IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 6 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance on Image Segmentation Resulting In Canny and MoG
Country : India
Authors : Mr. S. Ravikumar, Dr. A. Shanmugam
: 10.9790/0661-0620108       logo
Abstract:Images are analyzed with edge and color values. Pixel information is used in the color property extraction. Texture and contrast are pixel based features. Shape or edge features are used to represent images. The images are assigned with their category values. The image features are used in the classification process. Classification techniques are used to assign labels to the images. Color constancy methods are largely dependent on the distribution of colors and color edges in an image. Natural image statistics and scene semantics are used in the color consistency methods. Color contrast and texture values are used in natural image statistics model..
Keywords: Classification technique, Color property extraction, Mixture of Gaussian, Natural image statistic, Scene semantics.
[1] P.B. Delahunt and D.H. Brainard, "Does Human Color Constancy Incorporate the Statistical Regularity of Natural Daylight?" J.
Vision, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 57-81, 2004.
[2] Kinjiroamano, david h. Foster, and sérgiom.c.Nascimento, "Color constancy in natural scenes with and without an explicit
illuminant cue" Cambridge University Press, 2006.
[3] KatjaNummiaro, Esther Koller-Meier, Tom´aˇs Svoboda, "Color-Based Object Tracking in Multi-Camera Environments" ,2004.
[4] S.D. Hordley, "Scene Illuminant Estimation: Past, Present, and Future," Color Research and Application, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 303-
314, 2006.
[5] J. van de Weijer, T. Gevers, and A. Gijsenij, "Edge-Based Color Constancy," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 16, no. 9, pp.
2207-2214, Sept. 2007.
[6] G.D. Finlayson, S.D. Hordley, and I. Tastl, "Gamut Constrained Illuminant Estimation," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 67, no. 1, pp.
93-109, 2006.
[7] A. Gijsenij, T. Gevers, and J. van de Weijer, "Generalized Gamut Mapping Using Image Derivative Structures for Color
Constancy," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 86, nos. 2/3, pp. 127-139, 2010.
[8] G. Schaefer, S.D. Hordley, and G.D. Finlayson, "A Combined Physical and Statistical Approach to Colour Constancy," Proc. IEEE
Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 148-153, 2005.
[9] H.Y. Chong, S.J. Gortler, and T. Zickler, "The Von Kries Hypothesis and a Basis for Color Constancy," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer
Vision, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[10] F. Ciurea and B.V. Funt, "A Large Image Database for Color Constancy Research," Proc. IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conf., pp. 160 -
164, 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hybrid Algorithm for Clustering Mixed Data Sets
Country : India
Authors : V.N. Prasad Pinisetty, Ramesh Valaboju, N. Raghava Rao
: 10.9790/0661-0620913       logo
Abstract:Clustering is one of the data mining techniques used to group similar objects into different meaningful classes known as clusters. Objects in each cluster have maximum similarity while the objects across the clusters have minimum or no similarity. This kind of partitioning of objects into various groups has many real time applications such as pattern recognition, machine learning and so on. In this paper we review a clustering algorithm based on genetic K-means [1] and compare it with GKMODE and IGKA. The algorithm works well for both numeric and discrete values. The existing genetic K-means algorithms have limitation as they can cluster only numeric data. The algorithm [1] overcomes this problem and provides a better way of characterization of clusters. The empirical results revealed that the performance of the proposed algorithm has been improved. We also make observations and recommendations on the proposed algorithm, GKMODE, and IGKA that help in future enhancements.
Keywords - Generic algorithm, data mining, clustering, mixed data
[1] Dharmendra K Roy & Lokesh K Sharma. Genetic K-Means Clustering Algorithm for Mixed Numeric and Categorical Data Sets.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications (IJAIA), Vol. 1, No. 2, April 2010.
[2] A. Ahmad and L. Dey, (2007), A k-mean clustering algorithm for mixed numeric and categorical data', Data and Knowledge
Engineering Elsevier Publication, vol. 63, pp 503-527.
[3] G. Gan, Z. Yang, and J. Wu (2005), A Genetic k-Modes Algorithm for Clustering for Categorical Data, ADMA , LNAI 3584, pp.
195–202.
