IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 8 - Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review of Various Aspects of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) Technology
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Hussain Saleem, M. Zamin Ali Khan, Shiraz Afzal
: 10.9790/0661/0810106       logo
Abstract:Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is essentially a wireless method of identification of physically placed objects in a certain state space. It is the most emerging technology these days which is becoming the alternate for barcode. Hence this technology is receiving lot of attention comparatively over past few years. RFID technology is used to automatically identify any item or a package. Automatic identification can be done with the help of RFID Tags and RFID Reader units. An RFID tag contains the transponder that can transmit wireless information over short distance. This information is then received by the device called RFID Reader and further processed through middleware infrastructure. Billions of RFID tags are successfully installed worldwide. Tons of RFID Applications are being developed in the various fields like Healthcare, Engineering, Agri-food, Live-stocks etc. for traceability purpose. Familiarization with the benefit and the risk of RFID is important before using this technology. The shadow of this technology has made a huge impact on our daily lives. This text gives the brief review of RFID Technology with discussion on frequency ranges, standards, and applications with emerging innovations.
Keywords: RFID, Smart Tags, RFID Reader, Transponder, Antenna, Middleware, Traceability.

[1] A Soppera & T Burbridge, "Wireless Identification — Privacy and Security", BT Technology Journal, Vol.23, No.4, pp.54 -64,
(2005).
[2] Bitkom, "RFID: Technology, Systems and Applications", RFID Journal, Whitepaper, http://www.rfidjournal.com, (2005).
[3] Cardullo MW & William LP, "Transponder Apparatus and System", US 3713148, (Published May 21, 1970, Issued Jan 23, 1973).
[4] ISECOM, "Hacking Exposed Linux: Linux Security Secrets & Solutions", (3/ed.), p.298, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, (2008).
[5] Juels A., Molnar D., Wagner D., "Security and Privacy Issues in E-passports", SecureComm 2005, 1st Intl. Conf. on Security &
Privacy for Emerging Areas in Communications Networks, pp.74-88, (2005).
[6] Lahiri S., "RFID System", RFID Sourcebook, p.9, (2006).
[7] O'Connor, Mary Catherine, RFID Journal LLC, http://www.rfidjournal.com, (Published: March 18, 2009).
[8] Radiant Waves: Total RFID Solutions, Web: http://www.radiantwave.com/rfid_how.htm, (Accessed on: 30-09-2012).
[9] Sen D, Sen P & Das AM, "RFID for Energy and Utility Industries", PennWell, pp.1-48, (2009).
[10] Southall M, Javick P, Lichtenberg J, & Cusack BA, "Radio Frequency Identification: Transforming the Dynamics of Supply and
Demand in Publishing", Publishing Research Quarterly, Vol.26, No.1, pp.1-10, (2010).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Recognition of Static Hand Gestures of Alphabet in Bangla Sign Language
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Atiqur Rahman, Dr. Ahsan-Ul-Ambia, Md. Ibrahim Abdullah & Sujit
Kumar Mondal
: 10.9790/0661/0810713       logo
Abstract:This paper presents a system for recognizing static hand gestures of alphabet in Bangla Sign Language (BSL). A BSL finger spelling and an alphabet gesture recognition system was designed with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and constructed in order to translate the BSL alphabet into the corresponding printed Bangla letters. The proposed ANN is trained with features of sign alphabet using feed-forward backpropagation learning algorithm. Logarithmic sigmoid (logsig) function is chosen as transfer function. This ANN model demonstrated a good recognition performance with the mean square error values in this training function. This recognition system does not use any gloves or visual marking systems. This system only requires the images of the bare hand for the recognition. The Simulation results show that this system is able to recognize 36 selected letters of BSL alphabet with an average accuracy of 80.902%.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Back-propagation Neural Network, Bangla Sign Language, Gestures Recognition, Sign language Recognition.

[1] Stephan Liwicki, Mark Everingham, "Automatic Recognition of Finger spelled Words in British Sign Language," in Proc. IEEE
Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, pp. 50-57, Miami, FL, USA, June, 2009.
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Factors and Computing Systems, pp. 237-242,1991.
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vector quantizer," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, U.S.A., 1996.
[6] S. Begum, M. Hasanuzzaman, "Computer Vision-based Bangladeshi Sign Language Recognition System" The 12th International
Conference of Computers and Information Technology (ICCIT) '09, Bangladesh.
[7] H. Zabiri, N. Mazuki, "A Black-Box Approach in Modeling Valve Stiction," International Journal of Mathematical, Physical and
Engineering Sciences 4:1 2010, 2010.
[8] Principe, J., "Neural Networks and Adaptive Systems", John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1999.
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Network: A Case Study of an Engineering Course," The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud Computing: Overview & CurrentResearch Challenges
Country : India
Authors : Mohsin Nazir
: 10.9790/0661/0811422       logo
Abstract:Cloud computing is a set of IT services that are provided to a customer over a network on a leased basis and with the ability to scale up or down their service requirements. Usually Cloud Computing services are delivered by a third party provider who owns the infrastructure.Cloud Computing holds the potential to eliminate the requirements for setting up of high-cost computing infrastructure for IT-based solutions and services that theindustry uses. It promises to provide a flexible IT architecture, accessible through internet from lightweight portable devices.This would allow multi-fold increase in the capacity and capabilities of the existing and new software.This new economic model for computing has found fertile ground and is attracting massive global investment. Many industries, such as banking, healthcare and education are moving towards the cloud due to the efficiency of services provided by the pay-per-use pattern based on the resources such as processing power used, transactions carried out, bandwidth consumed, data transferred, or storage space occupied etc.In a cloud computing environment, the entire data resides over a set of networked resources, enabling the data to be accessed through virtual machines.
Keywords: Cloud Architecture, Cloud Computing, Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS),Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC).

