IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)

Volume 17 - Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : To fulfill the civil responsibility of the contractor in Iran's law system
Country : Iran
Authors : Shahram Karimi, Mahmoud Erfani, Javad Vahedi Zadeh
: 10.9790/0837-1710106      logo

Abstract: Contrac to rasowner of theris kypr of ession, has always been subject to variousrisks, and at any moment may beliable for accidents and incidents that threat. To fulfill civil contractor's responsibility need the conditions, some of these conditions, as general conditions in all types of civil liability are presented such as losses, and the relationship of committing a harmful act and causation relationship between the harming act and the harmful entry; three elements of the Iranian legal system, and most legal systems, are called to fulfill civic responsibility elements. Aside from this, there are some tools that fulfill specific requirements, are the civil contractor responsibility. These conditions are necessity damage entry during operation, the employment law required on the contractors (employers) and employee adverse action. In this case the civil responsibility of the contractor will fulfill, therefore, in this paper, together with the general and specific terms civil contractor liability, is presented.

Keywords: Civil Liability, Contractor, loss-injured, employee

[1]. AbazariFomashy, M., Principles of construction contracts, Tehran, Publications khorsandi, First Edition, 2009
[2]. Ahmadvand, Vali Allah Comparative Study of Civil Responsibility System of the employer, in Iran and the UK law, Journal of Human Sciences, 1384, No. 61, in the fourteenth.
[3]. Ismaili Harris, E., Principles of Contract law, Tehran, Forest Publications - javdaneh, Fourteenth Edition, 2009.
[4]. -, Law, engineering (Note Agreement), Tehran, Justice Press, first edition, 1390

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Model of Effective Community Empowerment Policy of Forestry Partnership to Forest Community in Mesuji-Lampung
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Bambang Soepijanto, Soesilo Zauhar, Bambang Santoso Haryono, Saleh Soeaidy
: 10.9790/0837-1710714      logo

Abstract: Nowadays, forest conditions in Indonesia show a trend of increase in forest areas release. It provides negative impacts, especially for the people who have been living around the forest areas. Various phenomena of community resistance to the government and forest companies become indicators that community empowerment policy implementation around the forest areas is not effective. This research intends to get a model of effective community empowerment policy to solve problems of forest use so that it is right on target for the community, government, and company (SIL). This research uses a qualitative research design. The results show that the empowerment model that has been implemented currently has positive impacts on the community and company, especially intercropping and komplangan of cassava programs, as well as rubber tapping. The impacts can be seen from the increased people incomes, improved social and economic infrastructure of the local community, as well as increased awareness of the importance of forest resources. This research has also shown strong evidences of positive impacts, in form of private property ownership of local community, and cassava farming skills. However, the existing model also provides negative impacts, i.e. forest encroachment, agrarian conflicts and even social conflicts in Mesuji. These result in the termination of the empowerment programs normatively, and detrimental to stakeholders, including the community, company and government (local). The new model resulted from policy reconstruction can guarantee the continuity of implementation of community empowerment programs through forestry partnership.

Keywords: Community Empowerment, Forestry Partnership, Mesuji

[1]. Bogdan, R. C. and S. K. Biklen. 2003. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods. Pearson Education Group. New York.
[2]. BPS of Kab. Tulang Bawang, 2012. Mesuji in Numbers 2012. Lampung: Central Agency on Statistics (BPS) of Kab. Tulang Bawang (in Indonesian).
[3]. Corbin, J. & A. Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research. Sage, Los Angeles.
[4]. Department of Forestry. 2010. Strategic Plans of Forestry Ministry 2010-2014. Department of Forestry. Jakarta (in Indonesian).
[5]. Forestry and Plantation Agency of Mesuji Regency, 2012. Strategic Plans. Mesuji Regency of Lampung (in Indonesian).
[6]. Friedmann. 1992. Empowement: The Politics of Alternative Development. Blackwell Publisher. Cambridge.
[7]. Goggin, M. L. Ann O'M Bowman, James P. Lester, & Laurence J. O'Toole, Jr. 1990. Implementation Theory and Practice: Toward a Third Generation. Scott, Foresman and Company. London.
[8]. Grindle, Merilee S. 1980. Public Choices and Policy Change: The Political Economy Of Reform In Developing Countries. The Johns Hopkins University Press. London.
[9]. Hodge, B.J., William P. Anthony, & Lawrence M. Gales. 1996. Organization Theory: A Strategic Approach. Fifth Edition. Harwester Wheatsheap. London.
[10]. Lachapelle, Paul R. et all. 2004. Access to Power or Genuine Empowerment? An Analysis of Three Community Forest Groups in Nepal.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The representation of women in Moroccan proverbs
Country : Morocco
Authors : Meryem Belfatmi
: 10.9790/0837-1711521      logo

