IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS)

Volume 2 - Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Eefect of Tenure of Service on Job Stress Andnurse-Physician Collaboration among Nurses and Doctors
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Olatunji, S. O., Mokuolu, B. O.
: 10.9790/1959-0210104      logo

Abstract: This study examined the role that experience plays in nurse-physician collaboration and how this experience affects the level of job stress that entails among the health workers. 191 health workers comprising of 102 nurses and 89 physicians were involved, this include 26 female and 63 male physicians, and 68 female and 34 male nurses. Perceived stress scale by Cohen (1983) and Satisfaction about Care Decisions developed by Baggs (1994) were employed as measures of job stress and nurse-physician collaboration respectively. The result showed that tenure of service has a significant effect on job stress and collaboration among nurses, workers with greater than ten years of service reporting higher level of collaboration and lower level of job stress compared with their counterparts of fewer years of experience. Collaborative practice is suggested between doctors and nurses at all cadres, and mentoring should be encouraged among the senior and the junior health workers so as to bring confidence on the job and consequently reduce the experience of stress.

[1] William, S., Michie, S., and Pattani, S. (1998).Improving the health of the NHS workforce: report of the partnership on the health of the NHS workforce.Nuffield Trust London UK.

[2] Dolland, m., Winefielf,A., De Joge,J.(2000). Psychological job starin and productivity in human service workers: a test of the demand control support model. Journal of occupational and organisational psychology, 73:501-511.

[3] Thoits, P. (1995). Stress, coping and social support processes: where we are? What next? Journal of health and social behaviour, 36(1) 53-79.

[4] Adebayo S.O. (2001). Social psychology of ethnic group relations in Nigeria.A publication of psychomotor communication; Lagos pp24-38.

[5] Schutz, W.C. (1955). What makes group productive. Human Relations 8,429-465. [6] Cohen S., Kamarck. T., &Mermelstein, R. (1983).A global measure of perceived stress.Journal of health and social behaviour. 24, 386-396

[7] Baggs, J.G. (1994). Development of an instrument to measure collaboration and satisfaction about care decisions.Advance Journal on Nurses 20, 176-182.

[8] Cherniss, C. (1986). Staff Burnout, Job Stress in Human Service. Beverly Hills, CA: sage

[9] Kurtz, M.W. (1980). A behavioural profile of physician managerial roles, in R. Schenke, (ed). The physician in management. Washington DC: Artisan, 33-34

[10] Di Megho,K., Padula, C., Piatetek, C., KorberS.,Barrett, A., Ducharm,M., Lucas, S., Piemont,N., Joyal,E., DeNichola, V. and Carry,K. (2005). Group cohesion and nurse satisfaction.Examination of a team-building approach. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35(3): 110-120

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Knowledge and Opinion toward Sex Education among Selected Secondary School in Ejigbo Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : B. L. Ajibade, Olagunju,R. O., Oyediran, G.
: 10.9790/1959-0210508      logo

Abstract: towards sex education in Osun State, Nigeria. It was designed to enlighten the adolescent on the problems associated with lack of sex education.

METHODOLOGY :This is a descriptive study using multistage sampling technique to select the 3 secondary schools in Ejigbo local government area. The respondents were selected using simple random technique through the register of the school. The instrument used was a self-designed questionnaire with reliability of 0.71 using spearman brown coefficient analysis. Three hundred (300) respondents were used for the study.

RESULTS. Findings showed that, adolescents level of knowledge on sex matter was poor with a greater percentage (53%) affirming this. On the meaning of sex majority of respondent (60%) said it has to do with touching of body parts.

CONCLUSION: It was concluded that sex education should be adopted to avoid consequent of lack of sex education.

Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, Adolescents, sex education.

