IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 6 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Fuzzy Bitopological Ideals Spaces
Country : Egypt
Authors : M. E. Abd El-Monsef; A.Kozae; A. A. Salama and H.M.Elagmy
: 10.9790/0661-0640105       logo
Abstract:In this paper we introduce the notion of fuzzy bitopological ideals .The concept of fuzzy pairwise local function is also introduced here by utilizing the q-neighborhood structure for a fuzzy topological space .These concepts are discussed fuzzy bitopologies and several relations between different fuzzy bitopological ideals .
Keywords: Fuzzy bitopological space; fuzzy ideals; fuzzy pairwise local function
[1] M. K. Chakraborty and T.M.G. Ahasanullah, Fuzzy topology on fuzzy sets and tolerance topology, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 45
(1992) 103-108.
[2] C. L. Chang, Fuzzy Topological Spaces, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 24 (1968) 128 - 189.
[3] Pu Pao - Ming and Liu Ying, Fuzzy Topology.1. Neighbourhood structure of a fuzzy point and moore smith convergence, J.
Math. Anal. Appl. 76 (1980) 571 - 599.
[4] A. A. Nouh, On separation axioms in fuzzy bitopological spaces, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 80(1996)225-236.
[5] Debasis Sarkar, Fuzzy ideal theory, Fuzzy local function and generated fuzzy topology, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 87 (1997) 117
- 123.
[6] L . A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets Inform. and Control 8 (1965) 338 - 353.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Improved Ant-Based Algorithm for Minimum Degree Spanning Tree Problems
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Niaz Imtiaz, Md.Akkas Ali
: 10.9790/0661-0640610       logo
Abstract:A spanning tree of à connected graph is à sub graph, with least number of edges that still spans. The problem of finding degree constraint spanning tree is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we discuss an Ant-Based algorithm for finding minimum degree spanning trees and give improvement of the algorithm. We also show comparisons among the three algorithms and find the best improved Ant-Based algorithm. Extensive experimental results show that our improved algorithm performs very well against other algorithms on a set of 50 problem instances.
Keywords - Ant algorithm, Graph algorithms, Heuristic methods, minimum degree spanning tree,
[1]. Dorigo, M., V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, "Ant System: Optimization by a Colony of Cooperating Agents," IEEE Trans. on
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part B, 26(1), Feb. 1996, pp. 29–41.
[2]. Volgenant, A., "A Lagrangean Approach to the Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem," European Journal of
Operational Research, 39, 1989, pp. 325–331.
[3]. Eila Safari and Azizallah Rahmati, "Using Learning Automata to Solving Degree-constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem",
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(6): 337-341, 2011, ISSN 1991-8178
[4]. Minh N. Doan," An Effective Ant-Based Algorithm for the Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem", 1-4244-1340-
0/07$25.00_c 2007 IEEE
[5]. YOON-TECK BAU, CHIN-KUAN HO AND HONG-TAT EWE, "Ant Colony Optimization Approaches to the Degreeconstrained
Minimum Spanning Tree Problem", JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1081-1094
(2008)
[6]. Thang N. Bui and Catherine M. Zrncic, "An Ant-Based Algorithm for Finding Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree",
GECCO'06, July 8–12, 2006, Seattle, Washington, USA.
[7]. Kamalika Chaudhuri, Satish Rao, Samantha Riesenfeld, and Kunal Talwar, "A Push-Relabel Algorithm for Approximating Degree
Bounded MSTs"
[8]. Savelsbergh, M. and T. Volgenant, "Edge Exchanges in the Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem," Computers
and Operations Research, 12(4), 1985, pp. 341–348.
[9]. Marck De Berg, Marc Van Kreveld and Mark Overmars, "Computational Geometry Algorithms and Applications".
[10]. Marco Dorigo, Mauro Birattari, and Thomas Stutzle, "Ant Colony Optimization-Artificial Ants as a Computational Intelligence
Technique".

