IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 5 - Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Compressive Wideband Power Spectrum Analysis for Eeg Signals Using Fastica And Neural Network
Country : India
Authors : R.Selvi, S.T.Sadish Kumar, Dr. Kasthuri. N
: 10.9790/2834-0510107      logo

Abstract: In several applications, such as wideband spectrum sensing for cognitive radio, only the power spectrum (a.k.a. the power spectral density) is of interest and there is no need to recover the original signal itself. In addition, high-rate analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are too power hungry for direct wideband spectrum sensing. These two facts have motivated us to investigate compressive wideband power spectrum sensing, which consists of a compressive sampling procedure and a reconstruction method that is able to recover the unknown power spectrum of a wide-sense stationary signal from the obtained sub-Nyquist rate samples. The task oriented brain activity analysis and classification is a prime issue in EEG signal processing . The similar attempt has been done here to estimate the brain activity on the basis of power spectrum analysis. For this, the modified approach involving both Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methodologies has been used in this paper to investigate the behavior of brain's electrical activity for a simple case of visual attention.The input EEG signals are analyzed with the aid of Fast Independent Component Analysis (FastICA), a Statistical Signal Processing Technique, to obtain the components related to the detection of epileptic seizures. The BackPropagation Neural Network is trained with the obtained components for effective detection of epileptic seizures. Index Terms : EEG signal, ICA and PCA, BPNN, ANN.

[1] Dyonisius Dony Ariananda, Student Member, IEEE, and Geert Leus, Fellow,IEEE (september 2012),IEEE transactions on signal
processing, "Compressive Wideband Power Spectrum Estimation" Vol. 60, No.9,
[2] Mitul Kumar Ahirwal and Narendra D londhe, (March 2012) "Power Spectrum Analysis of EEG Signals for Estimating Visual
Attention." Assistant Professors National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur-492010, International Journal of Computer
Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 42– No.15,
[3] Digital Analysis Of EEG Brain Signal Mr. Rash Dubey,(2011) Asst. Prof., E & IE, APJ College of Engg., Sohna, Gurgaon, 121003
– India
[4] M. Mishali and Y. Eldar,( Apr. 2010) "From theory to practice: Sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals," IEEE J.
Sel. Top. Signal Process., Vol. 4, No. 2.
[5] Sivasankari. N and Dr. K. Thanushkodi Int. J. (2009) Automated Epileptic Seizure Detection in EEG Signals Using FastICA and
Neural Network Advance. Soft Comput Appl., Vol. 1, No. 2,
[6] Lias, S., Sulaiman, N., Murat, Z.M., and Taib, M.N. 2010 IQ Index using Alpha-Beta Correlation of EEG Power Spectrum Density
(PSD), Paper Presented at the IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA) Penang, Malaysia.
[7] EEG/ERP data vailable for free public download. Obtained through the Internet: http: //sccn.ucsd.edu
/~arno/fam2data/publicly_available_EEG_data.html, [accessed 15/01/2011].
[8] EEGLAB a Matlab tool box for EEG analysis Obtained through the Internet:http://sccn.ucsd.edu [accessed 12/11/2010].
[9] Hamid N.H.A., Sulaiman, N., Aris, S.M.A., Murat Z.H., and Taib, M.N., 2010 Evaluation of Human Stress Using EEG Power
Spectrum, Paper Presented at the International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications (CSPA).
[10] M. Kim and J. Takada, (Sep. 2009) "Efficient multichannel wideband spectrum sensing technique using filter bank," in Proc. IEEE
Int. Symp. Pers. IndoorMobileRadio Commun. (PIMRC 2009), Tokyo, Japan,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis OF Wimax Under Jamming Effect for Various Antennas
Country : India
Authors : Leena K Parmar
: 10.9790/2834-0510812      logo

Abstract: Use of Internet is increasing day by day. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to the internet but range is limited to certain meters only. So concept of WiMAX is introduced to increase the range. WiMAX[1] means worldwide interoperability for microwave access. WiMAX is also known as wireless broadband. The WiMAX based on IEEE 802.16, has been one of the most important technologies in communication networks providing voice, data and video services with different type of QoS (Quality of Service) during last few years. The main purpose of this paper is to see and evaluate the performance of a WiMAX physical layer scenario for various modulation schemes, in the presence and absence of jammer. The simulator encompasses the blocks that build the physical layer of IEEE 802.16e. BER results are presented with the presence of jamming under different digital modulations schemes as well as different antennas. Simulation approach is main concern here. OPNET MODELER is the software used for the simulation purpose.