[1]. Achilla, M. (2002). Issues and Problems in Introducing Family Life education for boys and girls of secondary schools. Journal of Family welfare 38 (I): 56-67.
[2]. Adeyemo, M.O. (2007) Dissemination of family Life education to adolescents by their parents suburden Ibadan, Nigeria. 22-49.
[3]. Agujiobi, B. (2003): Need for sex Education in Our Schools Adewumi Printing Press, Ibadan, Nigeria. 22-49.
[4]. Akindele, J. (2002): Human Sexual Responses, Gribina Publishing Company, Lagos, Nigeria pp 37-62.
[5]. George, D.P (1999):Enciclopedia of Education, Spain Editorial Sufeliz Limited 8:192.
[6]. Goldman, M(1999): Sex Education for youths and parents Magill Publishing Co. Mumbai pp 19-50.
[7]. Hiller, L.(2000): Sexually and Diversity in Rural youth. American Garland publishing inc. U.S.A, 83-98.
[8]. Moore, s.(2000): Sexuality in adolescents Routledge publishers, U.S.A, 105-161.
[9]. Nwabuichie, J.(2001) Sex and Moral Behaviour Cimong the youth, Delta publication Limited Nigeria,55-7.
[10]. Pearsons. k (2000): Adolescent value system preferred Resolution Strategies and conflict with parents Australian Journal of psychology 5(2):63-70.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Beet root juice on haemoglobin among adolescent girls
Country : India
Authors : Dr. N. Gayathri Priya , Mrs. M. Malarvizhi, Mrs. Annal Jega Jothi
: 10.9790/1959-0210913      logo

Abstract: Adolescence is a time of intense physical growth. It is also a stage of stress and strain. Most of them are having poor access to proper health care, nutrition and education. Beetroot juice is particularly beneficial as an anemia remedy for children and teenagers. Many studies proved that beet root also contribute to improve the haemoglobin level in the blood. Hence a study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of beet root juice on hemoglobin among adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of beetroot juice on hemoglobin among adolescent girls. True experimental study design was adopted and the study conducted in Aringar Anna Government Higherv Secondary School, Chennai, Tamilnadu. A total of 60 adolescent girls were selected for the study, in that 30 girls were in experimental and 30 girls were in the control group who fulfilled the inclusive criteria were selected by using simple random sampling technique. The freshly prepared beetroot juice was administered to the samples for 20 days in mid morning. Pre and post assessment was done using the checklist for assessing the signs and symptoms of anemia and cyanmethemoglobin method for checking hemoglobin level.The data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics.Samples in the experimental group showed a highly significant improvement in hemoglobin level following the administration of beetroot juice (p<0.001), in comparison with the control group.The nurses have to play a vital role in building the knowledge and understanding the importance of prevention of anemia. This can be facilitated by motivating the nurse to improve the theory based knowledge to educate the community to use locally available resources to improve the health. By this the anemia can be prevented among the adolescent girls and in future the complications due anemia can be prevented.

Keywords: Adolescent girls, haemoglobin, anemia

[1]. Chaudry, SM.Dhage VR., (2008) A study of anemia among adolescentfemales in the urban area of Nagpur, DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.43230
[2]. Sudhagandhi,B (2011) Prevalence of anemia in the school children. 0738.84212
[3]. World Health Organization(2001) .Iron deficiency anemia,Assessment prevention and control.A guide for programme managers NHD/ 01.
[4]. Toteja,GS.(2006) Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India.Food and nutrition bulletin.
[5]. Bulliyy.G (2007) Hemoglobin status of non school going adolescent girls in three districts of Orissa, India. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health .
Unpublished Dissertation:
[6]. Sherin Nithya(2009) Effectiveness of beetroot extract upon anemia among adolescent girls. Unpublished Dissertation.Dr.M.G.R University, Tamil Nadu.
[7]. Ammu(2010) Experimental study on effectiveness of beetroot juice on level of anemia among adolescent girls. Unpublished dissertation.Dr.M.G.R University, Tamilnadu

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention among Pre-Diabetes Patients in Melaka, Malaysia.
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Norma S., Zaleha MI, Azmi MT, Nor Aryana H.
: 10.9790/1959-0211421      logo

Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention on physical (weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, waist circumference) and biochemical (fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hours postprandial (2HPP), and lipid profile) parameters among individuals with pre-diabetes. Methods: This study involved 185 pre-diabetics patients from fourteen selected health clinics in Melaka. The patients were divided into three groups based on the intervention that they received namely lifestyle intervention (n=62), pharmacological intervention (n=60), and control group (n=63). Each clinic applied only one type of intervention. The control group received only the conventional education. the lifestyle intervention group underwent group and individual dietary counseling together with exercise programme, and the pharmacological intervention group were given the oral Metformin (500 mg b.i.d). Results: Both blood glucose profiles included FBS and 2HPP with the mean difference of 0.24 ± 0.94 mmol/L were significantly reduced in the lifestyle intervention group. Waist circumference and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced while HDL-cholesterol was significantly elevated in both lifestyle and pharmacological intervention groups. The greatest reduction of body weight and BMI were seen in pharmacological intervention group with the mean difference of 2.06 ± 2.68 kg and 0.89 ± 1.17 kg/m2 respectively as compared to the lifestyle intervention and the control group with the mean difference of 1.49 ± 2.98 kg, 0.46 ± 2.02 kg/m2; 0.61 ± 1.16 kg, 0.10 ± 1.03 kg/m2 respectively. The lifestyle intervention showed significant reduction in weight (p=0.004), BMI (p=0.023) and waist circumference (p=0.005) as compared to the control group. Multivariable analysis, the lifestyle intervention still had an effect on fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hours postprandial (2HPP), and body mass index (BMI) after all the baseline differences were controlled. The lifestyle intervention showed the greater decreased in FBS (0.279 mmol/L) than pharmacological intervention (0.245 mmol/L). Conclusion: Lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing blood sugar profile of pre-diabetic patients as compared to the pharmacological intervention and the control group.

Keywords: Prevention T2DM, primary intervention, impaired glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes.

[1]. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. The global burden of disease: A Comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from disease, injuries and risk factors in 2000 and projected to 2020 J Health Risk Manag 2000.
[2]. Yavagal ST. Prevention is better than cure. [Online]. Available from: URL:
[1] Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications.Phys Ther,88(11), Nov 2008,1254-64.
[2] Wilson PW, Kannel WB. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly.Am J Geriatr Cardiol, 11(2), Mar-Apr 2002, 119-23,125.
[3] Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zimmet P: The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 14, S1-85
[4] Buysschaert M, Bergman M. Definition of prediabetes. Med Clin North Am, 95(2), Mar 2011, 289-97.
[5] Hong Wang, MD, Nawar M. Shara, Darren Calhoun, Jason G. Umans, Elisa T. Lee, and Barbara V. Howard. Incidence Rates and Predictors of Diabetes in Those with Prediabetes: The Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 26(5), July 2010, 378–385.
[6] Kuller LH, Velentgas P, Barzilay J, Beauchamp NJ, O'Leary DH, Savage PJ. Diabetes mellitus: subclinical cardiovascular disease and risk of incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20, 2000, 823-9.
[7] Unwin N, Shaw J, Zimmet P, Alberti KG. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia: the current status on definition and intervention. Diabet Med, 19(9), 2002, 708-23.
[8] Nathan DM, Davidson MB, DeFronzo A. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: implications for care. Diabetes Care, 30 (3), 2007, 753-758.
[9] Marso SP. Review: The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2, 2002, 350
[10] Qiao Q, Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Balkau B, Borch JK. Age and sex specific prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in 11 Asian cohorts. Diabetes Care, 26, 2003, 1770-1780.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Prevalence of Goitre and Iodine Intake in Kanpur
Country : India
Authors : Shailja Singh, Rashmi Singh
: 10.9790/1959-0212226      logo

