IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 5 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : New Fault Injection Approach for Network on Chip
Country : India
Authors : Tapas Patel
: 10.9790/2834-0520106      logo

Abstract: Packet-based on-chip interconnection networks, or Network-on-Chips (NoCs) are progressively replacing global on-chip interconnections in Multi-processor System-on-Chips (MP-SoCs) thanks to better performances and lower power consumption. However, modern generations of MP-SoCs have an increasing sensitivity to faults due to the progressive shrinking technology. Consequently, in order to evaluate the fault sensitivity in NoC architectures, there is the need of accurate test solution which allows to evaluate the fault tolerance capability of NoCs. This paper presents an innovative test architecture based on a dual-processor system which is able to extensively test mesh based NoCs. The proposed solution improves previously developed methods since it is based on a NoC physical implementation which allows to investigate the effects induced by several kind of faults thanks to the execution of on-line fault injection within all the network interface and router resources during NoC run-time operations. The solution has been physically implemented on an FPGA platform using a NoC emulation model adopting standard communication protocols. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed solution in term of testability and diagnostic capabilities and make our solutions suitable for testing large scale NoC design.

[1] S. Borkar, "Designing reliable systems from unreliable components: the challenges of transistor variability and degradation", IEEE
Micro, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 10-16, November 2005.
[2] L. Chunsheng, V. Iyengar, S. Jiangfan, E. Cota, "Power- Aware Test Scheduling in Network-on-Chip Using Variable-Rate On Chip
Clocking", IEEE International Very Large Scale of Integration Test Symposium , 2005, pp. 349 – 354
[3] B. Vermeulen, J. Dielissen, K. Goossens, C. Ciordas, "Bringing communications networks on a chip: test and verification
implications", IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 41, Septmber, 2003, pp. 74 – 81.
[4] A. Kohler, G. Schley, M. Radetzki, "Fault Tolerant Network on Chip Switching With Graceful Performance Degradation", IEEE
Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 29, No. 6, June 2010, pp. 883 – 896.
[5] M. Nahvi, A. Ivanov, "Indirect Test Architecture for SoC Testing", IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated
Circuits and Systems, Volume 23, Issue 7, July 2004, pp. 1128 – 1142.
[6] Xilinx Product Specification, "LogiCORE IP XPS HIWCAP", Product Spec., DS586, June 22, 2011.
[7] T. Bjerregaard and S. Mahadevan, "A survey of research and practices of network -on-chip", ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 38, pp. 1-51, March, 2006.
[8] J. Duato, S. Yalamanchili, L. Ni, "Interconnection Networks – An Engineering Approach", Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
[9] C. Grecu, P. Pande, A. Ivanov, R. Saleh, "Timing Analysis of Network -on-chip Architectures for MP-SoC Platforms", Elsevier
Microelectronics Journa, XX
[10] L. Benini, D. Bertozzi, "Xpipes: A Network-on-chip architecture for gigascale systems-on-chip", IEEE Circuits and Systems
Magazine, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2004, pp. 18-31.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Use of Smart Antennas In Ad Hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : N. Sudhakar Reddy, Dr. Bhattacharya
: 10.9790/2834-0520710      logo

Abstract: The capacity of ad hoc networks can be severely limited due to interference constraints. One way of using improving the overall capacity of ad hoc networks is by the use of smart antennas. Smart antennas allow the energy to be transmitted or received in a particular direction as opposed to disseminating energy in all directions. This helps in achieving significant spatial re-use and thereby increasing the capacity of the network. However, the use of smart antennas presents significant challenges at the higher layers of the protocol stack. In particular, the medium access control and the routing layers will have to be modified and made aware of the presence of such antennas in order to exploit their use. In this paper we examine the various challenges that arise when deploying such antennas in ad hoc networks and the solutions proposed thus far in order to overcome them. The current state of the art seems to suggest that the deployment of such antennas can have a tremendous impact in terms of increasing the capacity of ad hoc networks.