Abstract: This study looks into a number of Moroccan proverbs to see whether proverbs support women secondary position in society. The fact that a proverb's authority has the function of legitimizing certain role patterns as well as preventing those patterns from possibly being questioned, we want to discover the main attributions that are attached to women while talking about proverbs in Morocco. Women's secondary position is faithfully mirrored in culture. Nothing defines the latter as clearly as its language. This language, in turn, encapsulates a society's thoughts, beliefs and values. The fact that proverbs are part of people's popular culture which includes language, it is important to know how these proverbs function and how they are structured to both convey and maintain certain man made ideologies and policies. Moreover, since proverbs are based on common sense and practical experience of humanity, they call into question the extent of their truth and validity. This article focuses on the different representations of women in Moroccan proverbs. It shows an analytical comparison of these proverbs on the basis of women and gender differences. Our focus is based on the idea that proverbs maintain certain beliefs and attitudes that last for ages. Yet, these attitudes are not always positive, mainly when it comes to women. Therefore, we suppose that these proverbs with negative gender connotations should be altered.

Keywords: gender discrimination, popular culture, proverbs,

[1]. Wolfrang Yksel. Women in proverbs. Oxford university. 1993:P.65,66
[2]. Mineke Schipper. African proverbs and sayings on women. Chicago,1989.P.3
[3]. M.Haralambos andHolborn. sociology: themes and perspectives. London.1991.P.536)
[4]. 1 N. Gamble. Feminism and society. London. 2001.P.264
[5]. Arthur. Davis. Moroccan female power negotiation.l‟MEDIA.2001.36

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : TheRole of Emotional Intelligence and Tolerance of Ambiguity in Predicting EFL Learners' Language Learning Strategies
Country : Iran
Authors : Mania Nosratinia, Maryam Niknam, Elnaz Sarabchian
: 10.9790/0837-1712229      logo

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the power of emotional intelligence (EI) and ambiguity tolerance in predicting EFL learners' language learning strategy (LLS)and probe any possible relationship among these variables. The participants of the study were 130 EFL students, between 18 -30 years old, majoring in English Translation and English Literature at Islamic Azad University at Central Tehran, Iran. The instruments utilized in this study were a) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) to assess the learners' strategy-use-frequency in language learning, b) Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) to measure learners' emotional intelligence, and c) Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (SLTAS) to identify participants' tolerance of ambiguity. The results of the study showed that regression model including EI predicted about 6.8 percent, and tolerance of ambiguity 3.2 percent of students' LLSs. Also, running Pearson correlation indicated a statistically significant relationship between learners' EI and LLSs and the components of both EI and SILL. In addition, Pearson correlation revealed statistically significant relationship between learners' tolerance of ambiguity and their overall LLSs use, and components of SILL.

Key words: language learning strategies, emotional intelligence, tolerance of ambiguity, EFL learners, effective learning

[1]. M.Zarafshan.andM.Ardeshiri, The relationship between Emotional Intelligence, language learning strategies and English proficiency among Iranian EFL university students. Journal of educational and instructional studies in the world, 2(3), 2012,105-114.
[2]. L.F. Bachman. and A.S. Palmer,Language testing in practice(New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
[3]. E.Bialystok.A,Theoretical model of second language learning.Language Learning, 28, 1978, 69-83.
[4]. M. Canale, andM. Swain, Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.Applied Linguistics, 1,1980, 10-47.
[5]. R. Ellis. Understanding second language acquisition(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).
[6]. P. Benson, and P.Voller,Autonomy and independence in language learning(London: Longman Group Ltd, 1997).
[7]. R.Oxford,Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know(New York: Newbury House Publishers, 1990).
[8]. S.Tabanlioğlu,The relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies of pre-Intermediate EAP students. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 2003.
[9]. A.Chamot, and L. Kupper, Learning strategies in foreign instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22,1989, 13-24.
[10]. A. D. Cohen,Languagelearning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers(Boston: Heinle and Heinle Publishers, 1990).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Translating Rebu in Karonese Society into English
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Milisi Sembiring
: 10.9790/0837-1713036      logo

Abstract: The aims of this study were to translate and to describe the themes, and specific culture-bound terms of rebu clauses in SL into the TL. The research was conducted using the qualitative method. The data obtained was analyzed by using interdiciplinary approach. The corpus for this study consists of three texts, the first text was the text of mukul which consisted of the beginning of rebu in Karonese society. The second text consisted of rebu in Karonese society. Thirdly was the text of participation observation. All 121 clauses were translated and examined in this study.The focuses of the analysis were the ideational theme and culture-bound terms of rebu texts in Karonese society . The results reveal both unmarked and marked themes in SL are higher than TL . Literal and semantic translations methods were applied to determine the direction of translating the whole texts. Translation procedures of descriptive equivalence, transference, paraphrase, transposition, omission, couplets , notes and cultural equivalence were applied to translate the rebu texts in Karonese society into English.