[4] J. Z. Haung, M. K. Ng, H. Rong, Z. Li (2005) Automated variable weighting in k-mean type clustering, IEEE Transaction on PAMI
27(5).
[5] K. Krishna and M. Murty (1999), 'Genetic K-Means Algorithm', IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics vol. 29,
NO. 3, pp. 433-439.
[6] Jain, M. Murty and P. Flynn (1999), 'Data clustering: A review', ACM Computing Survey., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 264 –323.
[7] Chaturvedi, P. Green and J. Carroll (2001), k-modes clustering. Journal of Classification, vol 18, pp. 35-55.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Traffic Accident Data Profiling and Clusteringwith Data Mining Process
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ogwueleka, Francisca Nonyelum and Ogwueleka, Toochukwu Chibueze
: 10.9790/0661-0621422       logo
Abstract: Some of this traffic accident crisis in Nigeria is caused by the increase in number of vehicles and inefficient drivers on the road, bad condition and poor maintenance of the roads. The significance of the study lies on the profiling of clusters of traffic roads in terms of accident related data and the degree in which these accident characteristics are perceptive between the different created clusters. Applying data mining process to model traffic accident data records helped in obtaining the characteristics of drivers' behaviour, road condition and weather condition that are connected with different injury severities and death. The traffic roads are divided into a low accident risk and high accident risk traffic roads, determining accidents in different age categories and period of accidents. A design of a data mining model for analysis and prediction of accidents rate in Nigeria was presented. In this study, we profiled traffic roads, differentiated the data set into preprocessing and transforming data set; created the association rules; and post-processed the frequent accident item sets. The data mining function was used and data cleaned using feature selection.
Keywords:Data mining, road accident, profiling, vehicles, clusters, traffic road
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[4] Agunloye O. (1988). Road danger in Nigeria- Truth and consequences. J Fed Road a. Safety Commission, Nigeria. 1:11-6.
[5] Berthold M. and Hand D. J. (2003) "Intelligent Data Analysis‟, Springer, 2nd edition.
[6] Cameron, M. (1997) Accident Data Analysis to Develop Target Groups for Countermeasures. Monash University Accident
Research Centre, Reports 46 and 47.
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[8] Friedman, J. H. (1997) Data mining and statistics: What's the connection? Proceedingsof the 29th Symposium on the Interface
Between Computer Science and Statistics, Texas.
[9] Hand D. J, Mannila H., and Smth P. (2001) "Principles of Data mining‟, The MIT press.
[10] Idoko Clement (2010). FRSC in fresh war against death on Nigerian roads - Begins operation zero tolerance. Nigerian Tribune.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Application of VLSI In Artificial Intelligence
Country : Pakistan
Authors : M. Zamin Ali Khan, Hussain Saleem and Shiraz Afzal
: 10.9790/0661-0622325       logo
Abstract:This paper describes the application of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuit in Artificial Intelligence (AI). VLSI is the inter-disciplinary science of utilizing advance semiconductor technology to create various functions of computer system. This manuscript addresses the close link of microelectronics and AI. By combining VLSI technology, a very powerful computer architecture confinement is possible.
Key words: VLSI, Artificial Intelligence, DAA, Chip Design, Expert System.
[1] Engineers Garage, Web: http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/vlsi-design-future, Accessed on: 30 September 2012.
[2] Oracle ThinkQuest, Web: http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/, Accessed on: 30 September 2012.
[3] Ann Miller, "From Expert Assistant to Design Verification: Applications of AI to VLSI Design", Session 11Al, IEEE, Vol.2, pp.406-
410, 1989.
[4] Louis I. Steinberg, Tom M. Mitchell, "A knowledge based approach to VLSI CAD the redesign system", In Proceedings of the 21st
Design Automation Conference, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp.412-418, 1984.
[5] T. J. Kowalski, D.E. Thomas, "The VLSI Design Automation Assistant Prototype System", In 20th Design Automation Conference,
IEEE, pp.479-483, 1983.
[6] Van E. Kelly, "The CRITTER System: Automated Critiquing of Digital Circuit Designs", In Proceedings of the 21st Design
Automation Conference, IEEE Press, 1984, 419-425.
