IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 4 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Surveillance on Manycasting Over Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Networks under Secure Sparse Regeneration
Country : India
Authors : C.Veera lakshmi, V.Kavitha
: 10.9790/2834-0460108      logo

Abstract: In wavelength-routed WDM optical networks requires regeneration for few light paths, when the strength of optical signal reduced and also security and privacy are essential before Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks can become an everyday reality. Manycasting is a communication paradigm to implement the distributed applications. In manycasting, destinations can join or exit the group, depending on the service requirements imposed on them. This dynamic movement of the destinations in the group decreases blocking effect. Each application requires its own QoS threshold attributes like physical layer properties, delay as a result of transmission and reliability of the link. If the destinations satisfy the required QoS constraints set up by the application, then only they will qualify. There are two algorithms MCM-SPT and MCM-DM required for manycasting to resolve the multiconstraint QoS drawback. For continuous burst transmission lightpath should be regenerated before it loses the information due to lack of signal strength. To recover signal strength by sparse regeneration, where OOO switches are replaced by OEO swtches. There are three algorithms 1).NDF 2).CNF 3).SQP. Sometimes, there is an opportunity for the attacker to join the group. Service provided to the attacker is restricted by providing two levels of security. Using1).RSA algorithms, data level security is provided and using 2).certificate authentication, link level security is provided.
Keywords: Certificate generation, Manycasting, Optical Burst Switching Networks (OBS), Sparse regeneration, Quality of Service (QoS).

[1] Diaasalama Abd Elminaam, Hatem Mohamad Abdual Kader, Mohly Mohamed Hadhoud , Evalution of the Performance of
Symmetric Encryption Algorithms, International journal of network security,vol. 10, No.3, pp, 216-222, May 201.
[2] B. G. Balagangadhar, QoS Aware Quorumcasting Over Optical Burst Switched Networks, doctoral diss., Indian Institute
of Science, Bangalore, India, Electrical and Communication Engineering July 2008.
[3] Chen.Y, Qiao. C, Yu and X, Optical burst switching a new area in optical networking research, IEEE Netw. 18, 16– 23, 2004.
[4] Qiao. C, Labeled optical burst switching for IP-over -WDM integration, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38(9), 104–114 (2000).
[5] Qiao, C, Yoo.M, Optical Burst Switching (OBS) — A new Paradigm for an optical internet, J. High Speed Netw. 8(1), 69–84, 1999.
[6] Turner.J, Terabit burst switching High Speed, J. High Speed Netw 8(1), 3–16, (1999).
[7] Yoo, M. Qiao, C, Dixit. S,Optical Burst switching for Service Differentiation in the next - generation optical internet, IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 98–104, 2001.
[8] X. Huang, Q. She, V. M.Vokkarane and J. P. Jue, Manycasting over optical burst - switched (OBS) networks, Proc. IEEE
ICC, Glasgow, Scotland, May 2007, pp. 2353–2358.
[9] A. Kaheel, T. Khattab A. Mohamed and H. Alnuweiri, Quality - of service Mechanismsin IP –over networks, IEEE Commun. Mag.
vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 38–43, Dec. 2002.
[10] B. G. Bathula, V. M. Vokkarane and R. R. C. Bikram, Impairment aware manycasting over optical Burst - switched (OBS)
networks, Proc. IEEE ICC, Bejing, China, May 2008, pp. 5234–5238.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Energy Efficiency Using LEARN Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Srigitha.S.Nath (Ph.D), Suviga.K
: 10.9790/2834-0460916      logo