Abstract: Iodine is an essential element in the chemical structure of thyroid hormones. The human body requires around 150 g of iodine everyday, which works out to be a teaspoonful (5gm) over a life span of 70 years. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of brain damage. The magnitude of IDD in India includes 167 million people at risk and goitre is being considered as important public health problem. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess prevalence of goitre and iodine intake in 3 areas of Kanpur viz. urban, rural and slum areas. There was no visible or palpable goitre was found in the studied population. Results of the survey revealed that 92.0 per cent of the urban respondents were consuming branded packaged salt while 18.0 per cent of the rural and 4 per cent of the slum population were consuming crystalline. In urban area, salt consumption per person per day ranged from 8.6 to 9.9 gm. In slums, per capita salt consumption was 9.9 to 11.0 gm. per day. On an average, daily salt consumption was found to be 9.9  0.87. gm Iodine content in salt samples ranged between 15.9 ppm to 31.7 ppm. Iodine intake per person per day was found 247.7 g. The study concludes that the prevalence of goitre was nil among studied population. Salt consumption was found to be higher in rural and slum areas and iodine intake was found to be more than the recommended value.

Key Words: Goitre, Iodine deficiency, Iodine intake, Salt consumption.

[1] Kapil, U. Progress made in elimination of iodine deficiency disorders and possible impact of lifting ban on sale of non iodized salt. Journal of Academy of Hospital Administration.12 : 2. 2001.

[2] ICMR Task force study. Epidemiological study of endemic goiter and endemic cretinism. Indian Council of Medical Research. 1989.

[3] Tyabji, R. The use of iodated salt in the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). In: A handbook of monitoring and quality control, UNICFE/ROSCA, New Delhi, India. 1985.18-29

[4] Bhat, I.A. ;Pandit,I. M.; Mudassar,S. Study on prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder and salt consumption pattern in Jammu region. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 33: 2008.111-14.

[5] Satapathy, D.M.; Bahera, T.R. and Sahu, T.A study on goiter prevalence, knowledge and use of iodized salt in South Orissa. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics. 41 : 4; 2004.390

[6] Yamada, C.; Oyunehimeg,D.; Igari,T.; Buttumur, D. Oyunbileg M. and. Umenai, T. Knowledge attitudee, and practices of people in Ulaanbaatar, Mongelia, with regard to iodine deficiency disorders and iodized salt. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 18:4; 2008.353-358.

[7] Delange, F. and Hetzel, B. The iodine deficiency Disorders. Thyroid disease manager2006.. [8] Jayashree, S. and Naik, R.K. Iodine losses in iodized salt following different storage methods. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 67: 8; 2002.559-561

[9] Patowary, A.C.; Kumar, S.; Patowary, S. and Dhar, P. Iodine deficiency disorder and iodized salt in Assam : A few observation. Indian Journal of Public Health. 39 : 4; 1995.135-140.

[10] Singh, S.; Benjamin, A.I.; Panda, P. and Zachariah,P..A study on salt consumption in Ludhiyana, Punjab .Indian Journal of Maternal and Child Health.7 : 9; 1996.99-101.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Assessment of Vitamin D status in general population of Muzaffarabad district & effect of supplementation on serum Vitamin D levels in general population of Muzaffarabad district.
Country : India
Authors : Waqar Haider, Ambreen Zaib,Atif Abbasi,Azhar Saleem, Saadia Mir, Bakht Ramin Shah, Nazneen Habib, Javadan Haider
: 10.9790/1959-0212731      logo

Abstract: The status of vitamin D was assessed in the general population of the Muzaffarabad district having established coronary artery disease and other medical complaints. Results of the study showed that there is a deficiency or insufficiency of the vitamin in all the subjects enrolled for the study irrespective of their age, gender, occupation, socioeconomic conditions, daily sun exposure, supplementation history, body mass index and medical complaints. In the light of the findings that vitamin D is deficient or insufficient in 99% of the population and level is improved after administrating vitamin D as injection Sunny D. So it is suggested that the vitamin D supplementation may be added to the preventive program as a part of primary health care.

Key words: Vitamin D, Cornary artery disease,sunexposure ,Muzaffarabad,Anova.

