IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP)

Current Issue Vol1-Issue 5

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Segmentation of Overlapped and Touching Human Chromosome images
Country : India
Authors : Sri Balaji.V, Pragasam.G, Sowmiya.R, Vijayalakshmi.H, Nirmala Madian
: 10.9790/4200-0150106      logo

ABSTRACT: Chromosomes are essential genomic information carriers. The identification of chromosome abnormalities is an essential part of diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders such as chromosomal syndromes and many types of cancer. Currently available cytogenetic imaging software is designed to classify only normal chromosomes. The automation of chromosome analysis is involving segmentation of chromosomes and classification into 24 groups. Segmentation of the overlapped chromosomes is a major step toward the realization of homolog classification. Resolving chromosome overlaps is an unsolved problem in automated chromosome analysis. Current systems for automatic chromosome classification are mostly interactive and require human intervention. In this paper, an automatic procedure is proposed to obtain the separated chromosomes. The separations of overlapped and touching chromosomes are obtained by finding the intersecting (concave and convex) points with the help of Novel algorithm. The intersecting points are located on contour of the image and then the curvature function is used to find out concave points. Then the possible separation lines are plotted by using all concave points and finally construct the hypotheses for possible separation lines between concave points. The segmentation is carried out by means of a curvature function scheme, which proved to be successful.

Keywords: automatic chromosome classification, diagnosis, genetic disorders, hypothesis, interesting points.

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no. 3, pp. 161-171, 1994.
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multispectral chromosome images,. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1593–1610, Dec. 2005.
[4] P. Mousavi, R. K.Ward, and P. M. Lansdorp,.Feature analysis and classification of chromosome 16 homologs using fluorescence
microscopy image,.IEEE Can. J. Elect. Comput.Eng.,vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 95– 98, 1999.
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feasibilitystudy,.PatternRecognit.Lett., vol. 27, pp. 19–28, 2006.
[6] K.Z. Mao, P. Zhao, P. Tan, Supervised learning-based cell image segmentation for P53 immunohistochemistry, IEEE Transactions
on Biomedical Engineering 53 (6) (2006) 1153–1163.
[7] CarstenGarnica, Frank Boochs,MarekTwardochlib, .A new approach to edge-preserving smoothing for edge extraction and Image
segmentation., IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000.
[8] T. Law, K. Yamada, D. Shibata, T. Nakamura, L. He, and H. Itoh, .Edge extraction using fuzzy reasoning,.in Soft Computing for
Image Processing, S. K. Pal, Ed. New York: Physica-Verlag, 2000.
[9] K. Saracoglu, J. Brown, L. Kearney, S. Uhrig, J.Azofeifa, C. Fauth, M. Speicher, and R. Eils,.New concepts to improve resolution
and sensitivity of molecular cytogenetic diagnostics by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization,. Cytometry, vol. 44, no. 1,
pp. 7 May 2001.
[10] E. Grisan, A. Pesce, A. Giani, M. Foracchia, and A.Ruggeri., .A new tracking system for the robustextraction of retinal vessel
structure,. in Proc. 26th Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE-EMBS. New York: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 1620–1623.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Realization of FPGA based numerically Controlled Oscillator
Country : India
Authors : Gopal D. Ghiwala, Pinakin P. Thaker, Gireeja D.Amin
: 10.9790/4200-0150711      logo
ABSTRACT: Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) is an important components in many Digital Communication Systems such as Digital Radio and Modems, Software Defined Radios, Digital Down/Up converters for Cellular and PCS base stations etc. A common method for digitally Generating a complex or Real valued sinusoid employs a Look-Up table based scheme. The NCO Design is first simulated and optimized on the software tool Xilinx 10.1 and then coded in VHDL for Hardware Realization. The Designs are tested on Xilinx Spartan2 FPGA Development Platform. The test Results are matching with theoretical and simulated results. This paper presents a FPGA-based Implementation method which can greatly improve the performance, shorten development cycle and reduces cost.
Keywords: Numerically Controlled Oscillator, FPGA, Look-up table, Register
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Baoding, china IEEE, 2010.
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WCNC. 1999, vol. 1, pp.211-215, September 1999.
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[4] Song Weanmiao, "Implementation of digital IF receiver based on SDR using DSP builder", communication and electronics
department of north china Electric power University, Baoding, Hebei.IEEE 2011.
[5] Satish Sharma, Sunil, Vijaykumar Pujari, Vanitha M, P.Lakshminarsimhan. Digital Systems Group ISRO Satellite Center, "FPGA
Implementation of M-PSK Modulators for Satellite Communication" International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in
Communication and Computing, 2010.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analyzing the Coronary Heart Events Based on Weighted Association Rule Mining
Country : India
Authors : K.R.Snehaa Gayathri, Mrs B.Gomathy Asst Professor(Sr Grade)
: 10.9790/4200-0151216      logo

ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of disability in adults as well as one of the main causes of death in the developed countries. Although significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of CHD, further investigation is still needed. The objective of this study was to develop the assessment of heart event-risk factors targeting in the reduction of CHD events using Weighted Association Rule Mining. The risk factors investigated were: 1) before the event: a) nonmodifiable—age, sex, and family history for premature CHD, b) modifiable—smoking before the event, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes; and 2) after the event: modifiable—smoking after the event, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and glucose. The events investigated were: myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGData-mining analysis was carried out using the Weighted Association Rule Mining for the afore mentioned three events using five different splitting criteria.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease (CHD), data mining, weighted association rule mining,MI,PCI

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A High- Speed LFSR Design by the Application of Sample Period Reduction Technique for BCH Encoder
Country : India
Authors : Manikandan.S.K, Sharmitha.E.K, Nisha Angeline.M, Palanisamy.C
: 10.9790/4200-0151724      logo
ABSTRACT:Error correction is one of the important technique for detecting and correcting errors in communication channels, memories etc., BCH codes are widely been used for error detection and correction. The generated check bits of the BCH encoder along with the message bits called codeword is sent to the receiver to detect any error during the transmission. One of the main components of BCH encoder is LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register). LFSR find its wider application in Built-in-Self-Test, signature analyzer etc., whereas here it is used to form parity bits to concatenate with message bits for the formation of a codeword. The main advantage of LFSR is that it is simple to construct and it operates at very high clock speed, but its main drawback is that the inputs are given in bit serial. To overcome these drawbacks, DSP algorithms such as unfolding and parallel processing can be used by selecting the unfolding factor based on some design criteria. Selecting a better unfolding value reduces the sample period, decreases the clock cycle and increases the speed. Keywords- Bose Chaudhuri-Hocquengham (BCH), Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), Computational Time (CT), Galois Field (GF), LFSR, unfolding, sample period reduction.
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Edition, 2008.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A novel image hiding scheme by Optimal Pixel Pair Matching and Diamond Encoding
Country : India
Authors : Rajashree Shitole, Satish Todmal
: 10.9790/4200-0152531      logo

ABSTRACT: This paper describes a novel method of data embedding based on Pixel Pair Matching(PPM).In Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP),pixel x is embedded in k-bits of message m , using Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution method by adjusting stego pixel at optimal level. In Diamond Encoding (DE), Diamond Characteristic Value, conceals secret digit in N-ary notational system when k ≥ 1.Comparison and Experimental results of OPAP and DE not only demonstrates acceptable image quality but also provides significant improvements for different payloads. Diamond shape reveals that it is selective to specific notational system but large amount of data can be embedded in the cover image maintaining imperceptible stego-image quality.

Keywords – Diamond Encoding (DE), Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD), Least Significant Bit (LSB), Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP), Pixel Pair Matching (PPM).

[1] J. Fridrich, M. Golijan, and R. Du, "Reliable detection of LSB steganography in color and grayscale images," in Proc. Int. Workshop
on Multimedia and Security, 2001, pp. 27-30
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vol.34, no. 3, 671683, 2001
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41, no.8, pp. 2674-2683, 2008
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Signal Process., vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 2954-2964, 2010.
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Communication Lett. Vol. 10, no.11, Nov. 2006
[8] Chi- Kwong Chan, L.M. Cheng, "Improved hiding data in images in optimal moderately significant bit replacement," IEE electron.
Lett. 37, vol. 16, pp. 1017-1018, 2001.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Fusion Based On Wavelet And Curvelet Transform
Country : India
Authors : Vishal P.Tank1, Divyang D. Shah ,Tanmay V. Vyas, Sandip B. Chotaliya,
Manthan S. Manavadaria
: 10.9790/4200-0153236      logo

ABSTRACT: In this paper we have put forward an image fusion algorithm based on wavelet transform and second generation curvelet transform. The wavelet transform does not represent the edges and singularities well. So the second generation curvelet transform is performed along with the wavelet transform and the image fusion is done. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to experiments of multi focus image fusion and complementary image fusion. The proposed algorithm holds useful information from source multiple images quite well.

Keywords - Image fusion, Wavelet transforms, Second Generation Curvelet Transform

[1] Chao Rui, Zhang Ke, Li Yan-jun, 'An image fusion algorithm using Wavelet Transform', Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2004, pp
750-753.
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1995 , pp 235–245.
[3] Li, S., Wang, Y., 'Multisensor image fusion using discrete MultiWavelet Transform'. In: Proc. 3rd Internat. Conf. on
VisualComputing, 2000, pp. 93–103.
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[8] LiHui-hu, i GuoLe, i LiuHang,'Research on image fusion based onthe second generation curvelet transform'. Acta Optica Sinica,
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684.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Inflammatory Conditions Mimicking Tumours In Calabar: A 30 Year Study (1978-2007).
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Omotoso AJ, Emanghe UE , Ekanem AI
: 10.9790/4200-0153743      logo

ABSTRACT: Background: Several lesions in the body present as a soft tumor mass which often necessitate an incision or excision biopsy for proper histologic diagnosis. It has been noted that several soft tissue tumours turn out to be primarily infective inflammatory conditions. This study is aimed at reviewing these inflammatory soft tissue masses with a view of understanding their aetiology, histologic morphology and anatomic locations. Methodology: The records of the Department of Pathology, UCTH, were accessed to retrieve relevant clinical information for reviewing all the histologically confirmed inflammatory tumours seen through the period of 1978 – 2007.