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Architecture and Evaluation on Cooperative Caching In Wireless P2P
Country : India
Authors : B. Sateesh, V. Satish, D. Sujatha
  : 10.9790/0661-0641119       logo
Abstract:All researches shown that cooperative cache can improve the system performance in wireless P2P networks such as ad hoc networks and mesh networks. And all these studies have been done up to some level only.So for that purpose now iam using an protocol technique called Dynamic Source routing (DSR). And previous studies have been done mainly by using an AODV routing technique and these are all at high level and leaving many design and implementation issues unanswered. In this paper, I am mainly presenting my design and implementation of cooperative cache in wireless P2P networks, and propose solutions to find the best place to cache the data. For that one I propose an novel asymmetric cooperative cache approach by using an Dynamic Source Routing Protocol. By using these technique I can say that packet routing to be trivially loop-free, avoids the need for up-to-date routing information in the intermediate nodes through which packets are forwarded, and allows nodes forwarding or overhearing packets to cache the routing information in them for their own future use. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use. The data has been accessed easily by the user. And also by using an data pipelines we can reduce the end-toend delays between the server and client. My results show that the Dynamic Source Routing out performs the AODV in wireless P2P networks.
Keywords:wireless networks, caching, protocols, DSR.
[1]. R. Agu¨ ero and J.P. Campo, "Adding Multiple Interface Support in NS-2," Jan. 2007.
[2]. G. Cao, L. Yin, and C. Das, "Cooperative Cache-Based Data Access in Ad Hoc Networks," Computer, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 32-39,
Feb. 2004.
[3]. W. Lau, M. Kumar, and S. Venkatesh, "A Cooperative Cache Architecture in Supporting Caching Multimedia Objects in
MANETs," Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Multimedia, 2002.
[4]. B. Barr, J. Bicket, D. Dantas, B. Du, T. Kim, B. Zhou, and E. Sirer, "On the Need for System-Level Suppport for Ad Hoc and
Sensor Networks," ACM Operating System Rev., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 1-5, Apr. 2002.
[5]. E. Royer and C. Perkins, "An Implemenatation Study of the
[6]. AODV Routing Protocol," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and
[7]. Networking Conf., 2000.
[8]. J. Bicket, D. Aguayo, S. Biswas, and R. Morris, "Architecture and Evaluation of an Unplanned 802.11b Mesh Network," Proc.
ACM MobiCom, 2005.
[9]. L. Breslau, P. Cao, L. Fan, G. Phillips, and S. Shenker, "Web Caching and Zipf-like Distributions: Evidence and Implications,"
Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1999.
[10]. M. Cieslak, D. Foster, G. Tiwana, and R. Wilson, "Web Cache Coordination Protocol v2.0," IETF Internet Draft, 2000.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Virtual Class room using six sense Technology
Country : India
Authors : Meenakshi Gupta, Shruti Sharma
: 10.9790/0661-0642025       logo
Abstract:Sixth Sense is a revolutionary technology that can be used to access digital information in the world with wearable gestures. This paper focuses on various applications of six sense technology in educational purpose and how a virtual classroom, can be conducted anywhere, anytime with the help of six sense technology. Sometimes, It may happen professor or students has the limitations of not carrying the laptop. Therefore, with the help of six sense technologies, It will allow students, professors, researchers to interact with our world like never before. Six sense technology introduces the concept of online multimedia experience as various journals, articles can be accessed anywhere without having computer and without being connected to Internet .It can also recognize articles and newspaper, retrieve the latest related stories or video from the internet and then display them on pages for user. User may not necessary use dictionary or encyclopedia. We can get information on anything we want from anywhere within a few moments. Human figures can be made as keypad where students can perform all the calculations. Researchers' can capture the images without having camera .Human fingers works like the keyboard as well as the mouse. All the typed documents can be converted into digital notes It is a hi-tech device that allows users to be part of the physical world and still access the digital information existing on the World Wide Web by using natural hand gestures .Using Sixth Sense technology in class rooms will creates a more stimulating learning environment .The Sixth Sense prototype is comprised of a pocket projector, a mirror, colored marker and a camera. These components are coupled in a pendant like mobile wearable device. The camera, mirror and projector is connected wirelessly to a blue tooth smart phone device that can easily fit into the user's pocket.. The key here is that sixth sense recognizes the objects around you and displaying the information automatically and letting you access it in any way you want.
[1] (INCOCCI), 2010 International Conference, 27-29 Dec. 2010, Rao, S.S. Electron. & Communication. Eng., Anna Univ. of
Technol., Coimbatore, India ,336-339 , Conference Publications
[2] Vsrd International journal of computer sceince & InfomartionTechnology,VSRD-IJCSIT, Vol. 2 (2), 2012, 137-14
[3] International Journal ofInformation Technology and Knowledge Management. January-June 2012, Volume 5, No. 1, pp. 201-204
[4] Lenin Ravindranath, venkat padmanabhan, and piyush agrawal, SixthSense: RFID-based Enterprise Intelligence, in ACM Mobisys,
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., June 2008
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesture_recognition
[6] http://gizmodo.com/5167790/sixth-sense-technology-may-change-how-we-look-at-the-world forever
[7] http://theviewspaper.net/sixth-sense-technology-will-revolutionize-the-world/