Abstract: A number of energy-aware routing protocols were proposed to seek the energy efficiency of routes in Multihop wireless networks. Among them, several geographical localized routing protocols were proposed to help making smarter routing decision using only local information and reduce the routing overhead. However, all proposed localized routing methods cannot guarantee the energy efficiency of their routes. In this article, we first give a simple localized routing algorithm, called Localized Energy-Aware Restricted Neighbourhood routing (LEARN), which can guarantee the energy efficiency of its route if it can find the route successfully. The critical transmission radius in random networks which can guarantee that LEARN routing finds a route for any source and destination pairs asymptotically almost surely. So by using LEARN algorithm the energy efficient of the source and destination pair is thus may be maintained and the attacks occurs in the wireless network can also be reduced. One can also extend the proposed routing into three-dimensional (3D) networks and derive its critical transmission radius in 3D random networks.
Keywords: LEARN, Localized routing, 3D network, Multihop, CRT, Energy Efficient

[1] Minimum energy reliable paths using unreliable wireless links
[2] Optimal local topology knowledge for energy efficient geographical routing in sensor networks
[3] Power and cost aware localized routing with guaranteed delivery in wireless networks
[4] Asymptotic critical transmission radius for greedy forward routing in wireless ad hoc networks
[5] Decentralized detection in sensor networks
[6] R. Viswanathan and P. K. Varshney, ―Distributed detection with multiple sensors: Part I—Fundamentals,‖ Proc. IEEE, vol. 85, pp. 54–63, Jan. 1997.
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pp.407–416, Feb. 2003.
[10] J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal, ―Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey,‖ IEEE Wireless Commun., pp. 6 –28, Dec.2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Printed Coupled Loop Wideband Antenna Design for Wireless Communication
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Shoaib Ahmed Khan
: 10.9790/2834-0461721      logo

Abstract: This paper explains the wideband loop antenna design for wireless communication. Printed antennas are supposed to be more attractive for mobile phone operations for achieving WWAN purposes. In mobile phones theses antenna usually cover the internal circuitry at the top or bottom of the device and they also require further isolation in order to get negligible coupling effect properly that comes due to the coupling between the radiation part of the antenna and the ground plane [1] to [3]. This will limit the internal integration of the antenna with the other circuitry of the cell phone for using it for WWAN purposes for example for achieving better SAR [4]. The proposed antenna consists of the folded loop and some patches in the ground plane to achieve desired goals. The ground plane and feeding part of the antenna are separated by FR4 substrate. Input is given through the capacitively coupled feeding port on the backplane. The antenna is designed to cover ranges of many bands such as, GSM (850/900MHz and 1800/1900MHz), WLAN (2.4GHz) and also the higher frequency bands such as ISM band. The antenna designed, gives very good return loss and has fine radiation pattern. The simulation of antenna in software called HFSS, version 11.0. I personally prefer to design antenna on this software because it gives a lot of customization options.

[1] C. M. Su, K. L. Wong, C. L. Tang and S. H. Yeh, "EMC internal patch antenna for UMTS operation in a mobile device," IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propagat., vol. 53, pp. 3836-3839, 2005.
[2] K. L. Wong and C. H. Chang, "Surface-mountable EMC monopole chip antenna for WLAN operation," IEEE Trans. Antennas
Propagat., vol. 54, pp. 1100-1104, 2006.
[3] C. H. Wu, K. L. Wong and J. S. Row, "EMC internal GSM/DCS patch antenna for thin PDA phone application," Microwave Opt.
Technol. Lett., vol. 49, pp. 403-408, 2007.
[4] American National Standards Institute (ANSI), "Safety levels with respect to human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field,
3 kHz to 300 GHz," ANSI/IEEE standard C95.1, 1999.
[5] Y. W. Chi and K. L. Wong, "Quarter-wavelength printed loop antenna with an internal printed matching circuit for
GSM/DCS/PCS/UMTS operation in the mobile phone," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 57, pp. 2541-2547, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement Of Satellite Image Resolution With Moving Objects
Country : India
Authors : A. Abirami, N. Akshaya, D. Poornakala, D. Priyanka, C. Ram kumar
: 10.9790/2834-0462227      logo