Key words: bound-culture terms, rebu, theme, translation strategies

[1] Tarigan, Henry. Guntur. Percikan Budaya Karo. Bandung: Yayasan Merga Silima, 1988.

[2] Yunus,.H.Ahmad., Maria, Siti., Pelawi, Kencana.S., and Gurning, Elizabeth T. Makna Pemakaian Rebu Dalam Kehidupan Kekerabatan Orang Batak Karo. Jakarta : Depdikbud Direktoral Jenderal Kebudayaan Direktoral Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, 1995.

[3] Singarimbun, Masri. Kindship, Descent and Alliance among Karo Batak. Berkeley : University of California Press, 1975

[4] Ginting, M.Ukur,. Adat Karo Sirulo. Tuntunan Praktis Adat Istiadat Karo Jilid I, Medan. 2005.

[5] Halliday, M.A.K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Third edition. London: Arnold, 2004. [6] Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. New York and London : Prentice- Hall, 1988. Web-site references
[7] strategies.html
[8] AIJMER, Brno Studies in English Volume 35, No. 2, 2009 ISSN 0524-6881 [91

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Women Development And Government Schemes With Special Reference To Ksy
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Tanusree Sarker
: 10.9790/0837-1713741      logo

Abstract: Women are the most vulnerable group in a major parts of India. India's North Eastern region is quite backward comparing to other parts of the country and the condition of women is also not so good. Adolescence is a stage when a girl sees a number of changes in her physical and mental health. In this stage she needs proper nutrition for her all round growth. But in our country specially in this part of the country the girls face lot of obstacles including mal nutrition due to which she lacks proper growth of her body and mind. The Government of India thus introduced a number of schemes for the welfare of the people and more specifically for the women and girls. But the schemes also do not reach to the appropriate group of people because of lack of awareness and corruption along with a number of other reasons. In this paper a modest attempt has been made to analyse the causes of poor performance of the Govt. schemes on the basis of available data collected from different sources and Govt. data and produces a comparative chart of the implementation of the Govt. schemes in the eight North Eastern states of India. The study has given special emphasis on KSY(Kishori Shakti Yojona), an important scheme for the development of adolescent girls and its implementation in different states of North East India.

Key Words: Adolescence, Govt. schemes, Human Development Index, KSY, Mal nutrition, UNDP

[[1]. Human Development Reports- United Nations Development Programme

[2]. "Women and Human Development"; Martha C. Nussbarm

[3]. "Women empowerment in Assam: A Human Development Approach"; Bidisha Mahanta.

[4]. "Human Development in North East India", Yojana, Dec. 2010; pp-30-34

[5]. Guidelines of KSY;

[6]. Department of Social welfare, Govt. of Assam

[7]. Ibid

[8]. Guidelines of KSY

[9]. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt. of India

[10]. Department of Social Welfare, Govt. of Assam

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Ori, Ritual and Yoruba Drama of Existence
Country : New Zealand
Authors : Lekan Balogun
: 10.9790/0837-1714247      logo

Abstract: By their nature, rituals cannot provide scientific link between cause and effect, yet for their functional value they produce results. The Yoruba understanding expressed through belief in Ori as a potent vehicle through which man confronts life draws attention to this reality. Drama has also functioned in underlining this fact. The paper engages this Yoruba ritual concept and makes a case for an authentic Yoruba (African) value by exploring this aspect of the people's ritual, through an exploration of Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman. By examining the character of Elesin Oba and his son, Olunde, showing how each comes to the understanding and the crucial perception of their individual Ori, and the exploration of their iwa, the paper shows the essential place of that aspect of the people's belief in their lives and worldview.

Keywords: archetypes, consciousness, cosmos, performative art, ritual.

[1] Caudillo, Elizabeth Diane. Prayers to the Yoruba: A Look at Santeria, Spring 1994, Fall 1995.

[2] Fatunmbi, Awo Falokun. Iba'Se Orisa: Ifa Proverbs, Folktales, Sacred History and Prayer. Bronx, New York: Original Publications,1994.

[3] Drewal, Henry John, Pemberton III, John and Abiodun, Rowland. Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Thought and Art. Wardwell, Allen &.New York: Centre for African Art, 1989.

[4] Olaniyan, Tejumola. Scars of Conquest/Masks of Resistance: The Invention of Cultural Identities in Africa, African-American and Caribbean Drama. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

[5] Nietzsche, Frederick. The Birth of Tragedy. New York: Doubleday,1950.

[6] Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress,1976.