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Automation Conference, A. O'Neill and D. Thomas (Eds.), ACM, pp.679-688, 1987.
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Systems Engineering, IEEE, pp.529-532, 1989.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mobile Agents: An Intelligent Multi-Agent System for Mobile Phones
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Hussain Saleem, M. Zamin Ali Khan and Shiraz Afzal
: 10.9790/0661-0622634       logo
Abstract:The mobile applications are one of the most important utilities of modern communication world. Currently this technology is getting compact to provide compatibility and accessibility to the users with a better option of handling. This research is based on the mobile and m-commerce technology, a fastest growing technology of today. The m-commerce technology provides various services like Mobile ticketing, Mobile banking, Mobile location based services, Mobile auctions, Mobile purchasing and so on. This represents an incredible chance to enable mobile devices as universal device for mobile commerce applications. We have explored an important application view of mobile technology i.e. intelligent multi-agent system with an example application of hotel reservation through mobile phones that will not only enable the mobile phone users to access the services through internet but also provide ultimate mobility without any hassle of communication. We also explained the structure of the system with the incorporation of mobile software agent technologies.
Key words:Software Agents, Mobile Computing, Communication Systems, m-Commerce Technology, Intelligent Systems.
[1] A. Pitsillides, G. Samaras, M. Dikaiakos, E. Christodoulou, "DITIS: Collaborative Virtual Medical team for home healthcare of
cancer patients", Conf. on the Information Society and Telematics Applications, Catania, Italy, (16 -18 April 1999).
[2] C. McTavish, S. Sankaranarayanan, "Intelligent Agent based Hotel Search & Booking System", IEEE Intl. Conf. on
Electro/Information Technology (EIT), (2010).
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Computational Models with Mobile-Agent Technologies", Journal of ACM/Baltzer Mobile Networking and Applications
(MONET), special issue on "Mobility in Databases & Distributed Systems", (2004).
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Personal Communications, (October, 1995), Vol.2, No. 5.
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[8] Edgardo A.B. & Claudia A.M., "Modeling of Mobile-Agent Applications with UML", In Proc. of the Fourth Argentine Symposium
on Software Engineering ASSE‟2003, (2003).
[9] FIPA: The Foundation of Intelligent Mobile Agents, Web: http://www.fipa.org/ (Accessed on 20 September, 2012)
[10] Fuggetta A., Picco G. & Vigna G., "Understanding Code Mobility", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, (1998), Vol. 24,
No. 5, pp. 342-361.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of VoIP by Communicating Two Systems
Country : India
Authors : Ms. V. Yagna Prabha, Ms.R.Amsaveni
: 10.9790/0661-0623541       logo
Abstract:VoIP is a technology that digitizes voice packets and enables telephony communication by using internet as a backbone. In this paper we introduce and explore the problems that occur in our day to day life in sending voice and data with different windows. The paper evolves in the VoIP environment. Sending of text and voice along single window is possible. In earlier days VoIP merges over devices like IP Telephony, Palms, PDAs, etc over IP network for communication. But less security is provided with packet loss, retransmission, end to end delay and overhead. VoIP is composed of Signalling and Media. The use of Signalling is for controlling communication and it does the call set up, locate users, and tear down sessions. Media is used for transporting the voice packets. Ad hoc wireless networks are formed by a set of mobile nodes that communicate with each other over a wireless channel. Perceived Voice Quality can be achieved in terms of NS-2 Simulator.
Keywords: ABL, IP, NS – 2, PDA, RPLR, RTP, SIP, Telephony, VoIP.
[1] ITU-T Recommendation, G.114, One Way Transmission Time, Feb. 1996.
[2] J.D. Gibson, A. Servetti, H. Dong, A. Gersho, T. Lookabaugh, and J.C. De Martin, "Selective Encryption and Scalable Speech
Coding for Voice Communications over Multihop Wireless Links," Proc. IEEE Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '04), vol. 2, pp.
792-798, Nov. 2004.
[3] C.-h. Lin, H. Dong, U. Madhow, and A. Gersho, "Supporting Real-Time Speech on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Inter-packet
Redundancy, Path Diversity, and Multiple Description Coding," Proc. Second ACM In t'l Workshop Wireless Mobile Applications
and Services on WLAN Hotspots (WMASH '04), pp. 11-20, Oct. 2004.
