7.83±0.23, 8.43±0.17 and 8.25±.51 log cfu/g, respectively. Microbiological shelf-life of Indian mackerel was found to be 118.2 hours at 4°C, 44.2 hours at 15°C and 15.6 hours at 25°C. Microbiological shelf life in studied fish was significantly shorter than the Organoleptical shelf life in the same fish. In this study, each of quality parameters was varied significantly (P<0.05) among storage temperatures.
Key words: Organoleptical evaluation; microbiological; shelf-life; Indian mackerel; storage temperature; quality.
. FAO (2012). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Access date, May, 14, 2014, from : http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e00.htm
. Alasalvar, C., Miyashita, K., Shahidi, F. and Wanasundara, U. (2011). Handbook of seafood quality, safety and health applications, New Delhi: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2011. p.13-29.
. Bhat, R., Alias A. and Paliyath G. (2012). Progress in Food Preservation, 1st edition. New Delhi: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 630. ISBN-10: 0-470-65585-2.
. Frazier, W.C. and Westhoff, D.C. (1988). Food microbiology, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. USA.
. FDA (2011). Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance, 4th Edition., p. 467. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Seafood, Washing-ton, D.C. (240) 402-2300.
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Abstract: This study evaluates the farmers' perception and climatic variability using climate record. Various climate change adaptation strategies used by the farmers in the semiarid zone of north-eastern Nigeria were also identified. Forty years of climatic data on temperature and rainfall (1971–2010) from the Nigeria meteorological agency were collected and analyzed using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. Questionnaire survey was conducted to understand farmers' perception and adaptations in response to changing climate and variability. The results reveled that an increase in annual temperature of +0.76 °C from 1971 to 2010 has been recorded in the entire semiarid zone of North-eastern Nigeria, whereas annual rainfall has not exhibited any trend. Surveyed results show that many farmers noticed long-term changes in temperature and precipitation, although farmers' perception on temperature change appeared to be higher than the one observed. However, in order to cushion the effects of climatic variability farmers have adopted a variety of adaptation strategies including soil conservation, change in planting date, agro forestry product, improve crop seedlings, and irrigation.
Keywords: Adaptation, climate change, farmers' perception, semiarid zone, north-eastern Nigeria
. G. Ziervogel, A. Nyong, B. Osman, C. Conde, S. Cortés, and T. Downing, "Climate Variability and Change : Implications for
Household Food Security AIACC Working Paper No . 20," Washington DC USA, 20, 2006.
. N. Manson, "The Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Poverty in Nigeria : Dynamic Simulations in a CGE Model," JEL Classif.,
no. October, 2006.
. P. A. O. Odjugo, "CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING : THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE," J. "Sustainable Dev.
Environ. Prot., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6–17, 2011.
. IPCC, "Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of the Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change," Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
. FMOE, "NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL , ECONOMIC AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY ( NEEDS ) FOR CLIMATE
CHANGE IN NIGERIA ( Final Draft )," Abuja, Nigeria, 2010.