Abstract: Satellite images are being used in many applications like Meteorology, Agriculture, Geology, Forestry, Landscape, Biodiversity, Planning, Education, Regional, Seismology and oceanography. The Enhanced satellite images make diagnostic details more obvious. The Image Enhancement is the main technique for improving the resolution and visual appearance of the image. One of the major issues in Image Enhancement is Wavelet Transform. The Wavelet Transform is the method which decomposes an image into a set of basic functions called Wavelets. These basis functions are limited in duration and are inherently local. A Resolution Enhancement technique is based on the Interpolation of the high-frequency subbands obtained by Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT). Bicubic interpolation is used as a intermediate stage for estimating high frequency components and it is more sophisticated than the nearest neighbor and bilinear techniques. The proposed technique has the advantages of superior resolution, sharper image and smoother edges. The PSNR improvement of the proposed technique is up to 7.19dB.
Keywords: Image resolution, Edge detection, transforms, cycle spinning

[1] G. Anbarjafari and H. Demirel, "Image super resolution based on interpolation of wavelet domain high frequency subbands and the
spatial domain input image," ETRI J., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 390–394, Jun. 2010.
[2] S.G Chang, Z. Cvetkovic and M. Vetterli, "Resolution enhancement of image using wavelet transform extrema ex-trapolation",
Proc.ICASSP'95, vol.4,pp.2379-2382, May 1995
[3] M. S. Crouse, R. D. Nowak, and R. G. Baraniuk, "Wavelet-based statistical signal processing using hidden Markov models," IEEE
Trans. SignalProcess., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 886–902, Apr. 1998.
[4] H. Demirel, G. Anbarjafari, and S. Izadpanahi, "Improved motion-based localized super resolution technique using discrete wavelet
transform for low resolution video enhancement," in Proc. 17th EUSIPCO, Edinburgh, U.K., Aug. 2009, pp. 1097–1101.
[5] H. Demirel and G. Anbarjafari, "Satellite image resolution enhancement using complex wavelet transform," IEEE Geosci. Remote
Sens. Lett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 123–126, Jan. 2010.
[6] Glenn, W., Daniel, J.J., Zia, U.R. and Glenn, H. (2005) "Enhancement of Imagery in Poor Visibility Conditions‟, Proceedings of
SPIE, Vol. 5778, No.05, pp. 889.
[7] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2007.
[8] HasanDemirel and GholamrezaAnbarjafari,"Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Satellite Image Resolution
enhancement",IEEETrans.geosci.RemoteSens.,vol.49,no.6,pp.1997-2004,june 2011.
[9] H. Demirel, G. Anbarjafari, and S.Izadpanahi, "Improved motion-based localized super resolution technique using discrete wavelet
transform for low resolution video enhancement," in Proc. 17th EUSIPCO, Edinburgh,U.K., Aug.2009, pp. 1097–1101.
[10] K. Kinebuchi, D. D. Muresan, and T.W. Parks, "Image interpolation using wavelet based hidden Markov trees," in Proc. IEEE
ICASSP, 2001, vol. 3, pp. 7–11.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A review on RF based intruder detection using CW Doppler radar
Country : India
Authors : Lynette M. T., J. M. Kudargi2
: 10.9790/2834-0462831      logo

Abstract: In recent years, electromagnetic waves have become the medium of information exchange in free space for various applications ranging from home appliances to industrial products, from research laborites to defense applications, from mobiles to health monitoring systems. The development in the noncontact based intruder detection system via human vital sign using Doppler radar has attracted considerable interest of researchers. Due to the non contact nature and deep penetration level of radio frequencies, the vital sign detection system includes various domain of application, viz. medical, security, etc. this paper presents review of RF based intruder detection using CW Doppler radar. In this paper, vital sign detection techniques are presented.
Keywords: CW Doppler radar, heartbeat, intruder, radar receivers, respiration rate.