[1]. Holick, M.F(2007). Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J .Med; 357:266-81.
[2]. Masood, S.H., Iqbal, M.P(2008). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South Asia. Pak. J .Med. Sci. 24(6): 891-97.
[3]. Iqbal, R., Aysha, H.K (2010). Possible Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) in Pakistani Population Residing in Pakistan. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 60(1): 1-2.
[4]. Calvo, M.S., Whiting, S.J., Barton, C.N (2007). Vitamin D Intake: A Global perspective of current status. J. Nutr; 135: 310-7.
[5]. Rucker, D., Allan, J.A., Fick, G.H., Hanley, D.A( 2002). Vitamin D insufficiency in population of healthy western Canadians. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 166:1517–1524.
[6]. Rashid. A., Mohammed, T., Stephens, W.P (1983). Vitamin D state of Asians living in Pakistan. Br. Med. J. 286:182-184.
[7]. Lips, P (2001). Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr. Rev. 22: 477-501.
[8]. Holick, M.F (2005). Vitamin D: important for prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular heart disease, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. South. Med. J. 98: 1024-7.
[9]. Binkley, N., Novotny, R., Krueger, D., Kawahara,T., Daida, Y. G., Lensmeyer, G., Hollis, B. W., Drezner, M. K (2007). Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. J. Clin.l Endo. Metab. 92(6): 2130-2135.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Harmful Effect of Commonly Used Electronic Devices on Adolescence and its Safeguard at Shebin El-Kom
Country : Egypt
Authors : Dr. Nagwa A. Zein El Dein
: 10.9790/1959-0213246      logo

Abstract: Purposes of this study were to assess the effects of electronic devices on the health of adolescence and to provide guideline to safeguard them from harmful effect on their health for parents and practitioners Design. Across section study was utilized to collect data from a sample of 59 boys and 67 girls of adolescence students. Age between 16-18 yrs. through Two Tools. the 1st is -adapted Play and Technology Questionnaire for alder children, the 2nd is an interview questionnaire related to harmful effect of commonly used electronic devices on their health, it classified into mild, moderate or severe effects. Results presented an adolescence were expose to moderate to severe hazards as backache, carpal tunnel syndrome, itchy eyes, and sleeping problems which lead to lack of concentration, which effect on their school performance. So, nurses should write guided instruction for parent and teachers to be conducted with adolescence and followed by practitioners, with continuing medical and nursing educational programs to be planned for safeguard their health .

Key Wards: Adolescence. Electronic devices, Harmful effect, Safeguard, Nurses, Health practitioners

[1] American Life Project (2008).Research Center's Internet , Washington ,DC, United States1615 L Street NW

[2] Bandura N. (1994) .Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In: Bryant J, Zillmann D eds. Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research. Hillsdale, NJ:, Lawrance 61-90
[3] Beverly A. Bondad- B, Ronald E & Katy E. (2012). Influences on TV Viewing and Online User-shared Video Use: Demographics, Generations, Contextual Age, Media Use, Motivations, and Audience Activity Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media Volume 56, Issue 4, pages 471-493
[4] Bluck H,(2007).The Association between Use of Mobile Phones after Lights Out and Sleep Disturbances among Japanese Adolescents: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey Sleep. 2011 August 1; 34(8): 1013–1020.
[5] Brad J. and. Rowell H, (2001).Effects of Televised Violence on Aggression," in The Handbook of Children and Media, edited by Dorothy and Jerome Singer (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, pp. 223–54.
[6] Chang-H, and Hongsik J. (2005). Children's exposure to negative Internet content: effects of family context
[7] Ellen A.,(2000). The Future of Children and Computer Technology Vol. 10•No. (2 ) Fall/Winter 2000
[8] Gentile, D.. Lynch, P., Linder, J. and Walsh, D. (2004). The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 5-22.
[9] Gentile D, and Walsh D. (2002;). A normative study of family media habits. Appl Dev Psychol. 23:157-178.

[10] Grabianowski E,(2012). How Computer addiction Works Kansas State University. 1998-2012 How Stuff Works, Inc

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Nutritional assessment of selected hypercholesterolemic adult women (30-60 years) of Cheriyanad panchayath of Alapuzha district
Country : India
Authors : Renjini. M. R.
: 10.9790/1959-0214750      logo

Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of selected hypercholesterolemic adult women of 30-60 years belonging to Cheriyanad panchayath of Alapuzha district. Data on socio economic status, health status, life style and physical activity pattern and dietary pattern were collected using a pre-structured interview schedule. Biochemical assessment to know the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and anthropometric measures and 24 hour recall to assess the nutritional status were done. Biochemical assessment revealed that hypercholesterolemia was higher among the age group 51-60 years indicating the effect of menopause. The study clearly depicted the lack of physical activity and intake of diet rich in fats and calories were important contributing factors to the higher blood cholesterol levels in the subjects.

Keywords: Hypercholesterolemia, Nutritional status,Adult women

1] Trichopoulou A,Kouris-Blazos A,Wahlgvist M,Gnardellis C,Lagiou P,Poly chronopoulos E,Vassilakou T,Lipworth L and Trichopoulos D: Diet and overall survival in elderly people.Brit.Med.J 1995,311:1457-1460.

[2] Jelliffe D.B. The assessment of nutritional status of the community, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1988, 69: 193-197

[3] WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.Lancet.2004;363:157-163.

[4] SrilakshmiL,Nutrition,Science NewDelhi, NewAgeInternational(P)Limited Publishers,2ndEdition, (2006)

[5] Tang JL, Armitage JM, Lancaster T, Silagy GA Fowler GH and Neil HA "Systematic review of dietary intervention trials to lower blood total cholesterol in free living subjects BMJ (1998) , 316 (7139): 1313-20 Retrieved 2010-11-02.

[6] Hooper L, Summerbell C D, Thompson R, Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovasculardiseases,Cohrane.,(2012) Database Syst.Rev.5:CD002137

[7] http:|// eng.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : First Responders to Superstorm Sandy; An Information Technology Assessment
Country : India
Authors : Thomas Virgona
: 10.9790/1959-0215156      logo

Abstract: Traditionally, first responders, (e.g., Emergency Medical Technicians) have under-invested and lagged other provider groups in the utilization of state-of-the-art technologies. This can be partially attributed to a lack of fiscal support or an inability to identify needs that may warrant fiscal support. Consequently, the goal of this research is to determine the information technology needs of first responders. The findings will influence matching funding with current needs in this area. This pilot study, conducted in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, describes which Information Technology worked and identifies areas for future information technology improvements for first responders.

[1]. An T. Oskarsson, C. R. (2010). The AlphaACT Decision Support System for Emergency Responders. Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, (pp. 417-422).
[2]. Anonymous. (2011, 02 07). Smart911 Improves Safety for Nearly 4 Million Citizens throughout United States. Retrieved from Smart911 Improves Safety for Nearly 4 Million Citizens throughout United States
[3]. Anonymous. (2013, 01 07). Health Data Management15. 6 (Jun 2007): 8. . Retrieved from Health Data Management15. 6 (Jun 2007)
[4]. Chris, P. (2013, 01 07). First responders need improved technology to help convey information in times of crisis . Retrieved from First responders need improved technology to help convey information in times of crisis :
[5]. Dawes, S. S., Cresswell, A. M., & Cahan, B. B. (Apr 2004). Learning From Crisis. Lessons in Human and Information Infrastructure From the World Trade Center Response. Social Science Computer Review, 52-66.
[6]. Dionysios Kostoulas, R. A. (2008). A nature-inspired decentralized trust model to reduce information unreliability in complex disaster relief operations. . Advanced Engineering Informatics, 45-58.
[7]. Jere, M. (2013, 01 07). Patents; Patent Application Titled "System and Method for Managing Mobile Hie Information" Under Review. Retrieved from Patents; Patent Application Titled "System and Method for Managing Mobile Hie Information"
[8]. Kovalcik, M. (2010). Preplanning Software. Fire Engineering, 111.
[9]. L A Lenert, D. K. (2011). Design and evaluation of a wireless electronic health records system for field care in mass casualty settings. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 842–852.
[10]. Marsden, J. ,. (2012). Dynamic emergency response