IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 6 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Multi Wavelet for Image Retrival Based On Using Texture and Color Querys
Country : India
Authors : K. Joseph Bhushanam, P. Darwin
: 10.9790/0661-0661013     logo

Abstract:Efficient, texture representation is important, in search and retrieval of similar texture patterns from a large image database. There has been research on texture feature extraction by finding the Spatial/frequency distribution of the patterns with tools like the Gabor filters, Pyramid-structured wavelet transform, and Multi wavelet transform. In this paper, content based image retrieval method is used, to retrieve the images from the database according to their similarity to the Query image. The aim of this project is to retrieve the images using multi wavelet. Firstly, we calculate the multi wavelet of all images in database.secondly, to calculate the energy and then distance between query and database images.
Keywords - Retrieving Images, CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval) system, distance and energy

[1] J Eakins, M E Graham, Content-based Image Retrieval, A report to the JISC Technology Applications Programme, 1999.
[2] Thomas S. Huang, Yong Rui, and Shinh-Fu Chang, Image retrieval: Past, Present and Future, International Symposium on
Multimedia Information Processing, 1997.
[3] M. Myron Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, J. Hafner, D. Lee, D.Petkovic, D.Steele
and P.Yanker, "Query by image content: The QBIC system", In IEEE Computer, pp. 23 -31, Sept.1995
[4] Patrick M. Kelly, Michael Cannon and Donald R. Hush, Query by Image Example: The CANDID approach. In Storage and
Retrieval for Image and Video Databases III, volume 2420, pp 238-248, SPIE, 1995
[5] Chad Carson, Serge Belongie, Hayit Greenspan, Jitendra Malik, Blobworld: Image segmentation using Expectation-Maximization
and its application to image querying, Third International Conference on Visual Information Systems, 1999
[6] M. Das, E. M. Riseman, and B. A. Draper. Focus: Searching for multi-colored objects in a diverse image database, In IEEE
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp 756-761, Jun 1997


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Portfolio Cost Management in Offshore Software Development Outsourcing Relationships from Vendor's Perspective: a Systematic Literature Review Protocol
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Salman Akbar, Siffat Ullah Khan, Asad Ullah Alam, Shahab Uddin Alam
: 10.9790/0661-0661420     logo

Abstract: CONTEXT- Offshore software development outsourcing (OSDO) is an important paradigm of global software development. OSDO is a famous business strategy adopted by many organizations in developed countries by outsourcing their software development work to low-wages countries. OSDO offers many benefits to clients organization including high quality software products, authorized and skilled human resources at economical cost. However outsourcing is not a risk free business. Vendor organizations need to address a
number of factors for successful outcomes of the outsourcing relationships. Likewise portfolio cost management (PCM) plays an important role in OSDO relationships............

Keywords: Systematic Literature Review; Portfolio Cost Management; Software Development Outsourcing; Client-Vendor Relationships.

[1] M. Miozzo and D. Grimshaw, "Modularity and innovation in knowledge-intensive business services: IT outsourcing in Germany
and the UK," Research Policy, vol. 34 (2005), pp. 1419–1439, 2005.
[2] S. Khan, M. Niazi, and R. Ahmad, "Factors influencing clients in the selection of offshore software outsourcing vendors: an
exploratory study using a systematic literature review," Journal of systems and software, vol. 84(4), pp. 686-699, 2011.
[3] S. Khan, M. Niazi, and R. Ahmad, "Critical Success Factors for Offshore Software Development Outsourcing Vendors: A
Systematic Literature Review," presented at The 4th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, Ir eland,
2009.
[4] M. D. Minevich and F. Richter, "Global outsourcing report," CIO Insight, pp. 1-48, 2005.
[5] S. Betz and A. Oberweis, "Knowledge Transfer in IT Offshore Outsourcing Projects: An Analysis of the Current Stat e and
Best Practices," International Conference on Global Software Engineering, vol. .45, pp. 978-0-7695-4122-8/10, 2010.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : DTADA: Distributed Trusted Agent Based Detection Approach For Doline And Sensor Cloning Attacks In Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : K.Arunasri, Mrs. K. Srimathi
: 10.9790/0661-0662126     logo

Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) have diverse field of application, but it is extremely much prone to the security threats. This paper proposes a lightweight, fast, efficient and mobile agent technology based security solution against cloning attack and doline attack for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSN has a dynamic topology, irregular connectivity, and resource constrained device nodes. Researchers over the past years have confident the use of mobile agent to overcome these challenges. The proposed scheme is to defend next to cloning attack and doline attacks using mobile agents. Mobile agent is a program section which is selfcontrolling. They navigate from node to node not only transmitting data but also doing computation..............