[7] Soyinka,Wole. Death and the King's Horseman. London: Methuen, 1975.

[8] Soyinka, Wole "The Fourth Stage: Through the Mysteries of Ogun to the Origin of Yoruba Tragedy" Art, Dialogue and Outrage Ed. Jeyifo, Biodun. Ibadan: New Horns Press,1988.

[9] Maduakor, Obi. Wole Soyinka: An Introduction to His Writings. Garland Publishing Inc: New Yorkand London,1986.

[10] Macebuh, Stanley "Poetics and the Mythic Imagination" Critical Perspectives on Wole Soyinka Ed. James Gibbs. Washington, DC: Three Continents Press,1980.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Resource Use Efficiency of Input Factors with Reference to Farm Size in Paddy Cultivation in Nellore District
Country : India
Authors : Dr. E. Lokanadha Reddy, Dr. D. Radhakrishna Reddy
: 10.9790/0837-1714855      logo

Abstract: Crop-wise production function analysis will clearly indicate many points which are not evident in aggregate and size-wise models. But crop-wise analysis is a farm of aggregate model as the output of a crop coming from different size enterprises has been put together. Land is an important factor for production and its effect on technology must be fully emphasized. It is only an inter-size analysis of production function for a particular crop, which can do away the limitations of an aggregate crop model. Inter-size crop models would also indicate the relative superiority of different crops for different size-group of farms that it is helpful for crop-cum-size level planning. Hence the present study aims to analyse the resource use efficiency of input factors in different size-level farms cultivating staple crop-paddy based on entire sample of Farms in three revenue mandals of Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Data was collected for the variables with the help of survey method through personal interviews of the farmers selected through mixed sampling. By studying the Marginal Value Products of factors of production, we assessed the relative importance of factors of production.

Key Words: Resource use Efficiency, Marginal Value Product, Marginal Cost, regression Co-efficient Geometric Mean.

[1] Hanumantha Rao, C.H. (1965), "Agricultural Production Functions – Costs and Returns." India Asian Publishing House, Bombay.
[2] Mathur, S.C., and Balishter. (1973). Impact of HYVs of Crops on Farm Labour Use – A Case Study of Wheat and Paddy Cultivation in Barava Village in Agra District. Manpower Journal, Vol.8, No.4, January –March, pp.18-38.
[3] Venkatesam, P., Naidu, M.R., and Venkateswarlu, V. (1988). Resource Use Efficiency on Maize Farms in Karimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh. The Andhra Agricultural Journal, Vol33, No.2, pp.111-114.
[4] Bal, M.S. (1982). Factor Share in Farm Income Inequality in Punjab. Agricultural Situation in Indian, October, pp. 439-445.
[5] Sharma, H.R., and Sharma, R.K. (2000). Farm Size – Productivity Relationship: Empirical Evidence from on Agriculturally Developed Region of Himachal Pradesh, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.55, No.4, October-December, pp.605-615.
[6] Singh, L.R., and Pandey, L.R. (1971). Resource Use Efficiency in a Dry Farming Area of Banda District of Utter Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.22, No.4, October-December, pp.296-299.
[7] Rathore, M.S. (1984). Contribution of Factors to the Productivity Differential Between Small and Large Farms. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.39, No.1, January-March, pp.70-77.
[8] Ninan, K.N. (1984). Labour Use in Agriculture – Case Study of Topiaca and Paddy. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.19, No.51&52, December, pp.A-199-A-24.
[9] Chaudhari, T.P.S., et al. (1962). Optimum combination of comparative crops in the intensive cultivation scheme area Delhi. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.17, No.1.
[10] Reddy, A.R., and Sen, C. (2004). Technical Inefficiency in Rice Production and its relationship with Farm – Specific Socio-Economic Characteristics. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 59, No.2, April-June, pp.259-267.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Route of the Tunisian swimmer Oussama Mellouli : an entry by bricolage
Country : Tunisia
Authors : Abdelaziz Hentati, Imen Ben Amar
: 10.9790/0837-1715662      logo

Abstract: The objective of this article is to show the interest which the concept represents, celebrates since Lévi-Strauss, of bricolage, sociological paradigm which contains a demonstrative opportunity exploited here to analyze the course and success of swimming champion Oussama Mellouli. An interview is devoted to him because he is a special case of success, reflecting the scarcity of global sporting success of Tunisia. The interview is guided by a first dimension relative to the estimate of the importance of individual actions with respect to structures and a second that questions on the part of rational and the subjectivity in determining success. The results indicate a marked course of repeated arrangements, imagined according to the circumstances of the subject and its surroundings, in spite of their dependence structures. They also show the primacy of passion over reason. Interpretations suggest that the seclusion in a system of preparation of the elites preaching rationality any azimuth occults actually the possibility with other logics to be asserted, those in particular founded on a randomly more open dynamics, with uncertainty and sensitive to the complex thought.