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Vehicle Obstacles Avoidance Using Vehicle- To Infrastructure Communication
Country : India
Authors : S.Sujatha, P.Soundeswari
: 10.9790/0661-0642632       logo
Abstract:VANET is a technology where vehicles are considered as mobile nodes to create a mobile network. In the existing model, vehicle obstructs the communication between other vehicles will not be considered as an obstacle. Due to existing model the impact on the LOS (Line Of Sight) obstruction, received signal power, packet reception rate could not be analyzed. This can be resolved by introducing the proposed model of vehicle to infrastructure communication where vehicles are modeled as physical obstacles.
Keywords:VANET, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, simulation, signal propagation modeling, Global positioning system (GPS)
[1] Molisch A. F., Tufvesson F., Karedal J., Mecklenbrauker C. Propagation Aspects of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications – An
Overview // Proc. IEEE Radio Wireless Symp. - San Diego, CA, 2009.
[2] Boban M., Vinhoza, T. T. V., Ferreira M., Barros J., Tonguz O. K. Impact of Vehicles as Obstacles in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
// IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, 2011.
[3] Otto J. S., Bustamante F. E., Berry R. A. Down the Block and Around the Corner, The Impact of Radio Propagation on Inter -
vehicle Wireless Communication // IEEE international Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS'2009.
[4] A. Kajackas, S. Stanaitis, K. Mikenas. Investigation of Link Layer in Inter-Vehicle Wireless Communication
[5] Meireles R., Boban M., Steenkiste P., Tonguz O., Barros J. Experimental Study on the Impact of Vehicular Obstructions in
VANETs // IEEE Vehicular networking conference (VNC'2010), 2010.
[6] Teck Chew Ng, Javier Ibañez-Guzmán, Jian Shen, Zhiming Gong, Han Wang, Chen Cheng. Vehicle Following with Obstacle
Avoidance Capabilities in Natural Environments.
[7] Sanjiv Singh, Paul Keller. Obstacle Detection for High Speed Autonomous Navigation.
[8] Jerbi, M., Marlier P., Senouci S. M. Experimental Assessment of V2V and I2V Communications // IEEE International Conference
on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 2007.
[9] Mate Boban, Ozan K. Tonguz, and João Barros. Unicast Communication in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Reality Check.
[10] Stephan Eichler#, Christoph Schroth§ and Jörg Eberspächer#. Car-to-Car Communication.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Data Security in Cloud Computing Using Linear Programming
Country : India
Authors : S.Swarajyam, E.Madhukar, P.Sowmya Lakshmi
: 10.9790/0661-0643344       logo
Abstract:Cloud computing has great potential of providing robust computational power to the society at reduced cost. It enables customers with limited computational resources to outsource their large computation workloads to the cloud, and economically enjoy the massive computational power, bandwidth, storage, and even appropriate software that can be shared in a pay-per-use manner. Despite the tremendous benefits, security is the primary obstacle that prevents the wide adoption of this promising computing model, especially for customers when their confidential data are consumed and produced during the computation. Treating the cloud as an intrinsically insecure computing platform from the viewpoint of the cloud customers, We must design mechanisms that not only protect sensitive information by enabling computations with encrypted data, but also protect customers from malicious behaviors by enabling the validation of the computation result. Such a mechanism of general secure computation outsourcing was recently shown to be feasible in theory, but to design mechanisms that are practically efficient remains a very challenging problem.

[1] P. Mell and T. Grance, "Draft nist working definition of cloud computing," Referenced on Jan. 23rd, 2010 Online at http://csrc.nist.gov/ groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index. html, 2010. [2] Cloud Security Alliance, "Security guidance for critical areas of focus in cloud computing," 2009, online at http://www.cloudsecurityalliance.org.

[3] C. Gentry, "Computing arbitrary functions of encrypted data," Commun. ACM, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 97–105, 2010.

[4] Sun Microsystems, Inc., "Building customer trust in cloud computing with transparent security," 2009, online at https://www.sun.com/offers/details/sun transparency.xml.

[5] M. J. Atallah, K. N. Pantazopoulos, J. R. Rice, and E. H. Spafford, "Secure outsourcing of scientific computations," Advances in Computers, vol. 54, pp. 216–272, 2001.