[1] Miss Zade Gauri N., Mr. Badnerkar S.S., "A Modern Microwave Life Detection System For Human Being Buried Under Rubble",
International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Research And Studies, E-Issn2249 – 8974, Ijaers/Vol. I/ Issue I/October-December,
2011/69-77.
[2] Lohman, B.; Boric-Lubecke, O.; Lubecke, V.M.; Ong, P.W.; Sondhi, M.M.; , "A Digital Signal Processor For Doppler Radar Sensing
Of Vital Signs," Engineering In Medicine And Biology Magazine, Ieee , Vol.21, No.5, Pp.161-164, Sept.-Oct. 2002
Doi: 10.1109/Memb.2002.1044188
[3] Olga Boric-Lubecke, Victor M. Lubecke, Isar Mostafanezhad1, Byung-Kwon Park, Wansuree Massagram, Branka Jokanovic,
"Doppler Radar Architectures And Signal Processing For Heart Rate Extraction", Mikrotalasna Revija, Decembar 2009.
[4] Ichapurapu, R.; Jain, S.; John, G.; Monday, T.; Lie, D.Y.C.; Banister, R.; Griswold, J.; , "A 2.4ghz Non-Contact Biosensor System
For Continuous Vital-Signs Monitoring," Wireless And Microwave Technology Conference, 2009. Wamicon '09. Ieee 10th Annual,
Vol., No., Pp.1-3, 20-21 April 2009
Doi: 10.1109/Wamicon.2009.5207236.
[5] Byung-Kwon Park, Alex Vergara, Olga Boric-Lubecke, Victor M. Lubecke, Anders Høst-Madsen, "Quadrature Demodulation With
Dc Cancellation For A Doppler Radar Motion Detector",
[6] Dany Obeid1, Sawsan Sadek2, Gheorghe Zaharia1, Ghaïs El Zein1, "Feasibility Study For Non-Contact Heartbeat Detection At 2.4
Ghz And 60 Ghz", Xxix General Assembly Of The International Union Of Radio Science (Ursi), Chicago: United States (2008),
[7] Obeid, D.; Sadek, S.; Zaharia, G.; El Zein, G.;, "Touch-Less Heartbeat Detection And Measurement-Based Cardiopulmonary
Modeling," Engineering In Medicine And Biology Society (Embc), 2010 Annual International Conference Of The Ieee , Vol., No.,
Pp.658-661, Aug. 31 2010-Sept.4 2010Doi: 10.1109/Iembs.2010.5627214

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modeling and Performance analysis of Metallic CNT Interconnects for VLSI Applications
Country : India
Authors : Y.Amar Babu, G.M.V.Prasad
: 10.9790/2834-0463236      logo

Abstract: THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY is confronting an acute problem in the interconnect area as IC feature sizes continually scale below 32 nm. When the cross sectional dimension of copper wires approach their mean free path (about 40 nm at room temperature), they suffer significant size effects because of increasing surface scattering, grain boundary scattering, and the presence of a highly resistive diffusion barrier layer, resulting in a sharp rise in copper resistivity. According to the 2011 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (http://public.itrs.net), copper's resistivity could be more than three times higher than its bulk value at the 22-nm technology node. This steep rise in resistivity will adversely impact both performance and reliability in terms of circuit delay, chip temperature, and current-carrying capacity. This limitation of copper interconnects is driving research for alternative interconnect materials and technologies for next-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging as the frontrunners to potentially replace copper for interconnects and passive devices in ICs, including vias and through-silicon vias (TSVs), horizontal wires (local, intermediate, and global levels) and off-chip interconnects.