Keywords: Course of life, high level sport, bricolage, rationality, passion.

[1]. ARDOINO, J. (1980). Education et relation. Introduction à une analyse plurielle des situations éducatives. Paris : Gauthier-Villars.
[2]. ARDOINO, J. (1988). Vers la multiréférentialité, Perspectives de l'analyse institutionnelle, (ouvrage coll.), Paris : Méridiens-Klinksieck.
[3]. ARDOINO, J. (1990). Les postures (ou impostures) respectives du chercheur, de l'expert et du consultant, in Les nouvelles formes de la recherche en éducation au regard d'une Europe en devenir, Actes du colloque international francophone de l'A. F. I. R. S. E. (Alençon), Matrice-ANDSHA. Paris, 22-34.
[4]. ARDOINO, J. (1999). (Entretien de) avec Fabien Ollier et Henri Vaugrand, Pour un pluriel d'hétérogénéité, X-Alta, « Multiculturalisme », 2/3, 63-76.
[5]. BALANDIER, G. (1988). Le désordre : éloge du mouvement, Paris : Fayard.
[6]. BOURDIEU, P. (1980). Le sens pratique, Paris, Edition de Minuit.
[7]. BROHM, J.-M. (2006). La tyrannie sportive. Théorie critique d'un opium du peuple, Beauchesne.
[8]. DEVEREUX, G. (1980). De l'angoisse à la méthode dans les sciences du comportement, Paris : Flammarion.
[9]. DURKHEIM, E. (1973). Les Règles de la méthode sociologique, Paris : PUF.
[10]. DUVUGNAUD, J. (1990). La genèse des passions dans la vie sociale, Paris : PUF, coll. "Sociologie d'aujourd'hui".

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Governance Practices and Performance of Collective Organizations: Evidence from Self-Help Organizations in Siaya County, Kenya
Country : Kenya
Authors : Mr. Maurice Oluoch Onyango, Dr. Samson W. Mwangi, Dr. Ng'etich Kibet
: 10.9790/0837-1716372      logo

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between governance practices and the performance of self-help help organizations in Siaya County, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional survey, which covered twenty seven help organizations, out of which 243 respondents were selected through stratified random sampling. Members of the self-help organizations were the primary respondents in the study. Data was collected by use of interview schedules and then analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. Pearson and Spearman Product Moment Correlations, and Chi-Square analysis were used to carry out further analysis of the data collected. General Systems theory and Collective Action theory were used to explain the operating environment of these groups, and why people join them respectively. There was a significant relationship between group size, size of groups' executive committees, election cycle, number of terms served by executive committees, incidences of disputes on the one hand and performance of self-help organizations in Siaya County of Kenya on the other hand. Understanding self-help organizations in terms of governance and performance is indeed significant at a time when communities through grassroots based organizations are increasingly being urged to take charge of their development needs. In terms of policy, this study recommends for the development of a national policy framework to regulate self-help organizations sector, and the establishment of financial and insurance institutions to handle financial and insurance needs of these organizations respectively.

Key Words: Governance, Performance, Practices, Self-help Organizations

[1] Oyugi, O. W. "Decentralized Development Planning and Management in Kenya: An Assessment." In Working with Rural Communities: A Participatory Action Research in Kenya: 27-45 ed. Chitere, O and Mutiso Roberta. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press. (1991).

[2] Masinde, M. R. J. "The Role of Women in Rural Development In Kenya" in Working with Rural Communities: A Participatory Action Research in Kenya: 27-45 ed. Chitere, O and Mutiso Roberta. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press(1991).

[3] Government of Kenya. The population Census Report. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 1999).

[4] ______________________ Geographic Dimensions Of Well-being: Who and Where are the Poor? Constituency Level Profile. Vol. II. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 2005).

[5] _____________________ Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2000- 20004. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 2000).

[6] ______________________ Siaya District Development Plan. 1994- 1994. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 1994).

[7] _____________________ Siaya district Development Plan. 2002- 2008. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 2002).

[8] _______________________ Siaya District Development Plan. 2008- 2012. (Nairobi: Government Printers. 2008).

[9] ______________________ Geographic Dimensions Of Well-being: Who and Where are the Poor? Constituency Level Profile. Vol. II. (Nairobi: Government Printers 2008).