[1] Design and Implementation of sensor node for wireless sensors network to monitor humidity of high-tech polyhouse environment by B. P. Ladgaonkar and A. M. Pawar
[2] MSC1210 - Precision Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) with 8051 Microcontroller and flash Memory - Texas Instruments
[3] www.vegenotrix.com
[4] Preliminary Design on the Development of Wireless Sensor Network for Paddy Rice ropping Monitoring Application in Malaysia by Muhamad Azman Miskam, Azwan bin Nasirudin from European Journal of Scientific Research
[5] Use of Enzymatic Biosensors as Quality Indices: A Synopsis of Present and Future Trends in The Food Industry from Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 69(2):270-280 (April-June2009)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation of Robots in Spot Welding Process
Country : India
Authors : Mrs Magar J.E, Prof.Shelkikar R.P
: 10.9790/2834-0521114      logo

Abstract: Within industry many repetitive operations, such as pick and place, spot welding, and spraypainting, have been successfully automated. While the operations themselves are diverse, a common thread within nearly all of them is that the robot performing the task. From a control perspective, this means that the robot need only be controlled to follow a desired task.Robots are well-established in the material processing industry. They are used for cutting, welding and marking of work pieces made from diverse materials. In these applications it is important to move the focal spot of the welding exactly along the desired machining contour on the work piece. Due to their mechanical inertia, robot arms can not perform abrupt changes of velocity (direction and magnitude) even though this is frequently required in machining operations. In this paper a automation technique is proposed, which is intended to partly overcome the limitations of doing the same work by using manpower. The paper describes control strategy ,which is based on plc automation and a real time interface to a standard robot controller. Simulation-based and experimental results are presented and the performance of the control strategy in various test scenarios is described.

Key Words: Automation Control, ,Programmable logic control Robotics and Automation,Robotic assembly.

[1]. Hajduk M., Baláž V.: Measurement deviation movement of robot Kuka from define trajectory with laser senzor ., IV medizná
rodná konferencia , Mechanika z .67, Modulowe technologie i konstrukcje w budowie maszyn , Rzeszóv 2006, Polsko, str. 261-
264(3).
[2] Biagiotti, L., Zanasi, R., "Online trajectory planner with constraints on velocity, acceleration and torque", Industrial Electronics
(ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, On page(s): 274 - 279
[3] C. Blume and W. Jakob Programming Languages for Industrial Robots, 1986 :Springer-Verlag (3)
[4] I.Cox and N.Gehani "Exception handling in robotics", IEEE Computer, 1989
[5] J. J. Craig Introduction to robotics: mechanics and control, 1989 :Addison-Wesley
[6] J. Hallam "Autonomous robots: from dream to reality", Proceedings from \'Robotikdagar, 1991
[7] J. L. Nevins Adaptive control, learning and cost effective sensor systems for robotics or advanced automation systems, 1984

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Safety Improvement of Nuclear Power Reactor Using Soft Computing Techniques
Country : India
Authors : M.H.Syed Mohamed Muzzammil, E.A.Mohamed Ali
: 10.9790/2834-0521522      logo

Abstract: Nowadays, Nuclear Reactors (NR) are large in scale and complex, they are expected to be operated with high levels of reliability and safety. Hence to increase plant safety, to achieve, maintain system stability and assure satisfactory in order to meet the increasing demands for automated system and to detect and diagnose system failures and malfunctions. When a plant malfunction occurs, a great data influx is occurred. This paper proposes a support system based on neuro fuzzy approach conjunction with Genetic Algorithm that assist alarming and diagnosis system. Throughout this framework Neurofuzzy fault diagnosis system is employed to diagnosis the fault of nuclear reactors. Hence to overcome weak points of both neuro learning and linguistic based approaches by which the integrated system will inherit the strength of both approaches and to optimize the Neurofuzzy outcomes using Genetic Algorithm resulting to show the efficiency is obtained by GA is greater and the inaccurate information of the alarming system also compared with Neurofuzzy diagnosis system.

Index Terms- Nuclear Reactors (NR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Neurofuzzy, fault diagnosis, Genetic Algorithm (GA).