Keywords– WiMAX, Physical Layer Jamming, Scrambling, OPNET MODELER, Modulation Schemes.

1] Jeffrey G. Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX Understanding Broadband Wireless
Networking: Prentice-Hall.
[2] Simon Haykin, Michael Moher, Modern Wireless communication, Prentice-Hall.
[3] Syed Ahson, Mohmmad Ilyas, Syed Ahson, Mohammad Ilyas, WiMAX Standards and Security. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2008.
[4] Taeshik Shon and Wook Choi (2007), "An Analysis of Mobile WiMAX security: Vulnerabilities and Solutions"
[5] LUO Cuilan (2009), "A Simple Encryption Scheme Based on WiMAX", Department of Electronics Jiangxi University of Finance
and Economics Nanchang, China .
[6] Boris Makarevitch, "Jamming Resistant Architecture for WiMAX Mesh Network", communications Laboratory Helsinki University of Technology.
[7] Juan Li, Sven-Gustav Häggman (2006), "Performance of IEEE 802.16 Based System in Jamming Enviornment and Its
Improvement With Link Adaption", The 17th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio
Communications (PIMRC'06).
[8] Mahmoud Nasreldin, Heba Aslan, Magdy El-Henna wy, Adel El-Hennawy (2008), "WiMAX Security", 22nd International
Conference on Advanced Information Networking and applications.
[9] White paper by Motorola (2007), "WiMAX Security for Real- World Network Service Provider Deployments".
[10] Rakesh Kumar Jha and Dr Upena Dalal "Security Comparison of Wired and Wireless Network with Firewall and Virtual
Private Network (VPN)" International Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Comput ing, IEEE
Xplore,kerela,March 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Unearthing the Compromised Nodes and Restoring them in Wireless Sensor Network
Country : India
Authors : Abhinaya.E.V
: 10.9790/2834-0511318      logo

Abstract: Sensor nodes are usually deployed in an open environment therefore they are subjected to various kinds of attacks like Worm Hole attack, Black Hole attack, False Data Injection attacks. Since the attackers can cause disruption and failure to the network, it's very important to detect these compromised nodes and revoke them before any major disruption occurs. Therefore, it's very important to safe guard the network from further disruption. For this purpose a method called Biased SPRT (Sequential Probability Ratio Test) is used by setting up some Threshold Value and Trust Aggregator in the network scenario for which the network is divided into number of Zones.

Key terms – Compromised Node, SPRT, B-SPRT, Trust Aggregator, Zones, False Positives, False Negatives.

[1] S.Capkun and J.P. Hubaux. Secure positioning in wireless networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 24(2):221–
232, February 2006.
[2] S.Ganeriwal and M. Srivastava. Reputation-based framework for high integrity sensor networks. In ACM SASN, October 2004.
[3] J. Ho, M. Wright, and S.K. Das. Fast Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Sensor Networks Using Sequential Analysis. In IEEE
INFOCOM,April 2009.
[4] X. Hu, T. Park, and K. G. Shin. Attack-tolerant time-synchronization in wireless sensor networks. In IEEE INFOCOM, April 2008.
[5] J. Jung, V. Paxon, A.W. Berger, and H. Balakrishnan. Fast port scan detection using sequential hypothesis testing. In IEEE S&P,
May 2004.
[6] Z. Li, W. Trappe, Y. Zhang, and B. Nath. Robust statistical methods for securing wireless localization in sensor networks. In IEEE
IPSN, April2005.
[7] B. Parno, A. Perrig, and V.D. Gligor. Distributed detection of node replication attacks in sensor networks. In IEEE S&P, May 2005.
[8] Y. Sun, Z. Han, W. Yu, and K. Liu. A trust evaluation framework in distributed networks: vulnerability analysis and defense against
attacks In IEEE INFOCOM, April 2006.
[9] A. Wald. Sequential analysis. Dover Publications, 2004.
[10] Y. Yang, X. Wang, S. Zhu, and G. Cao. Distributed software-basedattestation for node compromise detection in sensor networks. In IEEE SRDS, October 2007.onal Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Comput ing, IEEE

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Local Oscillators Phase Noise Cancellation Methods
Country : India
Authors : R. Subha Sharmini Devi, S.Anbu Suhantha, A.Lakshmi
: 10.9790/2834-0511924      logo

Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme that employs a large number of orthogonal Closely-spaced sub-carriers. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a modulation scheme (QPSK or QAM generally) at a low symbol rate. Each of the sub-carrier is then multiplexed together and this forms the OFDM signal. In practice OFDM signals are generated and detected using the Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm. OFDM is a widely recognized modulation scheme for high data rate communications.However, the plementation of OFDM systems suffers from the phase noise introduced by the local oscillator causes two effects: The common phase error (CPE) , and The inter carrier interference (ICI) . In this paper we address the problem of phase noise suppression in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