[10] Babbie, E. The Practice of Social Research. (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1986).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Application of knowledge management as a Human Resource (HR) strategy tool in Zimbabwean Universities.
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Nyamubarwa, Willard
: 10.9790/0837-1717379      logo

Abstract: The study aimed to explore the extent to which knowledge management activities are being applied in Human Resource (HR) functions and practices in Zimbabwean Universities. The research was premised on the Nonaka's Knowledge Creation Process Model. The study employed a descriptive survey design within the qualitative research paradigm to solicit for the research data. Purposive sampling was used to select the study respondents from 6 of the 10 universities in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that HR departments in Zimbabwean universities are using knowledge management as a strategy albeit to a limited extent in the areas of recruitment and selection, training, and to a certain extent in rewards management. HR departments are also facilitating the creation of "communities of practice" which are considered important in knowledge management activities. The HR departments were however found wanting in the promotion of externalisation, combination and internalisation as well as the creation of an appropriate communication, structural and cultural environment (Ba). It was recommended that the HR departments should introduce knowledge sharing as an attribute in their recruitment and selection policies, promote the establishment of a knowledge sharing culture, incorporate knowledge management practices in their training policies as well as use knowledge management as a metric in performance evaluation.

Keywords: academia, human resource, knowledge, strategy, Zimbabwe

[1]. Armstrong, M., 2003. A handbook of human resource management practice 9th ed. London: Kogan Page
[2]. Beardwell, I. & Holden, L. 2001 Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall: London
[3]. Bock, G. & Kim, Y. 2000 Breaking the myths of rewards: An exploratory study of attitudes about knowledge sharing, Information Resources Management Journal, Vol. 15, no.2, pp.14-21. Available [Accessed 23 August2009]
[4]. Boghoff, U.M. 2008 Information technology for knowledge management. Meylan: Rank Xerox Research Centre. Available from [Accessed 23 August2009]
[5]. Carter, Chris & Scarborough, Harry, 2001 Towards a second generation of KM? The people management challenge. Education & Training. 43 (4/5), Available from: [Accessed 20 August 2009]
[6]. Gloet, M. 2003. Knowledge management and the links to HRM. Management Research News, 29 (7), Available from [Accessed 2 September 2009]
[7]. Hislop, D. 2003 Linking human resource management & knowledge management via commitment: A review & research agenda. Employee relations, 25 (2), Available from [Accessed 4 September 2009]
[8]. Leopold, M Harrison, P. and Watson, L. 2005 Strategic Human resource management. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall
[9]. Lengnick-Hall, M.L. & Lengnick-Hall, C.A. 2003 Human resource management in the knowledge economy. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler
[10]. Lengnick-Hall, M.L. & Lengnick-Hall, C.A. 2005 HR

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Influence of Personality and Age on Attitude Towards Crime among Adolescents
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Tobias C. Obi, Dr. Barnabas E. Nwankwo, Solomon A. Agu, Dr. James U. Aboh, Dr Ngozi Sydney-Agbor
: 10.9790/0837-1718086      logo

Abstract: This study investigated the influence of personality and age on attitude towards crime among adolescents. A total number of 176 participants comprising of 110 males (of different classes) and 66 females (of different classes) were selected from Command Secondary School Jos, Nigeria. They were between the ages of 12 and 20 (with the mean age of 15years). Two set of instruments were used, (Big Five Inventory (John et. al., 1991) and Attitude towards crime scale).Cross Sectional Survey research design was adopted while multiple linear Regression was applied as a statistical test to analyze the data. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested, one on personality and the other on age. The hypotheses on personality was further divided into five sub-hypotheses to explain the dimensions of the personality characteristics, the results were as follows; extroversion, (β=.21, p<.01), agreeableness, (β=.27, p<.05) conscientiousness, (β=.27, p<.05), neuroticism (β=-.01, p>.05), openness (β=.19, p>.05). The first 3 personality characteristics were significant predictors of attitude towards crime while the other two were not. The second null hypothesis on age was not rejected (β=-.13, p>.05) the implications of the findings were reviewed and suggestion for further studies were made.

Keywords: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, age, attitude towards to crime

[1]. Adegoke, A.A. (1990). A comparative study of prisoners and non- prisoners on three personality dimensions. Journal of Research Counsel Psychology., 2(1): 46-51.
[2]. Agnew, R.(1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and deliquency. Criminology, 30, 47-87.
[3]. Allport, G. (1973). Attitudes. In C.A Murchinson (ed), a handbook of social psychology mass: Clerk University Press.
[4]. Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, N. E. (1982).Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 5-21
[5]. Berndt, T.J. (1996). Exploring the effects of friendship quality on social development. In W.M. Bukowski, A.F. Newcomb, & W.W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 346–365). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
[6]. Caspi, A., Moffits, T.E., & Silva, P. A.(1995).Temperamental qualities at age three Predicts personality traits in young adulthood; Longitudinal evidence from a Birth control. Child Development, 66,484-498.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Indigenous People and the International Discourse: Issues and Debates
Country : India
Authors : Arunima Deka
: 10.9790/0837-1718799      logo