[1] B. Lu, B.R. Upadhyaya, "Monitoring and fault diagnosis of the steam generator system of a nuclear power plant using data -driven
modelling and residual space analysis", Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol. 32, pp.897–912, 2005.
[2] A. Aboshosha, F. A. Mohamed, M. Elbardiny, N. El-Rabaie and A.Montasser, "Using Neural Networks in Fault Diagnosis of Nuclear Power Reactor", Proceedings of Fourth IEEE International conference, Electronics , Circuits, and systems ICECS 97, Cairo, Egypt, December 15-18, 1997.
[3] Keehoon Kim, Bartlett, E.B, "Nuclear power plant fault diagnosis using neural networks with error estimation by series associ ation", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol.43, Issue 4, Aug. 1996, pp. 2373 - 2388.
[4] Mustaf beylï, Elif Derya beylï, "Using recurrent neural networks for estimation of minor actinides' transmutation in a high power
density fusion reactor", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, pp. 2742–2746, 2010.
[5] Kun Mo, Seung Jun Lee, Poong Hyun Seong, "A dynamic neural network aggregation model for transient diagnosis in nuclear power
plants", Progress in Nuclear Energy, Vol.49, pp. 262-272, 2007.
[6] Enrico Zio, Piero Baraldi, Irina Crengut_a Popescu, "A fuzzy decision tree method for fault classification in the steam generator of a
pressurized water reactor", Annals of Nuclear Energy 36, pp. 1159–1169, 2009.
[7] K. Zhao, B.R. Upadhyaya , "Adaptive fuzzy inference causal graph approach to fault detection and isolation of field
devices in nuclear power plants", Progress in Nuclear Energy, Volume 46, Issues 3-4, Pages 226-240, 2005.
[8] E. Zio, G. Gola, "Neuro-fuzzy pattern classification for fault diagnosis in nuclear components", Annals of Nuclear Energy, 33, pp.415–426, 2006.
[9] L. S. Admuthe and S. D. Apte, "Neuro-Genetic Cost Optimization Model: Application of Textile Spinning Process",
International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 1793-8201, Vol. 1, No. 4, October2009.
[10] I. Kusco and Ch. Thornton, "Design of Artificial Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithms: review and prospect",
Cognilive and Cornpuling Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BNl 9QN, April 30, 1994.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study and Analysis of Fractal Linear Antenna Arrays
Country : India
Authors : V. Srinivasa Rao, V. A. Sankar Ponnapalli
: 10.9790/2834-0522327      logo

Abstract: A fractal is a recursively generated object having a fractional dimension. They have no characteristic size, and are constructed of many copies of themselves at different scales [1]. In this report, we primarily focus on design of fractal linear array antenna for even number of elements and comparison of fractal linear array antenna for even , odd number of elements and also with conventional antenna[6]. These arrays are analyzed by fractal electrodynamics and to simulate results by MATLAB programming.

Keywords: conventional antenna, fractals, fractal linear arrays, fractal electrodynamics, fractional dimension.

[1] Werner, D. H., R. L. Haupt, and P. L. Werner, \Fractal antenna engineering: The theory and design of antenna arrays, "IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 41, No. 5, 37-59,1999.

[2] Werner, D. H. and S. Ganguly, \An overview of fractal antenna engineering research," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 45, No. 1, 38{57, 2003.

[3] Comparison of Conventional and Fractal Phased Arrays Airs Alexopoulos Electronic Warfare and Radar Division Defence Science and Technology OrganisationDSTO–TN–0913

[4] D.L. Jaggard, "On fractal electrodynamics", in H.N. Kritikos and D.L. Jaggard (eds): Recent Advances in Electromagnetic Theory, New York, Springer-Verlag, pp. 183-224(1990). Books:

[5] B. B. Mandelbrot, the Fractal Geometry of Nature, New York, W. H. Freeman, 1983. [6] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, New York, Wiley, 1997


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Automated Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Hsom
Country : India
Authors : Monica.R, Santha.P, Dr.C.N.Marimuthu
: 10.9790/2834-0522833      logo

Abstract: In this project a forceful segmentation tool for the detection of brain tumour is used to assist clinician and researchers in radio surgery applications. A clustering based approach using hierarchal self-organizing map algorithm is proposed for MR image segmentation. Hierarchal self-organizing map (HSOM) is a dynamically growing neural network model evolves into a hierarchical structure according to the requirements of the input data during an unsupervised training process. This algorithm proved to be exceptionally successful for data visualization applications. HSOM is the extension of the conventional self organizing map which is used to classify the image row by row. This project describe segmentation method consists of two phases. In the first phase, the MRI brain image is acquired from patient database. In that film artifact and noise are removed. In the second phase (MR) image segmentation is to accurately identify the principal tissue structures in these image volumes. Finally the numbers of affected cells are counted using the row and column wise scanning method.