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systems," in Proc. ICC'95, pp. 1652-1657, 1995.
[2] S. Wu and Y. Bar-Ness, "Computationally efficient phase noise cancellation technique in OFDM systems with phase noise," in
Proc. ISSSTA'04, pp. 788-792, 2004.
[3] S. Wu and Y. Bar-Ness, "A new phase noise mitigation method in OFDM systems with simultaneou s CPE and ICI correction," in
Proc.MCSS'03, Sept, 2003.
[4] J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come," IEEE Communications Magazine,
vol. 28,no. 5, pp. 5–14, May 1990.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Wireless Physiological Parameter Monitoring and Recording System
Country : India
Authors : M. Manojprabu
: 10.9790/2834-0512535      logo

Abstract: The design and development of a Zigbee smart non-invasive wearable physiological parameters monitoring device has been developed and reported in this paper. The system can be used to monitor physiological parameters, such as temperature and heart rate, of a human subject. The system consists of an electronic device which is worn on the wrist and finger, by an at-risk person. Using several sensors to measure different vital signs, the person is wirelessly monitored within his own home. An impact sensor has been used to detect falls. The device detects if a person is medically distressed and sends an alarm to a receiver unit that is connected to a computer. This sets off an alarm, allowing help to be provided to the user. The device is battery powered for use outdoors. The device can be easily adapted to monitor athletes and infants. The low cost of the device will help to lower the cost of home monitoring of patients recovering from illness. A prototype of the device has been fabricated and extensively tested with very good results.

[1] J. L. Weber and F. Porotte, "Medical remote monitoring with clothes," in PHealth, Luzerne, Jan. 2006, vol. 31, pp. 246-252.
[2] J. M. Wilkinson, "Medical market for Microsystems," Int. Newsletter Microsyst. MEMS, no. 4/02, p. 37, Sep. 2002.
[3] Y. Hao and J. Foster, "Wireless sensor networks for health monitoring applications," Physiological Meas., vol. 29, no. 11, pp.
R27-R56,2008.
[4] A. Pantelopoulos and N. Bourbakis, "Design of the new prognosis wearable system-prototype for health monitoring of people at
risk," in Advances in Biomedical Sensing, Measurements, Instrumentation and Systems, S. C. Mukhopadhyay and A. Lay-
Ekuakille, Eds. : Springer-Verlag, 2010, vol. 55, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, pp. 29-42.
[5] S. Ohta, H. Nakamoto, Y. Shinagawa, and T. Tanikawa, "A Health monitoring system for elderly people living alone," J.
Telemedicine and Telecare, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 151-156, Jun. 2002.
[6] A. Dittmar, F. Axisa, G. Delhomme, and C. Gehin, "New concepts and technologies in home care and ambulatory monitoring,"
Studies in Health Technol. Inform., pp. 9-35, 2004.
[7] F. Rahman, A. Kumar, G. Nagendra, and G. Sen Gupta, "Network approach for physiological parameter measurement," IEEE
Trans. In-strum. Meas., vol. 54, pp. 337-346, Feb. 2005.
[8] E. Jovanov, D. Raskovic, J. Price, J. Chapman, A. Moore, and A. Krish-namurthy, "Patient monitoring using personal area
networks of wireless intelligent sensors," Biomed. Sci. Instrum., pp. 373-378, 2001. [9] M. Scholtz, "Addressing the global
demands for improved healthcare," in Proc. Telemedicine 21st Century, Opportunities Citizens, Society, Industry, 1999, pp. 11-18.
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index. html

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Aggregate Model for the Prediction of Electricity Demand: Calabar South in Nigeria as Case Study.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ekpenyong, E.E, Bam, M.E, Anyasi, F.I
: 10.9790/2834-0513644      logo

Abstract: This study examines three levels of models; the Basic empirical model, the Phi (ф) model and the composite model for the prediction of electricity demand in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were collected from primary sources which included, households, industries etc. The study reveals that the total electricity installed in Nigeria is about 9,000MW at which above 105MW is supplied to Calabar District and 16MW supplied to Calabar South Local Government Area. By 2015 it is expected to be 64.200MW. The developed model is capable of forecasting electricity demand on a sectional basis as well as on zonal basis. This would provide necessary planning data for electricity generation, transmission and distribution.