Abstract: The question of tribal identity is not new either to international concern or internal contentions of any state but the theme needs to be revisited because of the mounting international pressure in many parts of the world for their dignified rights. The focus is on how global interconnectedness has influenced their lives today and impacted the very discourse of tribal rights. There are two very important reasons why this problem requires serious attention. Firstly, since we are close to the end of the Second Decade for the Rights of the Indigenous People, what implications the two decades of international attention impacted on the existence of the indigenous people. And secondly, with the recent upsurge of violence in Kokrajhar and other disturbed areas of Assam, what future does this issue holds. This paper attempts to trace the growth of the international concern for indigenous people, moving to a crucial issue of defining the very idea of 'indigenous'. The next section takes up three key issues of self determination, land rights and community and its space in international discourse and finally moving on to the concluding remarks.

Key words: indigenous people, rights, identity.

[1]. Arnab Sen & Esther Lalhrietpui: "Scheduled Tribes (Recognition of Forest Rights) Bill A View from Anthropology and Call for Dialogue‟, Economic and Political Weekly, September 30, 2006, pp 4205-4210.
[2]. B K Roy Burman: "Indigenous People and their Quest for Justice,In Buddhadeb Chaudhuri (ed): Tribal Transformation In India- Ethnopolitics and Identity Crises, Vol III, Inter India Publication, New Delhi, 1992.
[3]. -----------: "Tribal Development in World System Perspective‟, In Amar Kumar Singh & M C Jabbi (eds): Tribals in India. Har-Anand Publications, New Delhi, 1995.
[4]. Benedict Kingsbury: "Indigenous Peoples in International Law: A Constructivist Approach to the Asian Controversy‟, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 92, No. 3. (Jul., 1998), pp. 414-457.
[5]. Benedict Kingsbury: "The Applicability of the International Legal Concept of "Indigenous Peoples" in Asia‟, pp 344-345 In Joanne R. Bauer and Daniel A. Bell (eds): The East Asian Challenge for Human Right, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 1999.
[6]. Bhikhu Parekh: "Marx and the Theory of Rights‟ pp 11 In Upendra Baxi, Geeti Sen & Jeanette Fernandes(eds): The Right to be Human, Lancer International, New Delhi, 1987.
[7]. Caroline E Foster: "Articulating Self determination in the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples‟, European Journal of International Law (2001)Vol 12 No.1.
[8]. Cindy Holder: "Self-determination as a basic Human Right‟, In Avigail Eisenberg & Jeff Spinner-Halev (2005): Minorities within Minorities- Equality Rights and Diversity. Cambridge University Press, UK.
[9]. David Miller: Citizenship and National Identity, Polity Press, UK, 2000.
[10]. Douglas Sanders: "Indigenous Peoples on the International Stage‟, In Walter Fernandes(ed): The Indigenous Question: Search for an Identity, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi 1993.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Language Learners' Internal Factors and Practical Applications: A Case of Vocabulary Learning Strategies
Country : Iran
Authors : Mania Nosratinia, Nazanin Shakoori Divani, Alireza Zaker
: 10.9790/0837-171100115      logo

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' Autonomy (AU), Critical Thinking (CT), Personality Type (PT), and use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS). To fulfill this objective, 140 randomly selectedEFLlearners were asked to fill out four pertinent questionnaires.After performing preliminary analyses to check the assumptions of linear correlation, the data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient the results of which revealed the existence of a statistically significant relationship betweenAU and CT,AU and overall use of VLS, among the components of VLS and AU,CTand overall use ofVLS, and among the components of VLS and CT. However, no significant relationship was observedbetween PTand other variables of concern.

Keywords: Autonomy, critical thinking, individual differences, personality type, vocabulary learning strategies

[1]. Astleitner, H. (2002). Teaching critical thinking online. Journal of instructional psychology, 29(2), 53-77.
[2]. Bahri, H. (2003). The relationship between teaching styles and personality type of the Iranian EFL teachers(Unpublished master's thesis).TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran.
[3]. Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning. London: Longman.
[4]. Benson, P. (2003). Learner autonomy in the classroom.In D. Nunan(Ed.),Practical English Language Teaching (pp. 289-308). New York: McGraw Hill.
[5]. Carrell, M. R., Elbert, N.F., Hatfield, R.D., Grobler, P.A., Marx, M., & van der Schyf, S. (1996).Psychometric testing and assessment techniques.E-Journal.Retrieved April 11, 2013, from:
[6]. Catalan, R. (2003). Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), 54-77.
[7]. Connolly, M. (2000). What we think we know about critical thinking. CELE Journal, 8, Retrieved April 20, 2003, from Connolly_Critical-Thinking.htm
[8]. Cook, V. (2001). Second language learning and leaching (3rded.). London: Arnold.
[9]. Cotteral, S (1995).Developing a course strategy for learner autonomy.ELT Journal, Vol. 49/3, 1995.
[10]. Dam, L. (1995). Learner Autonomy 3: From Theory to Classroom Practice. Dublin: Authentik.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An analysis of the Human Resource practices in the mining industry in Zimbabwe's Midlands Province: A relook at the Resource Based View of managing Human Resources.
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Willard Nyamubarwa, Honest Mupani, Clifford Chiduuro
: 10.9790/0837-171116123      logo