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Int'l Conf. Distributed Multimedia Systems (DMS '05), pp. 265-270, Sept. 2005.
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Interleaving," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (CSVT '02), vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 558-565, June 2002.
[7] G. Rubino and M. Varela, "Evaluating the Utility of Media- Dependent FEC in VoIP Flows," Proc. Fifth Int'l Workshop Quality of
Future Internet Services (QofIS '04), pp. 31-43, Sept. 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Proposed Silicon Optical Electronic Integrated Circuit with Monolithic Integration of LED, OPFET and Receiver Circuit
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Shiraz Afzal, M. Zamin Ali Khan and Hussain Saleem
: 10.9790/0661-0624246       logo
Abstract:The paper presents an improved model of Silicon Optical Electronic Integrated Circuit (SOIC). The objective is to improve our OEIC model i.e. OEIC Circuit with Two Metal Layer Silicon Waveguide and Low Power Photonic Receiver Circuit by increasing responsitivity by increasing the quantum efficiency without changing the basic approach. This can be done by using optically controlled silicon MESFET also called OPFET. We also introduced the transparent indium tin oxide gate which when combines with MESFET, acts as a pre-amplifier in OEIC. The optically controlled silicon MESFET is integrated here having improved responsitivity, low gate to source capacitance, less signal delay, reduced noise and increased quantum efficiency..
Key words:OEIC, OPFET, MESFET, SOIC, Quantum efficiency, Respositivity.
[1] Beiju Haung & et.al. "Monolithic Integration of Light Emiting Diodes, Photodetector and Receiver Circuit in Standard CMOS
Technology", In Proc. IEEE 9th Intl. Conf. on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology, ICSICT, (2008).
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Actuator, B103, (2004).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud computing platform for virtual university providing e-learning
Country : India
Authors : Nisha Gautam, Dr. Manu Sood
: 10.9790/0661-0624753       logo
Abstrac:tAccording to the present scenario, cost of the electronics is decreasing day-by-day and the cost of services provided by it is also decreasing. So, no one wants to pay a high cost for any service. For that purpose we tried to corporate our educational services of any e-learning website in such an environment which is most efficient. In this paper, we have discussed about the quality of e-learning websites and trying to frame a website on the basis of SRS. Later, we checked the interoperability among the different services through SOA and provide cloud computing as a platform for the efficient use of our e-learning website having minimum required features.
Key words:Cloud computing, E-learning, SRS, SOA, Web services.
Books:
[1] Laurillard, D.(1995) multimedia and changing experience of the learner. British journal of educational technology, vol.26(3).p.
179-189.
Journal papers:
[2] Tavangarian Djamshid, Leypold E.Markus, Nolting Kristin, Roser Marc, Denny Voigt university of Rostock, Germant. "is e -
learning the solution for individual learning?" Electronic journal of e-learning volume2 issue2 2004(273-280)
Proceedings papers:
[3] Lorenzo Cantoni, Isabella Rega ,"eLearning and Teacher Training in a Disadvantaged Brazilian Area: a Project to Assess Access,
Impact and Quality", NewMinE Lab , Università della Svizzera italiana, lorenzo.cantoni@lu.unisi.ch ,isabella.rega@lu.unisi.ch
[4] Weibin Zhao, David Olshefski ,"Internet quality of service", Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University fzwb, dpo1,
hgsg@cs.columbia.edu
[5] Software requirement specification, http://www4.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/proj/va/SRS.pdf
[6] Hartwig Gunzer, Introduction to web services, Sales Engineer, Borland March 2002.
[7] http://www.daimi.au.dk/~thomasr/Wearable/intro_to_web_services_wp.pdf
Lecture notes:
[8] Service Oriented Architecture: (Semantic) Web Services, (Business) Process Modeling, Software Engineering, lecture notes by
Yuhong Yan, Harold Boley, Bruce Spencer. ICEC 2006 Tutorial, 13 Aug 2006.