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National Productivity Centre. Page 56. (1987).
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(1983).
[3] PHCH. "Power sector Report", pp. 43 - 45, (2010).
[4] Aya, Peter O. "The Overview of the state Electrification in Nigeria". Mbendi Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 15 -17, (2008).
[5]. Ibe, D. G. "The overview of Electricity in Nigeria", Nigeria Tribune, pp. 4 – 6, (2010).
[6]. Udo-Aka, U. "Measuring productivity" Issues and Problems in Electricity Production in Nigeria, Proceedings of a National
Conference, Edited by Osoba, A.M., Page 75. (1983).
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Journal, 117: pp. 189 - 217. (2007).
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No. 4, pp. 7 – 16, (2009).
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Nigeria (July - October), pp. 36 – 42, (2005).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microprocessor Based Controller For A Motor Car Park
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ebegba, D,Anyasi, F.I,
: 10.9790/2834-0514551      logo

Abstract: This work involves the implementation of a microprocessor based motor car park management system. Embedded system design approach was adopted. Components were selected and interconnected according to their function. The system comprised of two parts, a small hardware part and a program code or software part. The hardware part has a micro controller, which is a mini-computer. The microprocessor was programmed to perform the counting task. The system records the vehicles inside the parking lot and notifies the available space, thereby controlling the access into the parking lot.

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Parking and transportation planning consulting engineers Group Inc. USA.
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Transportation Research Record No. 1360, National Research Council, Washington D.C..
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Transportation Res. Group, California Polytechnical State University, San Luis Obispo, California, JAMAR Technologies, Inc.,
Catalog Number 7, Horsham, PA.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Energy Saving In Wireless Sensor Network Using Burst Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : S.Punithashankari, P.Kalyanasundaram, Dr.T.Gnanasekaran
: 10.9790/2834-0515259      logo

Abstract: A wireless sensor network is composed of a large number of low-cost devices distributed over a geographic area. Sensor nodes have limited processing capabilities therefore simplified protocol architecture should be designed so as to make communications simple and efficient. Moreover, the power supply unit is based on an energy-limited battery the networks should be aimed at minimizing the energy consumption. A forwarding scheme for WSN aimed at combining low computational complexity and high performance in terms of energy efficiency and reliability. The approach relies on a packet-splitting algorithm based on the BURST algorithm. The performance of burst is to be obtained by Shortest Path with Load Balancing (SP).The energy efficiency is low in this splitting process compare to those shortest paths. To estimation of the mean energy reduction factor achievable with the forwarding scheme should be derived and the reassembling is done in destination side, the values to be coded in code block. Simulated using MATLAB simulator. The proposed algorithm outperforms in terms of energy saving and increases the network lifetime.

Index: BURST, WSN, SP, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, PACKETS.

[1] Giuseppe Campobello, Alessandro Leonardi, and Sergio (2012), "Improving Energy Saving and Reliability in Wireless Sensor
Networks Using a Simple CRT-Based Packet-Forwarding solution ieee/acm transactions on networking, vol. 20.
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17, no. 4, pp. 1186–1199.
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in Proc.ieee icc, Dresden, Germany, pp. 1–6.
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dissemination scheme for wireless sensor networks using fountain codes, demo abstract," in Proc.acm Sensor System , Sydney,
Australia, Nov pp. 389–390.
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simulation sand implementations," in Proc. Int. Workshop Localized Algorithm Protocols WSNs, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 15–29.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Using Mono-Alphabetic Substitution to Secure Against Threats and Risk in Information Technology
Country : Nigeria
Authors : G. I. Ighalo, T. E. Ighalo, B. S. Ighalo
: 10.9790/2834-0516064      logo

Abstract: The awareness the world over on information technology (IT) is a welcome development but calls for great care and concern. This is so as there are out there, many people with evil minds who see nothing good that they would not capitalize on. There are persons who would want to create problems to make systems not workable while there are others who would want to steal or destroy such systems. This write-up therefore tries to analyse information technology systems, looking at all possible threats and risks and how to combat or make such systems secure. In doing this, very simple yet difficult to guess systems software are designed to check evil practices such that would-be risk or threat persons would find it difficult to use. Encryption methods that use either the substitution or transposition principles are designed to protect such threats or risk. The written program will encipher and decipher information such that the integrity of the information is protected. This method chooses this enciphering and deciphering such that any user can easily learn and design his/her own keys which are not stored in the system. Other measures that will check threats and risks are proposed and counter measures that are involved with access control are provided. A better risk management and training are proposed.

Keywords: cipher, integrity, risk, substitution, threats, transposition

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