[6] S. Hohenberger and A. Lysyanskaya, "How to securely outsource cryptographic computations," in Proc. of TCC, 2005, pp. 264–282.

[7] M. J. Atallah and J. Li, "Secure outsourcing of sequence comparisons," Int. J. Inf. Sec., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 277–287, 2005

[8] D. Benjamin and M. J. Atallah, "Private and cheating-free outsourcing of algebraic computations," in Proc. of 6th Conf. on Privacy, Security, and Trust (PST), 2008, pp. 240– 245.

[9] R. Gennaro, C. Gentry, and B. Parno, "Non-interactive verifiable computing: Outsourcing computation to untrusted workers," in Proc. Of CRYPTO'10, Aug. 2010.

[10] M. Atallah and K. Frikken, "Securely outsourcing linear algebra computations," in Proc. Of ASIACCS, 2010, pp. 48–59.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey on Noise Removal in Digital Images
Country : India
Authors : B.Mohd. Jabarullah, Sandeep Saxena, Dr. C. Nelson Kennedy Babu
: 10.9790/0661-0644551       logo
Abstract:When an Image is formed, factors such as lighting (spectra, source, and intensity) and camera characteristics (sensor response, lenses) effect the appearance of the image. So, the prime factor that reduces the quality of the image is Noise. Noise hides the important details of images. To enhance the image qualities, we have to remove noises from the images without loss of any image information. Noise removal is one of the pre-processing stages of image processing. There are different types of noises which corrupt the images. These noises are appeared on images in different ways: at the time of acquisition due to noisy sensors, due to faulty scanner or due to faulty digital camera, due to transmission channel errors, due to corrupted storage media. In order to get enhanced images, many researchers present several methods to remove noises from different types of images by preserving important details like structural features, textural information. In this paper, we present a survey on types of Noises, types of images and noise removal algorithms. We have considered three types of noises: Impulse noises, Speckle noise, Gaussian noise from two most useful images: sensor images, medical images and gray scale images. We analyze all noise removal algorithms for each noise from each of these images. At the end of our study, we present comparative study of all these algorithms and, conclude with several promising directions for future research work.
Keywords:Noise, Structural features, textural information, Impulse noise, Speckle noise, Gaussian noise, sensor images, medical images, gray scale images.

[1] Ming-Hsuan Yang, David J. Kriegman, Narendra Ahuja," Detecting Faces in Images: A Survey",IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol 24, No. 1, Jan 2002, pp 34-58

[2] Sarawat Anam, Md Shohidul Islam, M.A. Kasheem, M.N. Islam, M.R. Islam,"Face Recognition using Genetic Algorithm and Back Propagation Neural Network", Proceedings of the International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, March 18-20, 2009

[3] S. Zeenathunisa, A.Jaya, M.A. Rabbani," A Biometric Approach Towards Recognizing Face in Various Dark Illuminations", IEEE, 2011, pp 1-7

[4] L.Ganesh, S P K Chaitanya, J D Rao, M N V S S Kumar, "Development of Image Fusion Algorithm for Impulse Noise Removal in Digital Images using the Quality Assessment in Spatial domain", IJERA, Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp 786-792

[5] J. Harikiran, B. Saichandana, B. Divakar," Impulse Noise Removal in Digital Images", IJCA, Vol. 10, No. 8, Nov 2010, pp 39-42

[6] Jyoti Chauhan,"A Comparative study of classical and Fuzzy Filters for Impulse noise reduction", IJARCS, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2012, pp 416-419

[7] Rong Zhu, Yong Wang," Application of Improved Median Filter on Image Processing", Journal of Computers, Vol. 7, No. 4, April 2012, pp 838-841

[8] J. Aalavandan, Lt. Dr. S. Santhosh Baboo," Enhanced Switching Median Filter for De-noising Ultrasound", IJARCE, Vol. 3, No. 2, March-April 2012, pp 363-367

[9] K. Ratna Babu, L. Arun Rahul, P. Vineet Souri, A. Suneetha," Image Denoising in the presence of high level Salt and Pepper noise using Modified Median filter", IJCST, Vol. 2, Sp 1, Dec 2011, pp 180-183

[10] M. Sreedevi, G. Vijay Kumar, N.V.S. Pavan Kumar, " Removing Impulse noise in gray scale images using Min Max and Mid Point Filters", IJARCS, Vol. 2, No. 6, Nov-Dec 2011, pp 377-379