[1] H. Li et al., ''Carbon Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Interconnects and Passives: Physics, Status, and Prospects,'' IEEE Trans.
Electron Devices, vol. 56, no. 9, 2009, pp. 1799-1821.
[2] T. Xu et al., ''Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Through- Wafer Interconnects,'' Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 4, 2007, article
042108.
[3] C. Xu et al., ''Compact AC Modeling and Analysis of Cu, W, and CNT Based Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) in 3-D ICs,'' Proc. IEEE
Int'l Electron Device Meeting (IEDM 09), IEEE Press, 2009, pp. 521-524.
[4] J. Li et al., ''Bottom-up Approach for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects,'' Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 15, 2003, pp. 2491 -
2493.
[5] T. Iwai et al., ''Thermal and Source Bumps Utilizing Carbon Nanotubes for Flip-Chip High Power Amplifiers,'' Proc. IEEE Int'l
Electron Device Meeting (IEDM 05), IEEE Press, 2005, pp. 257-260.
[6] K. Korda´s et al., ''Chip Cooling with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Microfin Architectures,'' Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 12,
2007, article 123105.
[7] M. Nihei et al., ''Low-Resistance Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Vias with Parallel Channel Conduction of Inner Shells,'' Proc.
IEEE Int'l Interconnect Technology Conf. (IITC 05), IEEE Press, 2005, pp. 234-236.
[8] M. Katagiri et al., ''Fabrication of 70-nm-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Via Interconnects by Remote Plasma- Enhanced Chemical
Vapor Deposition and Their Electrical Properties,'' Proc. IEEE Int'l Interconnect Technology Conf. (IITC 09), IEEE Press, 2009, pp.
44-46.
[9] J. Dijon et al., ''Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnects in Future Integrated Circuits: The Challenge of the Density,'' Diamond and
Related Materials, vol. 19, nos. 5-6, 2010, pp. 382-388.
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Super-Capacitor Electrodes,'' Nature Materials, vol. 5, no. 12, 2006, pp. 987-994.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Skin Infection Recognition using Curvelet
Country : India
Authors : Manisha, Nitika
: 10.9790/2834-0463741      logo

Abstract: This thesis identifies a novel space to address the problem of analyzing magnitude of skin infection from still images. This is based on the PCA space of the features extracted by a new multiresolution analysis tool called curvelet Transform. Curvelet Transform has better directional and edge representation abilities than widely used wavelet transform. Inspired by these attractive attributes of curve lets , we introduce the idea of decomposing images into its curvelet sub bands and applying PCA (Principal Component Analysis) on the selected subbands in order to create a representation feature set.A comparative study with wavelet – based and traditional PCA technique is also presented High accuracy rate achieved by the proposed method for two wellknown database indicates the potential of this curvelet based feature extraction method.
Keywords:- Curvelet,Wavelet,Pca,Eczima, Image Processing

[1] W. Zhao, R. Chellapa , A.Rosenfeld, P. J Philips , Face Recognition.A Literature Survey , ACM Computing Survey , pp399-
458,2003.
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pp274 – 276 A , 2007.
[3] S Arivazhagan , L. Ganesan , T.G . Subhash Kumar ; Texture classification using curvelet statistical and co – occurrence features ,
ICPR , vol 2 , pp938 – 941 , 2003.
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11 , Issue 6 , pp 670 – 684 , 2002.
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vol . 9 , Issue 2 , pp 226 – 233 , 2000.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Traffic Modelling For Capacity Analysis of CDMA Networks Using Lognormal Approximation Method
Country : Nigeria
Authors : J.J. Biebuma, B.O. Omijeh
: 10.9790/2834-0464250      logo

Abstract: This paper presents teletraffic modelling in cellular networks operating with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to assist in capacity analysis of such systems using statistical means. Since the introduction of CDMA, owing to capacity edge over other multiple access techniques, there is the need for tools that will assist in ensuring quality of service and proper network dimensioning. This work produces a model useful for capacity analysis. This is achieved by modelling telephone traffic using lognormal assumptions to generate a CDMA blocking probability that is adapted into Erlang B formula for capacity calculations. MATLAB is used to realise the blocking probability formula so developed such that numerical and graphical results are outputted. Results show the effect of variations in network parameters on CDMA. Thus the model is applicable in network planning and dimensioning.
Keywords: Teletraffic, Cellular network, CDMA, Erlang, Modelling, Lognormal