Keywords - HSOM, Image analysis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Segmentation, Tumor detection.

[1] AndacHamamci, Nadir Kucuk, KutlayKaraman, KayihanEngin, and GozdeUnal,(2012). "Tumor-Cut: Segmentation of Brain Tumors on Contrast Enhanced MR Imagesfor Radiosurgery Applications". IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol. 31, No.3.

[2] Fedde van der Lijn, Marleen de Bruijne, Stefan Klein, Tom den Heijer, Yoo Y. Hoogendam, Aad van der Lugt, Monique M. B. Breteler, and Wiro J. Niessen(2012). "Automated Brain Structure Segmentation Based on Atlas Registration and Appearance Models". IEEE Transactions On Medical Imaging, Vol. 31, No. 2

[3] Shanhui Sun, Christian Bauer, and ReinhardBeichel (2012). "Automated 3-D Segmentation of Lungs With Lung Cancer in CT Data Using a Novel Robust Active Shape Model Approach". IEEE Transactions OnMedical Imaging, Vol. 31, No. 2.

[4] Nazem-ZadehM.R, Davoodi-Bojd.E., and Soltanian-ZadehH.,(2011). "Atlasbasedfiber bundle segmentation using principal diffusion directions and spherical harmonic coefficients," NeuroImage, vol. 54, pp. S146–S164.

[5] Gooya, G. Biros, and DavatzikosC., (2011). "Deformable registration of glioma images using em algorithm and diffusion reaction modeling," IEEETrans. Med. Imag., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 375–390.

[6] Menze,Leemput.K.VLashkari.D,Weber.M.A,. Ayache.N, andGolland.P, (2010)"A generative model for brain tumor segmentation in multimodal images," Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Intervent., vol. 13, pp. 151–159.

[7] Hamamci, Unal.G,.Kucuk.N, and Engin.K., (2010) "Cellular automata segmentation of brain tumors on post contrast MR images," in MICCAI. New York: Springer, pp. 137–146.

[8] Kauffmann and Pich.N., (2010) "Seeded ND medical image segmentation by cellular automaton on GPU," Int. J. Comput. Assist. Radiol. Surg., vol. 5, pp. 251–262.

[9] Bai.X, and Sapiro.G,(2009)., "Geodesic matting: A framework for fast interactive image and video segmentation and matting," Int. J. Comput. Vis., vol. 82, pp. 113–132.

[10] Couprie.C, Grady.L, Najman.L, and Talbot.H. (2009), "Power watersheds:A new image segmentation framework extending graph cuts, randomwalker and optimal spanning forest," in ICCV , pp. 731–738.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Block Based Novel Digital Video Watermarking Scheme Using Dct
Country : India
Authors : Palaiyappan C, Raja Jeya Sekhar T
: 10.9790/2834-0523444      logo

Abstract: The rapid growth of network distributions of images and video, there is a need for copyright protection against piracy. For this purpose we are using video watermarking (VM). Different digital watermarking schemes have been proposed to address this issue of ownership identification. Digital watermarking is a process by which user specified signal(Watermark) is hidden or embedded into another signal(Video Signal) by the watermark embedding process. Afterwards the recovery of the watermark is achieved with the help of the watermark extraction process. The video watermark is robust against the attack of frame dropping, averaging and statistical analysis. It leads to broad curiosity in multimedia security and multimedia copyright protection. The most important issue in VM are the invisibility of the watermark and the resilience of watermarking to attacks.Watermarking techniques are classified into three categories. They are Spatial Domain Method(SDM), Transform Domain Method(TDM) and Compressed Domain Method(CDM). Here explained about to transform domain method. This method used the discrete cosine transform(DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT) for watermark embedding.DWT are more popularity due to their spatial localization, frequency spread etc.. But DCT watermarking was to human perception model to modify low coefficients of DCT blocks.It has a larger embedding capacity and robustness. This technique provides better results with high accuracy.