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Clone Attack, Doline attack, DTADA, DTADA4SCA, DTADA4DA

[1] I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, ―Wireless sensor networks: a survey,‖ Computer Networks, vol. 38,
2002.
[2] H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song, ―Random key redistribution schemes for sensor networks,‖ in Proceedings of the 2003Symposium on Security and Privacy. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, May 11–142003, pp. 197–215.
[3] J. Newsome, E. Shi, D. Song, and A. Perrig, ―The sybil attack in sensor networks: analysis & defenses,‖ in Proceedings of the third international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks (IPSN-04).New York: ACM Press, Apr. 26–27 2004,
pp.259–268.
[4] Zhang Yuyong, Jingde. Mobile Agent Technology. Beijing, Tsinghua University Press, 2003.
[5] Zhu Miaoliang, Qiuyu. Mobile Agent System. Journal of Computer Research and Development, 2001, 38(1): 16-25.
[6] G. Sladic , M. Vidakovic and Z. Konjovic Agent based system for network availability and vulnerability monitoring 2011 IEEE
9thInternational Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Informatics •September 8 -10, 2011, Subotica, Serbia.
[7] L. Tong, Q. Zhao, S. Adireddy. Sensor Networks with Mobile Agents. IEEE Military Communications Conference, Boston, MA,
USA,2003:688-693.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey on Network Layer Multicast Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Seetha.R, Dr.R.Saravanan
: 10.9790/0661-0662735     logo

Abstract: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) comprises set of mobile nodes which forms different networking infrastructure in ad hoc manner. Multicasting a group oriented communication approach plays a vital role in this mobile infrastructure less networks as it finds applications in major fields such as military warfare, emergency situations, Conventions etc. This paper surveys and discusses considerable number of multicast routing protocols of network layers as there exists several interesting tasks from formation of multicast session, cooperation of nodes to ending of multicast session, along with its advantages and disadvantages. It also provides various issues and challenges to be considered for designing such protocols for its use in MANET.

Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Multicast Routing Protocol, Tree based, Mesh based, Network layer, Source initiated, Receiver initiated.

[1] IETF MANETWorking Group, http://www.ietf.org.
[2] C.-K. Toh, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 2002.
[3] C. Perkins, Ad-Hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA, 2000.
[4] C.-C. Chiang, M. Gerla, and L. Zhang, "Adaptive shared tree multicast in mobile wireless networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE
Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '98), vol. 3, pp. 1817–1822, 1998.
[5] C.-C. Shen and C. Jaikaeo, "Ad hoc multicast routing algorithm with swarm intelligence," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol.
10, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2005.
[6] C.W.Wu, Y. C. Tay, and C.-K. Toh, "Ad hocMulticast Routing protocol utilizing Increasing id-numberS (AMRIS)," draftietfmanet-
amris-spec-00.txt, 2000.
[7] C.-K. Toh, G. Guichal, and S. Bunchua, "ABAM: on-demand associativity-based multicast routing for ad hoc mobile networks," in
Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC'00), vol. 3, pp. 987–993, 2000.
[8] T. Ozaki, J. B. Kim, and T. Suda, "Bandwidth-efficient multicast routing for multihop, ad-hoc wireless networks," in
Proceedings of the 20th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM'01), vol.2, pp.
1182–1191, 2001.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Query- And User-Dependent Approach for Ranking Query Results in Web Databases
Country : India
Authors : Sruthi Ambati, Raghava Rao
: 10.9790/0661-0663643     logo

Abstract: Internet has paved the way for the emergence of web databases. Querying such databases for required information has become a common task. Ranking such query results is an open problem to be addressed. The existing solutions such as user profiles, query logs, and database values perform ranking in user independent and/or query independent fashion. This can't provide efficient ranking. This paper presents a new approach known as Query and User Dependent Ranking for giving ranking to query results of deep web. The proposed ranking framework is based on two fundamental aspects to the problem of ranking query results. They are query similarity and user similarity. These similarities are exploited to make efficient ranking of query results. A prototype application is built to test the efficiency of our model. The empirical results revealed that our approach is efficient and can be used in real world applications.