[1] A Platform Computing Whitepaper. ―Enterprise Cloud Computing: Transforming IT.‖ Platform Computing, pp6, 2010.
[2] B.P. Rimal, Choi Eunmi, I. Lumb, ―A Taxonomy and Survey of Cloud Computing Systems‖, Intl. Joint Conference on INC, IMS
and IDC, 2009, pp. 44-51,Seoul, Aug, 2009. DOI: 10.1109/NCM.2009.218
[3] B. R. Kandukuri, R. Paturi V, A. Rakshit, ―Cloud Security Issues‖, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Services
Computing, pp. 517-520, 2009.
[4] Cloud Computing. Wikipdia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing
[5] Cong Wang, Qian Wang, KuiRen, and Wenjing Lou, ―Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing,‖ 17th International
workshop on Quality of Service, USA, pp.1-9, July 13-15, 2009, ISBN: 978-1-4244-3875-4
[6] C. Weinhardt, A. Anandasivam, B. Blau, and J. Stosser.―Business Models in the Service World.‖IT Professional, vol. 11, pp. 28-33, 2009.
[7] Daniel Oliveira and Eduardo Ogasawara. Article: Is Cloud Computing the Solution for Brazilian Researchers?. International Journal
of Computer Applications 6(8):19–23, September 2010.
[8] D. Oliveira, F. Baião, and M. Mattoso, 2010, "Towards Taxonomy for Cloud Computing from an e-Science Perspective", Cloud
Computing: Principles, Systems and Applications (to be published), Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
[9] Dr. Gurdev Singh, ShanuSood, Amit Sharma, ―CM- Measurement Facets for Cloud Performance‖, IJCA, , Lecturer, Computer
science & Engineering, Eternal University, Baru Sahib (India), Volume 23 No.3, June 2011.
[10] Ertaul, L. and Singhal, S. 2009. Security Challenges in Cloud Computing. California State University, East Bay. Academic paper
http://www.mcs.csueastbay.edu/~lertaul/Cloud%20Security%20CamREADY.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of various Election algorithms on the basis of messagepassing approach
Country : India
Authors : Pooja B. Raval, Sanjay M. Shah
: 10.9790/0661/0812327       logo
Abstract:An important challenge in distributed systems is the adoption of suitable and efficient algorithms for coordination selection. The leader election is important problem in distributed system as data is distributed among different node which is geographically separate. For maintaining co-ordination between the node, leader node have to be selected. The main role of an elected coordinator is to manage the use of shared resources in optimal manner. This paper represents the different election algorithms with their limitations as well comparative analysis of them, efficiency in terms of number of messages exchanged in each case and the complexity of various coordinator selection algorithms in distributed systems.
Keywords: Distributed system, Election, Coordinator, Priority.

[1] Sinha P.K, Distributed Operating Systems Concepts and Design, Prentice-Hall of India private Limited, 2008.

[2] Tanenbaum A.S Distributed Operating System, Pearson Education, 2007.

[3] Heta Jasmin Javeri, Sanjay Shah ―"A Comparative Analysis of Election Algorithm in Distributed System‖ IP multimedia communication", a special issue from IJCA

[4] Sachi Choudhary, Dipesh Sharma―"A Comparative Analysis in Terms of Message Passing & Complexity of Different Coordinator Selection Algorithms in Distributed System", a special issue from IJARCET, Volume 1, Issue 7, September 2012

[5] Deepali P. Gawali―"Leader Election Problem in Distributed Algorithm", a special issue from IJCST Vol. 3, Issue 1, Jan. - March 2012

[6] Muhammad Mahbubur Rahman, Afroza Nahar―"Modified Bully Algorithm using Election Commission"

[7] H.Garcia Molina "Election in a distributed Computing System". IEEE Trans. Comp, 1982, vol31, no. 1, pp. 48 -59. 1982


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Boundary Exposure Using Intensity and Texture Gradient Features
Country : India
Authors : Ms.S.Veeralakshmi, Mrs.S.Vanitha Sivagami, Ms.V.Vimala Devi, Ms.R.Udhaya
: 10.9790/0661/0812833       logo
Abstract:Images are used in many fields, including surveillance, medical diagnostics and non-destructive testing. Edge detection and boundary detection plays a fundamental role in image analysis and computer vision. A boundary map of image can provide valuable information for further image analysis and interpretation tasks such as segmentation, object description etc. Boundaries are mainly used to detect the outline or shape of an object. Image segmentation is used to locate objects and boundaries in images and it assigns a label in every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same level share have certain virtual characteristics. The paper proposed an edge detection technique for detecting the correct boundary of objects in an image. It can detect the boundaries of object using the information from intensity gradient using the vector image model and texture gradient using the edge map model. The proposed method for edge following technique is efficient and it is applicable on various kinds of medical images such as ultrasound images, magnetic resonance (MR) images, and computerized tomography images..
Index Terms: Vector image model, Edge mapping model, Edge detection technique, Boundary detection

[1] Krit Somkantha, Nipon Theera-Umpon, and Sansanee "Boundary Detection in Medical Images Using Edge Following Algorithm Based on Intensity Gradient and Texture Gradient Features", IEEE Transaction On Biomedical Engineering . Vol. 58, No. 3, March 2011.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Ashima Batra, Abhishek Shukla, Sanjeev Thakur, Rana Majumdar
: 10.9790/0661/0813440       logo
Abstract:In this paper we represent a survey of various existing secure routing protocols for MANET's. A mobile ad hoc network is a self configuring mobile nodes network. Significant progress has been made for making mobile ad hoc network secure and dynamic. Its infrastructure less and absence of any centralized authority makes these networks more vulnerable to security attacks. Due to these security threats, there is need for development of algorithm and protocols for a secured ad hoc network. In this paper a comparative study of different routing protocols is discussed as Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) security threats within MANET network.
Keywords: MANET‟s; Denial of Services; DSR; AODV; TORA

[1] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz. Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. Technical report, Carnegie Mellon
University, 1996.
[2] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, and rykDutkiewicz. A review of routingprotocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Technical
report, Telecommunication and Information Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522; Motorola
Australia Research Centre, 12 Lord St., Botany, NSW 2525, Australia,2003.
[3] Xiaoyan Hong, Kaixin Xu, and Mario Gerla. Scalable routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. 2002.
[4] Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer, Samir R. Das. Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing. Technical
report, Nokia Research Center; University of California, Santa Barbara; University of Cincinnati, November 2001. draft -ieftaodv-
09.txt - work in progress.
[5] David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu, David A. Maltz, Jorjeta G. Jetcheva. The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks (DSR).
[6] Shuyao Yu, Youkun Zhang, Chuck Song, and Kai Chen. A security architecture for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.
[7] S R Chaudhary, A Al Khwildi, Y Casey, H Aldelou, H S Al Raweshidy. A Performance Comparison of Multi On-Demand Routing
in Wireless AdHocNetworks.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Embedded Extended Visual Cryptography Scheme
Country : India
Authors : Jerripothula Sandeep, Abdul Majeed
: 10.9790/0661/0814147       logo
Abstract:Visual Cryptography facilitates hiding a secret image into n number of shares distributed to n number of participants. This kind of scheme is very useful as the participants in such security systems need not know the cryptographic knowledge in order to recover the secret image from the shares. This phenomenon is known as VCS (Visual Cryptography Scheme). An extended VCS is the one which is capable of generating meaningful shares when compared with the shares of the VCS. This paper proposes construction of EVCS by embedding the random shares (result of VCS) into covering images. The empirical results revealed that the proposed EVCS is more secure and flexible than the EVCSs found in literature.
Index Terms: VCS, random shares, covering shares, secret sharing.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Two Stage Algorithm for Denoising of Speech Signal
Country : India
Authors : Shajeesh. K. U., Sachin Kumar. S., K. P. Soman.
: 10.9790/0661/0814853       logo
Abstract:Spectral Subtraction based speech denoising suffers the major problem of introduction of new type of noise called musical noise. In this paper we introduce a two stage algorithm for denoising of noisy speech signal by minimizing the musical noise and additive white Gaussian noise. The algorithm works in two stages. First spectral subtraction method is applied on the noisy speech signal after applying pre-emphasis filter. Since the speech is highly corrupted by white Gaussian noise (3 dB SNR), the method introduces a musical noise. The enhanced speech is the processed using Savitzky–Golay smoothing filter to reduce the musical noise. The various objective as well as subjective measures are evaluated for the two stage method and compared against the individual methods. The two stage algorithm produces enhanced speech signal having high perceptual quality and intelligibility..
Keywords: Speech Enhancement, Spectral Subtraction, Savitzky Golay Filter, Quality Evaluation Metric, Speech Denoising.

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International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 57, No.21, November 2012.