Keywords - About five key words in alphabetical order, separated by comma

[1] A. Mitra, Y. V. SubbaRao and S. R. M. Prasanna, "A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation
Techniques", International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol: 1, No: 2, pp: 127-131, 2006.18
[2] Aree A.Mohammed and Jamal A.Husssein, Efficent video watermarking using motion estimation approach,2009,Eighth IEEE/ACIS
Internation conference on Compter And Information Science.4
[3] 3. Chih-Chin Lai ,"A digital watermarking scheme based on singular value decomposition and tiny genetic algorithm", Digital
Signal Processing, in 2011, pp. 1128-1134.2
[4] Gandhe S.T., Potdar U. and Talele K.T., "Dual Watermarking in Video Using Discrete Wavelet Transform", in Proceedings of
Second International Conference on Machine Vision, pp. 216 - 219, 2009.7
[5] Gonzalez R.C., Woods R.E., "Digital Image Processing", Addison Wesley, 2002.16
[6] Jing Zhang, Anthony T. S. Ho, Gang Qiu, PinaMarziliano, "Robust Video Watermarking of H.264/AVC", IEEE Transactions on
Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, Vol: 54, No: 2, pp: 205 - 209, 2007.14
[7] K. AitSaadi, A. Guessoum, A. Bouridane, "Efficient pre-processing watermark for robust video watermarking of H.264/ AVC",
International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication, Vol: 4, No: 3, pp: 219-234, 2010.10
[8] Kareem Ahmed, Ibrahim El-Henawy and Ahmed Atwan, "Novel DWT video watermarking schema ", Machine Graphics & Vision
Fig.10. Distance between frames
Fig.9. Performance Graph(Compression
Quality vs NC value)
A Block Based Novel Digital Video Watermarking Scheme Using DCT
www.iosrjournals.org 44 | Page
International Journal archive, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 363-380, 2009.12
[9] M. Mohammed Sathik, N.RaviaShabnamParveen, "Feature extraction on colored x-ray images by bit-plane slicing technique", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No: 7, pp: 2820-2824, 2010.17
[10] Patrizio Campisi and Alessandro Neri, "Perceptual Video Watermarking in the 3D-DWT Domain Using a Multiplicative Approach ", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3710, pp. 432-443, 2005.15

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Study of Compact and Wideband Microstrip U-Slot Patch Antenna for Wi-Max Application
Country : India
Authors : Sukhbir Kumar, Hitender Gupta
: 10.9790/2834-0524548      logo

Abstract: Microstrip patch antennas are strong candidates for use in many wireless communication applications. This paper proposes the use of a patch antenna with U-shaped slot to achieve wideband application with very low return loss. The objective of this paper is to design, construct and fabricate microstrip antennas suitable for Wi-Max application that centred at frequency 5.25GHz. The antenna must operate within the band of 5.25GHz band. This band is currently being used for industrial, medical and scientific applications. The antenna is proposed to be used as a transmitting as well as receiving antenna in wireless network and the mentioned applications. A thick substrate with finite ground dimensions broadens the bandwidth of the antenna. The proposed antenna reduced the return loss as well as increases the bandwidth of the antenna.

Keywords - Wideband Antenna, Patch Antenna, Finite Ground, Wi-Max.

[1] V.Ratna Bhargavi,P.Poorna Priya,K.Pavan Kumar, Dr.Habibulla Khan, " Gain Enhancement of V-slotted Triangular Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna for WiMax Applications" International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), vol. 2, issue 3, May-Jun 2012, pp.1187-1193

[2] L. Lolit Kumar Singh, Bhaskar Gupta, Partha P Sarkar, " A Review on Effects of Finite Ground Plane on Microstrip Antenna Performance" International Journal Of Electronics And Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, issue 3, october- december (2012), pp. 287-292

[3] Indra Surjati, Yuli KN and Yuliastuti, " Increasing Bandwidth Dual Frequency Triangular Microstrip Antenna For wimax Application" International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol: 10 No: 06, 2010.

[4] Samvedna Srivastava, Prof. Rajesh Nema, Prof. Rajeev Kumar Thakur, "Micro-strip Patch Antenna on Glass Proxy Substrate for Infinite and Finite Ground Plane" International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Volume No.1, Issue No.4, pp : 16-20, 01 Oct. 2012.