[9] http://icec06.net/WorkshopsAndTutorials/SOATutorial/ICEC06-tutorial-introduction.pdf
Journal papers:
[10] Gurav Shah, "Cloud security" pp- 10, Hakin9 IT security magazine, vol. 7, no. 05, Issue 05/2012(53) ISSN : 1733-7186.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cryptography On Android Message Application Using Look Up Table And Dynamic Key (Cama)
Country : India
Authors : Manisha Madhwani, Kavyashree C.V. , Dr. Jossy P. George
: 10.9790/0661-0625459       logo
Abstract:Most popular shortest and cheapest textual form of communication is short message service (SMS).To ensure the security of the texts which is sent, many algorithm are available. In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm for cryptography which is based on static Look Up table and Dynamic Key. Symmetric encryption and decryption is used in this algorithm. The proposed algorithm is more secure and simple to implement. This application makes use of built in android Intents and SMS Manager to send and receive messages.
Key words:Secure SMS, Cryptography, SMS Encryption, SMS Decryption
[1] Information Security, http://www.infosec.gov.hk/english/technical/ files/ short.pdf.
[2] Micro System Center, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ cc181234.aspx.
[3] M. Toorani and A. A. Beheshti Shirzai, SSMS - A Secure SMS Messaging Protocol for the M-Payment Systems, IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, 2012, 700-705.
[4] Marko Hassinen, SafeSMS - End-to-End Encryption for SMS Messages, IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications, 2008, 359-365.
[5] S. Jahan, M. M. Hussain,M. R.Amin and S. H. Shah Newaz, A Proposal for Enhancing the Security System of Short Message Service in
GSM, IEEE International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting Security and Identification, 2008, 235-240.
[6] Mary Agoyi and Devrim Seral, SMS Security: An Asymmetric Encryption Approach, IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications, 2010, 448-452.
[7] Na Qi Jing Pan Qun Ding, The Implementation of FPGA-based RSA Public-Key Algorithm and Its Application in Mobile-Phone SMS Encryption System, IEEE International Conference on Instrumentation, Measurement, Computer, Communication and Control, 2011, 700-703.
[8] Ch. Rupa and P.S. Avadhani, Message Encryption Scheme Using Cheating Text, IEEE International Conference on Information
Technology, 2009, 470-474.
[9] Rishav Ray, Jeeyan Sanyal, Tripti Das, Kaushik Goswami, Sankar Das and Asoke Nath, A new Randomized Data Hiding Algorithm
with Encrypted Secret Message using Modified Generalized Vernam Cipher Method: RAN-SEC algorithm, IEEE Information and
Communication Technologies World Congress, 2011, 1211-1216.
[10] Hongbo Zhou, Mutka and Lionel M. Ni, Multiple-key Cryptography-based Distributed Certificate Authority in Mobile Ad-hoc
Networks, IEEE proceedings of GLOBECOM, 2005, 1681-1685

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Approach of Automatic Data Mining Algorithm for Intrusion Detection and Prevention System
Country : India
Authors : Mr.A.Siles Balasingh, Mr.N.Surenth
: 10.9790/0661-0626067       logo
Abstract:The Network security system plays a major role in the communication world, here every one's need security and assurance for their communication. Normally the hacking, Intrusion software's are using threats, malicious to enter in to the network and they are keep recording or monitoring the communication for this action the hackers may use following techniques Rexd, Rsh, Defult account/Null password, Generic Recon Mechanisms, NIS (Formerly yp), and Rpc Portmapper. The normal firewalls can address only insider threats. The main focus of our research is applied on two different platforms, the first one is processing on TCP-Dump portion using KDDCUP99 data set and mining, the second one is finding of best algorithm for data mining Intrusion on UNIX. From the available kddcup'99 dataset two subsets are taken with the record size of 997 and 11438. For UNIX User data all instances are taken. The classification rate and the false negative rate are used as the performance criteria with 3 fold cross validation. It is found that PART, SMO, Hyper pipes, Filtered Classifier, Random forest, Naïve Bayes Updateable, KStar are giving high classification rate with low false positive rate. For UNIX User data ZeroR is giving high performance. Real time data is also applied to finalize the best algorithm under each category of classifier. Later online implementation has to be done.
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Algorithms", In Int. Conf. Computational Intelligence and Security, vol.1, pp.282 – 285, Nov. 2006 .
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