Index Terms: Deep web, ranking query results, user similarity, query similarity

[1] M.K. Bergman, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," J. Electronic Publishing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 41-50, 2001.
[2] K.C.-C. Chang, B. He, C. Li, M. Patil, and Z. Zhang, "Structured Databases on the Web: Observations and Implications," SIGMOD
Record, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 61-70, 2004.
[3] C. Li, K.C.-C. Chang, I.F. Ilyas, and S. Song, "Ranksql: Query Algebra and Optimization for Relational Top-k Queries," Proc.
ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, pp. 131-142, 2005.
[4] A. Marian, N. Bruno, and L. Gravano, "Evaluating Top-k Queries over Web-Accessible Databases," ACM Trans. Database
Systems, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 319-362, 2004.
[5] S. Chaudhuri, G. Das, V. Hristidis, and G. Weikum, "Probabilistic Ranking of Database Query Results," Proc. 30th Int'l Conf. Very
Large Data Bases (VLDB), pp. 888-899, 2004. 684 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING,
VOL. 24, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Fig. 10. Ranking quality of learning models.
[6] W. Su, J. Wang, Q. Huang, and F. Lochovsky, "Query Result Ranking over E-Commerce Web Databases," Proc. Conf. Information
and Knowledge Management (CIKM), pp. 575-584, 2006.
[7] H. Yu, Y. Kim, and S. won Hwang, "Rv-svm: An Efficient Method for Learning Ranking Svm," Proc. Pacific-Asia Conf.
Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD), pp. 426-438, 2009.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A New Metric for Code Readability
Country : India
Authors : Rajendar Namani, Kumar J
: 10.9790/0661-0664448     logo

Abstract: Code readability is very important in software development process. It has relationship with software quality. In this paper we define a new readability metric that can be used to measure the readability of given source code. From senior software engineers we collected some rules and then deduced them into a metric which can be used to measure the readability of code. Moreover we implemented some of the existing readability metrics such as Automated Readability Index (ARI), Gunning's Fox Index (FOG) and SMOG programmatically. The results of these metrics are compared with the each other. We have developed a prototype application that takes source code as input and applies metric. The metric generates readability statistics. The input code is given to 50 software engineers and asked them to provide the percentage of readability of code. The percentage given by them is compared with the proposed application generated statistics. The results revealed that both are closely matching and the proposed metric can be used in the real world applications.

Keywords: Code readability, readability metrics, software development life cycle, and software quality.

[1] B. Boehm and V.R. Basili, "Software Defect Reduction Top 10 List," Computer, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 135-137, Jan. 2001.
[2] K. Aggarwal, Y. Singh, and J.K. Chhabra, "An Integrated Measure of Software Maintainability," Proc. Reliability and
Maintainability Symp., pp. 235-241, Sept. 2002.
[3] L.E. Deimel, Jr., "The Uses of Program Reading," ACM SIGCSE Bull., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 5-14, 1985.
[4] D.R. Raymond, "Reading Source Code," Proc. Conf. Center for Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research, pp. 3 -16, 1991.
[5] S. Rugaber, "The Use of Domain Knowledge in Program Understanding," Ann. Software Eng., vol. 9, nos. 1 -4, pp. 143-192, 2000.
[6] J.L. Elshoff and M. Marcotty, "Improving Computer Program Readability to Aid Modification," Comm. ACM, vol. 25, no. 8, pp.
512-521, 1982.
[7] J.C. Knight and E.A. Myers, "Phased Inspections and Their Implementation," ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng. Notes, vol. 16, no. 3,
pp. 29-35, 1991.
[8] N.J. Haneef, "Software Documentation and Readability: A Proposed Process Improvement," ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng. Notes,
vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 75-77, 1998.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Count based Secured Hash Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Mayank Swarnkar, Dr. Shekhar Verma
: 10.9790/0661-0664951     logo

Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach to the Secured hash algorithm. The proposed algorithms takes the variable length input bit sequence and generate the fix length output as according to the algorithm. There are many constant values, used functions, pre-processing and hashing in SHA[1][2][3][4]. Here introducing new technique in which shifting of bits in pre-processing are not fixed but depends on the counts of bits in input sequence.

Keywords: Block Cipher, Hash Function, Linked List, Secured Hash Algorithm.

[1] Chu-Hsing Lin, Chen-Yu Lee, Yi-Shiung Yeh, Hung-Sheng Chien and Shih-Pei Chien, "Generalized Secure Hash Algorithm:
SHA-X"
[2] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure hash standard, "Federal Information Processing Standards Publications
FIPS PUB 180,May. 1993.
[3] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure hash standard," Federal Information Processing Standards Publications
FIPS PUB 180-1, 1995.[HAC] A. Menezes, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone. Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press,
Inc., October 1997.
[4] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure hash standard, "Federal Information Processing Standards Publications
FIPS PUB 180-2", 2001.
[5] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure hash standard," Federal Information Processing Standards Publications
FIPS PUB 180-2", 2002.
[6] National Institute of Standards and Technology, " Data encryption standard (DES)," Federal Information Processing Standards
Publications FIPS PUB 46-3", 1999.
[7] Hassan. M. Elkamchouchi, Abdel-Aty M. Einarah Esam A. A. Hagras," A New Secure Hash Dynamic Structure Algorithm
(SHDSA) for Public Key Digital Signature Scheme", May 2006