Abstract: The mining industry across the globe has always made use of large stocks of labourto achieveorganizational objectives. It is against this background that the study was conducted to determine the HR practices currently being implemented in the mining sector in Zimbabwe. The Results Based View approach to the strategic leadership of organisations was adopted to act as a benchmark against which the current HR practices can be compared with. The research data was gathered through a non-random, convenient sample of HR managers from 8 mining entities in the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. Convenience sampling was necessitated by the limited finances and time at the disposal of the researcher. However, the relatively large size of the sample would ensure a high degree of generalisability of findings for the mining industry in the Midlands Province in Zimbabwe. The findings of the study revealed that in the mining industry in Zimbabwe, employees are treated as valuable, rare and inimitable resource which they deploy in various ways to achieve organisational objectives. As such the mining companies have come up with innovative methods of managing their human resources which includes providing job security, competitive rewards, and social welfare services amongst other methods. These findings confirm that HR departments in the mining industry in Zimbabwe's Midlands Province are practising the RBV approach to the management of human resources in their organisations and by so doing manage to resource their mining entities efficiently and effectively.

Keywords: Human, Mining,Practices, Resource, Zimbabwe

[1]. Armstrong, M., 2005. Strategic human resource management : a guide to action. 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page.
[2]. Armstrong, M., 2006. Human Resources Management. London: Kogan Page.
[3]. Armstrong, R. & Sweeney, J., 1994. Industry type, culture, mode of entry and perceptions of international marketings ethics problems: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of business ethics, Volume 13, pp. 775-785.
[4]. Arthur, J., 1994. Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Perfomamnce and Turnover. Academy of Management Journal, Volume 37, pp. 670-87.
[5]. Barney, J., 1991. Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), pp. 99-120.
[6]. Boxall, P. F., 1996. The Strategic HRM debate and the resource-based view of the firm.. Human Resource Management Journal, 6(3), p. 59–75.
[7]. Bratton, J. & Gold, J., 2003. Human Resource Management. Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan..
[8]. Brewster, C., 2004. European perspectives on human resource management. Human Resource Review, 14(4), pp. 365-382.
[9]. Chikoko, L. & Samu, A., 2009. Zimbabwe industrial equity index determinants in the multiple currency regime of 2009. The Dyke: Journal of Midlands State University, 6(3), pp. 1-15.
[10]. Chow, I., 1998. The impact of workforce flexibility in Hong Kong. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(3), pp. 494-505.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : WhenCorruption Is Officially Institutionalized: Revision of the Politics, the Society, and the Culture of the sub-Saharan Africa: A Post-Colonial Reading.
Country : Sweden
Authors : Akm Aminur Rashid
: 10.9790/0837-171124130      logo

Abstract: This paper thinks a standard political analysis, Africa Works by Patrick Chabal and Jean-Pascal Daloz in whichthe social, the political, the economic, and the cultural factors in sub-Saharan Africa are described as being upside down. The discussion brings out Africa's typical politics of irrational practice of witchcraft and religion, unbelievable misdistribution of money; misuse of power; and the instrumentalization of disorder. The argument the book undergoes is to help reveal the fact that the African politics is informal and personalized. It confirms the illegitimate tie between patron and client that invites corruption and war in the societies; and ultimately creates the productivity of economic failure. The corrupt leaders and the clientelistic constituency are the cores of the management of patrimonial and the particularistic nature of politics. Chabal and Daloz divide the book into four chapters; and each has the information of how Africa is going backward; at the same time has reformation of institutionalizing the whole continent's politics properly. Both authors consider the African states are colonial; arbitrary as well as poorly bureaucratized that these states durably fail to meet the democratized notion of the western political modernization. The authors end discussion holding Africa's political infrastructure accountable for legitimating criminalization in the societies.

Keyword: Corruption, Criminalization,disorder,Patrimonial politics, war.

[1]. Africa Works: Disorder As Political Instrument. by Patrick Chabal; Jean-Pascal Daloz
[2]. Review by: Gwyn Prins
[3]. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) , Vol. 75, No. 2 (Apr., 1999), pp. 440-441
[4]. Published by: Wiley on behalf of the Royal Institute of International Affairs
[5]. Article Stable URL: