IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE)

Volume 8 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determination of load transfer in reinforced concrete solid slabs by finite element computer analysis
Country : Iraq
Authors : Mohanad Y. Abdulwahid, Imad A. Al-Qasem, Ibrahim Arman
: 10.9790/1684-0830107      logo

Abstract: According to the ACI building code, the concrete slab can be divided into two types depending on the ratio of the long side to the short side. Regarding the results of the ratio, the concrete slab can be divided as one-way and two-way slabs. The main objective of this paper is to study the stress or moments distribution in solid slab panel in its two directions and compare with ACI code assumption that the load is transferred mainly in short direction and most of the load is transferred in one direction only if the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span is greater than one. This will be discussed by analyzing one panel of solid slab using the computer software SAP2000. Two types of panels will be used; the first one a panel that is supported simply on its four sides and the second panel is supported only by four pin supports and beams. This paper shows that the gravity load on the slab is transferred to long and short direction. This means that one-way concrete solid slab doesn't exist and all concrete solid slabs work as a two-way concrete slab. Keywords: bending stress, FEM analysis, one-way slab, simply supported slab, two-way slab

[1] Wight and Macgregor. (2012), Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design (6th edition)

[2] Mehta, Scarborough, and Armpriest. (2009), Building Construction Principles, Materials, and Systems

[3] Jawad.(2012),"Investigation of load distribution factors for simply-supported composite multiple box girder bridges",Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering, Ryerson University,Toronto, Ontario, Canada

[4] Parv and Nicoreac. (2012) "Global structural analysis of central cores supported tall buildings compared with FEM', Acta Technica Napocensis: Civil Engineering & Architecture, Vol. 55, No. 3, 252-262

[5] Salama. (2012)," Analysis of slabs spanning in two directions under concentrated load" Housing and Building National Research Center, 1-5

[6] Alverne.(2012), "Determination of the reinforced concrete slabs ultimate load using finite element method and mathematical programming" .lajss,69-93


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Finite Element Modeling of a Multi-Storeyed Retrofitted Reinforced Concrete Frame
Country : India
Authors : Beena Kumari, Naveen Kwatra
: 10.9790/1684-0830822      logo

Abstract: In the present study, the non-linear response of RC frame using FE modeling under the incremental loading has been carried out in the first phase of analysis to study the response and load-carrying capacity of a four storeyed RC frame using non-linear finite element analysis. In the second phase of study an analysis model for retrofitted RC frame using finite element method using software ATENA is presented. The results obtained from FE analysis in both cases are compared with the experimental data for four storeyed RC frame tested by BARC at CPRI. The results from finite element analysis were calculated at the same location as used in experimental test. The accuracy of the finite element model is assessed by the comparison with experimental results which are to be in good agreement. The base shear/ displacement curves from finite element analysis agree well with the experimental results in linear range. The maximum difference in base shear is observed to be 7.9%.

Key Words: Finite Element modeling, Reinforced concrete frame, fibre reinforced polymer and retrofitted frame.

[1] A. Habibullah, S. Pyle, Practical Three Dimensional Non-near Static Push-Over Analysis. Structure magazine, winter 1998.
[2] H.G. Kwak, C.F. Fillipou, Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Under Monotonic Loading, Structural Engineering Mechanics and Materials, Report no. UCB/ SEMM-90/14, 1990.
[3] M. Kachlakev, T. Miller, PE. Solomon, P.E; Yim, K. Chansawat, T. Potisuk, Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP laminates, Final Report OREGON Department of transportation.2001.
[4] Amer, M. I., Mohammad, M. (2009) , Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Strengthened with FRP Laminates, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X, 30 (4), 2009, 526-541.
[5] H. Singhal, Finite Element Modeling of Retrofitted RCC Beams, M.E. Thesis, Thapar University, Patiala.2009.
[6] T.Supaviriyakit, P.Pornpongsaroj, and A. Pimanmas, Finite Element Analysis of FRP Strengthened RC beams, Songklanakarin J. Science Technology, 26(4), 2004, 497-507.
[7] Santhakumar, R., Chandrasekaran, E. and Dhanaraj, R. ,Analysis of retrofitted reinforced concrete shear beams using carbon fiber composites, Electronic journal of structural engineering, 4, 2004, 66-74.
[8] M. Barbato, Efficient finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with fibre reinforced polymers, Journal of Computers and Structures, 87, 2009, 167-176.N. Pannirselvam, P.N. Raghunath, and K. Suguna, Strength Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Externally Bonded Fibre Reinforcement Polymer Reinforcement, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1(3), 2008, 192-199.
[9] G. Camata, E. Spacone, R. Zarnic, Experimental and non linear Finite Element studies of RC beams strengthened with FRP plates, Journal of Composites: Part B, 38,2007, 277-288.
[10] B. Ferracuti, B.M. Savoia, C. Mazzotti, A numerical model for FRP-concrete delamination, Journal of Composites, Part B 37, 2006, 356-364.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Injection Moulding Tool Design Manufacturing, Estimation and Comparison of L&T Power Box Side Panel Using Plastic Materials HDPE, ABS, PP and PC
Country : India
Authors : N. Sreenivasulu, Dr. D. Ravikanth
: 10.9790/1684-0832332      logo

Abstract: Power box is a component which is used in earth movers. It controls the power circuit. It has top cover, front cover, back cover and side panel. The aim of the paper is to create the L&T power box side panel by using parametric pro/E wild fire 5.0. The part modeling, Core-cavity design, CNC manufacturing programming and Mould flow analysis i.e simulation to avoid potential mould-filling problems is done by pro/E wild fire 5.0. Mould base design and Mould calculations are also done in this paper according to HASCO standards. The material selection for mould design is taken as EN31B steel. Structural analysis is done for core and cavity by using ANSYS software to know the pressure, displacement, stress results. Cost of the total die assembly and cost comparison of different plastic components (HDPE, ABS, PP, and PC) are estimated. Here the process is using in injection moulding and manufacturing a variety of parts from simple to complex components.

Keywords: Injection moulding, Mould flow analysis, plastic materials, Power box, Tool design.

[1] Georg menges , Hans Pecker "Computer Aided Engineering in Injection molding" Journal on comprehensive polymer science & Supplements, vol .7 1989 .Pages 451-488.
[2] Millers and Pedgen D, 2000, "Introduction to Manufacturing Simulation", Proceedings of the 2000 winter simulation conference PP 63-66.
[3] A.H.S.Park ,X.P.Dang, A.Roderburg, "Development of Plastic Panels " CIRP Journal of Manufacturing &Techonology vol 26 Pages 35-53.
[4] Alan.R.Grayer, "Alternative approaches in Geometric modeling", Journal on CAD, volume 12, issue 4,july 1980, pages 189-192.
[5] Erh Guoliangxu, "Mixed Finite Element Methods for Geometric modeling using 4th order geometric flows. "Journal on Computer Aided Geometric Design". vol 26, issue 4, may 2009,Pages 378-395.
[6] E.G.Gottstain, M.Goerdeler, G.V.S.S Prasad "Mechanical Properties :Plastic Behaviour" Journal on Encyclopedia of condensed matter of Physics"2005 Pages 298-305.
[7] C.Khan molek. L.Robert,A.Singh . "High Resolution Thermo plastic Rapid Manufacturing using Injection Moulding". CIRP Journal of Manufacturing science and technology, volume 4, issue 4 2011, Pages 382-390.
[8] E.Maine, M.F.Ash by "Material selection & Mechanical Design "Journal on Encyclopedia of Material ,Science &Technology 2nd edition pages 53-83.
[9] M.zakria Baig, "Industrial Engineering Estimating &Costing", Radiant Publishing House
[10] Japan.s.Daniel.L. and Theodor .k.2005. "Finite Element Analysis of Beams", Journal of Impact engg. vol 31, Pages 861-876.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Kineto-Elasto Dynamic Analysis of Robot Manipulator Puma-560
Country : India
Authors : D. Pratap, Dr. Y. V. Mohan Reddy
: 10.9790/1684-0833340      logo

Abstract: Current industrial robots are made very heavy to achieve high Stiffness which increases the accuracy of their motion. However this heaviness limits the robot speed and in masses the required energy to move the system. The requirement for higher speed and better system performance makes it necessary to consider a new generation of light weight manipulators as an alternative to today's massive inefficient ones. Light weight manipulators require Less energy to move and they have larger payload abilities and more maneuverability. However due to the dynamic effects of structural flexibility, their control is much more difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop accurate dynamic models for design and control of such systems.This project presents the flexibility and Kineto - Elasto dynamic analysis of robot manipulator considering deflection. Based on the distributed parameter method, the generalized motion equations of robot manipulator with flexible links are derived. The final formulation of the motion equations is used to model general complex elastic manipulators with nonlinear rigid-body and elastic motion in dynamics and it can be used in the flexibility analysis of robot manipulators and spatial mechanisms. Manipulator end-effector path trajectory, velocity and accelerations are plotted. Joint torques is to be determined for each joint trajectory (Dynamics) .Using joint torques, static loading due to link's masses, masses at joints, and payload, the robot arms elastic deformations are to be found by using ANSYS-12.0 software package. Elastic compensation is inserted in coordinates of robotic programming to get exact end-effectors path. A comparison of paths trajectory of the end-effector is to be plotted. Also variation of torques is plotted after considering elastic compensation. These torque variations are included in the robotic programming for getting the accurate end-effect or's path trajectory.

Keywords: Manipulator, Speed, Accuracy,, Path trajectory, FEA analysis.

[l] Moh.khairudin, "Dynamic modeling of a flexible link manipulator robot "university negeri, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.2010 ISSN 1693-6930.

[2] A.Ahmadi nadooshan, E.Abedi, s.salehi,"Dynamic modeling of two flexible link manipulator",2008International journal of aero space and mechanical engineering.

[3] B.Subudhi, A.S morris "Dynamic modeling,simulation and controling of a manipulator with flexible links and joints",2008Robotics and atonomous systems.257-270.

[4] K.S. Fu, R.C. Gonzalez, and C.S.G. Lee, Robotics Control, Sensing, h i o n , and Intelligence,;McGraw-Hill, 1987.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance of Flat Slab Structure Using Pushover Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Dhananjay D. Joshi, Dr. Pranesh B. Murnal
: 10.9790/1684-0834144      logo

Abstract: Performance Based Seismic Engineering is the modern approach to earthquake resistant design. It is a limit-state based design approach extended to cover complex range of issues faced by structural engineers. Flat slabs are becoming popular and gaining importance as they are economical as compared to beam-column connections in conventional slab. Many existing flat slabs may not have been designed for seismic forces so it is important to study their response under seismic conditions and to evaluate seismic retrofit schemes. In this paper we have discussed the results obtained by performing push over analysis on flat slabs by using most common software SAP2000. A (G+7) frame having 5 bays is considered for analysis. It is observed that the performance point of flat slab is more as compared to conventional building.

Keywords: Capacity, Demand, Performance point, ATC 40, FEMA-356..

[1]. ATC-40, seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings, Applied Technology Council, November 1996.
[2]. FEMA-356, prestandard and commentary for seismic rehabilitation of buildings Federal Emergency Federal Agency Washington DC, 2000.
[3]. Thomas H.-K. Kang and John W. Wallace , Dynamic Responses of Flat Plate Systems with Shear Reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, Vol.102 No.5,September-October 2005.
[4]. Ahmad J. Durrani, S.T.Mau and Yi-Li, Earthquake Response of Flat Slab Buildings, Journal of Structural Engineering,Vol.120,No.3,March 1994.
[5]. Ema COELHO, Paulo CANDEIAS and Artur V.PINTO Assessment of the Seismic Behaviour of RC Flat Slab Building Structures13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver ,B.C., Canada, August 1-6,2004,Paper No.2630.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Exploring Values and Value Streams by BPM method solved by Lean Management tool
Country : India
Authors : Sunil V. Desale, Dr. S. V. Deodhar
: 10.9790/1684-0834549      logo

Abstract: This paper suggests a continuous improvement plan that can satisfy customer's value and eliminate waste in the enterprise business process. In order to explore the applicability of lean management principles in the enterprise business process, the five fundamental concepts (specify value, identify the value stream, flow, pull, and perfection) of lean management are being used as a stable and proved approach. In addition, Business Process Management is applied as a new method to constantly improve the elimination of waste in the enterprise business process. This can be accomplished by the lean management concept. Moreover business process problems, such as overlapping work, redoing work, communication gaps, inflexible processes, and obscure processes, have the possibility of being solved by lean management..

[1]. Peter S. Pande, Robert P. Neuman, Roland R. Cavanagh, "The Six Sigma Way", Published by T.M.H.,2006.
[2]. R. Sacks and M. Goldin, "Lean Management Model for Construction of High Rise Apartment Buildings", Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management, May 2007, pp. 374-384.
[3]. R. Sacks, A. Esquenazi and M. Goldin, "LEAPCON: Simulation of Lean Construction of High Rise Apartment Buildings", Journal
of Construction Engineering and Management, July 2007, pp. 529-540.
[4]. Ballard and Howell, "Completing Construction Management Paradigms", Lean Construction Journal, June 2004, pp.38 -45.
[5]. Sven Bertelsen, "Lean Construction: Where are We and How to Proceed?", Lean Construction Journal, June 2004,pp.46 -69.
[6]. 8. Howell and Balard, "Implementing Lean Construction: Understanding And Action", Proceedings
[7]. of IGLC "98


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Comparison of theMaterials in Styles of Iranian Architecture and its Effect on the Form of the Building before the Islam's Entry to Iran
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Malsiah Hamid, Mehdi Hanafi Koumleh, Nora Roostapoor
: 10.9790/1684-0835054      logo

Abstract: During the history,different elements have been determined as influential factors affecting the architecture in different areas. The historical events and political alterations as well as religious and economical changes can directly lead to the architecture style. One of the historical countries with rich architectural history that can be increasingly exposed to more alterations is Iran. In general the architecture styles in Iran can be categorised in six groups. These groups can be divided in two periods before and after Islam's emergence in Iran. The "Parsi" and "Parti" architecture styles belong to the former period and "Razi", "Khorasani", "Isfahani" and "Azari" were common in the latter period, after Islam. Such alterations brought in a variety of architecture styles, in this country, due to theoretical alterations. Furthermore, some novel architectural styles were resulted from a number of physical conditions which had also effects on the theoretical architecture. The current research intends to put an emphasize on the alterations in materials used in two historical periods of Iran, "Achaemenid" Empire (550–330 BCE) and The "Sassanid" Empire (224 CE to 651 CE) resulting in the changes in Iranian architecture. It also aims to explore the differences and the reasons of changes in the materials used for constructions and the influence that these changes had on the architectural style in the above mentioned periods.

Keywords: Achaemenid, Achaemenian, Sassanid, Sassanian,Pasargad, Susa, Perspolis, Qhal'eDokhtar, Sarvestan, architecture style, Parsi, Parti, Khorasani, Azari, Razi, Isfahani, material, Empire, History, Building, Flat Roof, Arched Roof, Arch, Dome.

[1] Sampson, Gareth C. (2008). The Defeat of Rome: Crassus, Carrhae and the Invasion of the East. Pen & Sword Books Limited. p. 33. ISBN: 9781844156764.
[2] Curtis, J. and Tallis, N. (eds). (2005). Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. Universityof California Press. ISBN: 0-520-24731-0.
[3] Fattah, HalaMundhir (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. p. 49.ISBN 9780816057672. "Historians have also referred to the Sassanian Empire as the Neo-Persian Empire."
[4] MacKenzie, D. N. (2005), A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, London & New York: Routledge Curzon, p. 120, ISBN 0-19-713559-5.
[5] "A Brief History". Culture of Iran.Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.Retrieved 11 September 2009. [6] SHAHBAZI, A. Shapur. Sasanian Dynasty. Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2005.
[7] Wiesehöfer, Josef. "Ancient Persia from 550 BC to 650 AD, trans." A. Azodi, London (1996).
[8] Sarvestan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3083107" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". [9] All pictures resource is www.Wikipedia.com


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title :

A Brief Study of Ready-Mix Concrete: Features & Uses in Construction on the Context of Bangladesh

Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Nazmul Haq, Md. Saidur Rahman Chowdhury, Hunain Mahmud
: 10.9790/1684-0835557      logo

Abstract: When concrete is mixed readily in the plant rather than mixing it on the site and transported readily in the site by transit mixer in fresh state, it is called ready mix concrete, Ready-Mix concrete technology is a new trend in Bangladesh. So from engineering point of view it seems to be very important to obtain knowledge of the manufacturing process and the quality control technique of Ready-Mix Concrete to produce quality concrete in Bangladesh. Keeping this in mind, thorough study was made on different Ready-Mix Concrete producing companies and some consumers of Ready-Mix Concrete in Bangladesh. The objective of the research is to study and knows about the Ready-Mix Concrete (RMC) in the context of Bangladesh.

Keywords : Concrete technology, Ready mix concrete, Travel time, Transit mixer

[1] A. M. Neville & J. J. Brooks (2004) – "Concrete Technology".

[2] Dr. M. A. Aziz (1995) – "A Text Book of ENGINEERING MATERIALS".

[3] J.D. Dewar and R. Anderson (1992) – "Manual of Ready Mixed Concrete".

[4] 2006 International Building Code (Ibc, Icc) – Chapter - 19, "Concrete".
[5] Advantage of Ready Mix Concrete instead of Site mix concrete -http://shahcement.akgbd.com/rmc/scrmc.php

[6] Quality & Mixing of concrete - http://www.advanced-bd.com/sis-ad-ready.php


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