Keywords - Granulomatous, Necrotizing, Non-Necrotizing, Onchocerciasis, Molluscum Contagiosum.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Secure Software Implementation of Nonlinear Advanced Encryption Standard
Country : India
Authors : S.Vinoth John Prakash, A.Arun.ME.,(Ph.D)
: 10.9790/4200-0154448      logo

ABSTRACT: Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm (AES) was introduced to resist classical methods of cryptanalysis (i.e.) from linear or differential attacks. The cryptographic strength of the AES depends strongly depends on the choice of S-box. The result of the new attack methods shows that there may be some lacuna in the design of S-box in AES algorithm. The setback is the weakness of the existing linearity structure in the S-box. After a detail analyze on the AES algorithm and a new performance scheme for rising complication of nonlinear transformation in the structure of S- box is presented. In order to resist from the new attacks and to execute the AES with the protected encryption and decryption by using verilog and to provide a further more protection a Bio-metric scheme has been used in both the encryption and decryption schemes. The result shows that the new nonlinear implementation of the AES S-Box by using Verilog provides enhanced security with good enough speed for encryption and decryption.

Keywords: AES, Non-linear S-Box, Bio-metric Image.

[1] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), "Recommendation for Block cipher modes of operation," Dec.2001.

[2] "A New Mutable Nonlinear Transformation Algorithm for S-box" Atsushi WATANABE, Hiroshi HARUKI,Shun SH1MOTOMAI, Takeshi SAITO, Tomoyuki NAGASE

[3] "A Research and Improvement based On Rijndael Algorithm" Van chun, Yanxia GUO

[4] NIST, "Advanced Encryption Standard," FIPS PUB 197, pp. I-51, November 2001

[5] "AES Proposal: Rijndael", Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen, Springer- Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2002.

[6] Claude Carlet "Lower bounds on the higher order nonlinearities of Boolean functions and their applications to the inverse function" [7] Concurrent Structure-Independent Fault Detection Schemes for the Advanced Encryption Standard Mehran Mozaffari- Kermani, and Arash Reyhani-Masoleh.

[8] "Efficient method for simplifYing and approximating the S-boxes based on power functions" by A. F arhadian and M.R. Aref in the year 2009.

[9] "A High speed FGPA implementation of the rinjdael algorithm" by Refik Sever A., Neslin Ismailoglu, Yusuf C.Tekmen, Murat Askar anc Burak Okcan.2004

[10] "Effect of Security Increment to Symmetric Data Encryption through AES Methodology" by Md. Nazrul.


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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Intensity Non-uniformity Correction for Image Segmentation
Country : India
Authors : Jaya Krishna Sunkara, Sundeep Eswarawaka, Kiranmai Darisi, Santhi Dara, Pushpa Kumar Dasari, Prudhviraj Dara
: 10.9790/4200-0154957      logo

ABSTRACT: Intensity non-uniformity or intensity inhomogeneity usually occurs in Real world Images, those images cannot be segmented by using image segmentation. The most commonly used algorithms in image segmentation are region based and depends on the homogeneity of the image intensities which usually fails to produce accurate segmentation results due to the intensity non-uniformity. In this paper we proposed a novel region based method for image segmentation which can be able to discuss with intensity non-uniformities in image segmentation. First according to the image models with intensity non-uniformities we define a local clustering criterion function for the intensities in the image neighbourhood of each part. The local clustering criterion function is then integrated with respect to the neighbourhood center to give a global criterion of image segmentation. In a level set formulation this criterion defines an energy in terms of level set functions that represents the partition of image domain and a bias field that corresponds to the intensity non-uniformity of the image. Therefore, by minimizing the energy we can able to segment the image simultaneously and estimate the bias field can be used for the intensity non-uniformity correction. This method is applied on MRI images and real world images of various modalities with desirable performance in the presence of intensity non-uniformities. The experiment results show that the method is stronger, faster and more accurate than the well-known piecewise smooth model and gives promising results. As an application this method is used for segmentation and bias correction of real world images and MRI images with better results.

Keywords –Bias field, Energy minimization, Image segmentation, Intensity non-uniformity, Level set method.

[1] Chunming Li, Rui Huang, Zhaohua Ding, J. Chris Gatenby, Dimitris N. Metaxas, and John C. Gore, "A Level Set Method for Image Segmentation in the Presence of Intensity Inhomogeneities With Application to MRI", IEEE Trans. Image. Process., vol. 20, no. 7, July 2011.
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