[5] S. L. S. Yang, K. F. Lee, and A. A. Kishk, " Design And Study Of Wideband Single Feed Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas", Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 80, 45–61, 2008

[6] B. Vedaprabhu and K. J. Vinoy, " An Integrated Wideband Multifunctional Antenna Using A Microstrip Patch With Two U-Slots" Progress In electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 221-235, 2010.

[7] Constantine A. Balanis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey,2005). antenna theory analysis and design


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Parametric Study For Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas
Country : India
Authors : S. S. Yavalkar, R. T. Dahatonde, Dr. S. S. Rathod, Dr. S. B. Deosrkar
: 10.9790/2834-0524953      logo

Abstract: This paper discusses the parametric study of Microstrip Patch Antenna. A simple Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMSA) was designed and simulated using Zeland's Method of Moment (MoM) based EM simulation package IE3D and its various parameters such as return loss, VSWR and input impédance were obtained. Then effect of change of width, lenght, loss tangent, feed location, etc is observe on above parameters.

Keywords– Rectangular Microstrip Antenna, Modified Shapes, BW Enhancement, Antenna Design.

[1] Kumar G. and Ray K.P.,Broadband Microstrip Antenna,Artech House Publication,pp.1-291,2003.
[2] Kin Lu Wong, Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas,John Wiley & Sons,pp.45-79,2002.
[3] S.S.Yavalkar, R.T.Dahatonde, S.S.Rathod, S.B.Deosarkar, "Comparative Analysis of Bandwidth Enhancement of Microstrip Patch Antenna using Various Geometries," IOSR Journal,Vol.3, Issue 4, Sep.2012

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison between Different Wireless Sensor Simulation Tools
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. Poonam Chhimwal, Dhajvir Singh Rai, Deepesh Rawat

Abstract: Wireless sensor network have recently come into prominence because they hold the potential to revolutionize segment of our economy and life with its wide applications. Unlike a centralized system, a sensor network is formed by large numbers of networked sensing nodes. They are having unique set of resource constraints such as finite onboard battery power and limited network communication bandwidth. Since running real experiments is costly and time consuming, simulation is essential to study Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). It is rather complex, or even unfeasible, to model analytically a WSN and it usually leads to oversimplified analysis with limited confidence. Therefore, simulation is essential to study WSN. The word "wise" in the title indicate the meaning most appropriate according to their usage and testing

Keywords: Sensor network, simulation, tools.

[1] D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, S. Kumar, "Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks", ACM MobiCom'99, Washington, USA, 1999, pp. 263–270.

[2] Sourendra Sinha, Zenon Chaczko, Ryszard Klempous, "SNIPER: A Wireless Sensor Network Simulator", Computer Aided Systems Theory- EUROCAST , 2009, Volume 5717/2009, pp. 913-920

[3] E. Egea-Lopez, J. Vales-Alonso, A. S. Martinez-Sala, P. Pavon-Marino, J. Garcia-Haro; "Simulation Tools for Wireless Sensor Networks", Summer Simulation Multiconference, SPECTS, 2005, pp.2-9

[4] S. Park, A. Savvides, M. B. Srivastava. "SensorSim: A Simulation Framework for Sensor Networks." In Proc. ACM Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM 2000), Boston, MA, pp. 104–111, August 2000

[5] A. Sobeih, W. Chen, J. C. Hou, L. Kung, N. Li, H. Lim, H. Tyan, H. Zhang, "J-Sim: A simulation and emulation environment for wireless sensor networks." In Proc. Annual Simulation Symposium (ANSS 2005), San Diego, CA, pp. 175–187, April2005.

[6] Harsh Sundani, Haoyue Li, Vijay K. Devabhaktuni, Mansoor Alam, & Prabir Bhattacharya, "Wireless Sensor Network Simulators A Survey and Comparisons." International Journal of Computer Networks (IJCN), Volume2: Issue 5, 2010, pp 250

[7] http://castalia.npc.nicta.com.au/documentation.php

[8] Tobias Doerel, "Simulation of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks with QualNet", Chemnitz, 2009

[9] The NS-3 network simulator :http://www.nsnam.org/

[10] Nurul I. Sarkar and Syafnidar A. Halim," A Review of Simulation of Telecommunication Networks: Simulators, Classification, Comparison, Methodologies, and Recommendations", Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT), March Edition, 2011



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