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and Computer Science, University of California Berkelay, CA, 94720, USA, 1995.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Public Transportation Management Services by Integrating GSM-GPS
Country : India
Authors : Raghava Bhonagiri, Prof.K.Subba Rao, Vinod Kumar Varkala, Gopikrishna Siliveri
: 10.9790/2834-0465156      logo

Abstract: This paper proposes and implements a solution for enhancing public transportation management services based on GPS and GSM in Andhra Pradesh. The system consists of four modules: BUS Station Module, In-BUS Module, BASE Station Module and BUS Stop Module. Equipped with PC and GSM modem, BUS Station Module sends the initialization information containing the bus number and license plate number to In-BUS Module and BASE Station Module using SMS. The microcontroller based In-BUS Module consisting mainly of a GPS receiver and GSM modem then starts transmitting its location and number of passengers to BASE Station Module. BASE Station Module equipped with a microcontroller unit and GSM modems interfaced to PCs is designed to keep track record of every bus, processes user request about a particular bus location out of BUS Station and updates buses location on bus stops. BUS Stop Module is installed at every bus stop and consists of a GSM modem, memory unit and dot matrix display all interfaced to a microcontroller. This module receives buses location information coming towards that stop from BASE Station module and displays the information on a dot matrix display. The results have shown that the developed system is useful for facilitating people using public transportation services.
Keywords : GPS;GSM;public transportation management services; Bus Station Module; In-BUS Module; BASE Station Module;BUS Stop Module;rush statistical analysis.

[1] M.A.Mazdi,J.C.Mazdi,R.D.Mckinaly, The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems,Pearson education,2006
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of an ANFIS Neural Network System for Early Diagnosis of Critical Health Condition of a Patient
Country : India
Authors : Taksala Devapriya A., Deepesh B.
: 10.9790/2834-0465763      logo

Abstract: Aim of this work is to design and training of a ANFIS neural network based early diagnosis of a patient through a smart instrument. The data collected from the patient is used to train the Neural Network. The rules are designed on the basis of the collected data. The data collected from the patients are weight, BMI, Glucose, Creatinine, Systolic BP, and Diastolic BP. The rules for system are given according to the characteristics of the data obtained from patients. The output is mainly classified into three classes that are severe, moderately critical, and normal. Output of Neural Network is connected to LED to display the corresponding outputs. The advantage of this system is we can implement this device as portable. Hence we can easily monitor the patient's condition at anywhere. And for the normal type of application we need a personal computer to compute the inputs and outputs. Because here we are using FPGA the problem can be easily avoided and also PC will need an uninterrupted power supply. For this device just battery power is enough to work. The FPGA will take a very small power only hence we can easily use the device a long time without charging again and again. These are some of the major advantages of Smart device.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, ANFIS, ANN, SSA

[1] M Venkatesan, Classification of Renal Failure Using Simplified Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map, IJCSNS International
Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.9 No.11, November 2009.
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Journal of Medical Informatics 54 (1999) 55–76.
[3] ZaritaZainuddin, A Neural Network Approach in Predicting the Blood Glucose Level for Diabetic Patients, International Journal of
Information and Mathematical Sciences 5:1 2009.
[4] Adenike O. Osofisan, Prediction of Kidney Failure Using Artificial Neural Networks, European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN
1450-216X Vol.61 No.4 (2011), pp.487-492

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design Analysis of a Security Lock System using Pass-Code and Smart-Card
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Omijeh, B.O, G.O.Ajabuego
: 10.9790/2834-0466472      logo

Abstract: In this work, Security Lock system using Pass code and smart card has been achieved. It is a micro controller based system which aims at interfacing selected hardware components with software to obtain a higher degree of security. In achieving this work, seven major stages were considered in the design methodology: Power supply unit, personal computer unit, micro controller unit, lock system unit, seven segment display, detector unit and alarm unit. The design specifications were strictly followed and the result obtained after construction and testing were very satisfactory. Indeed, security lock system using passcode and smartcard is a surer and safer form of security in this era of tremendous technological advancement..
Keywords: Pass-code, Smart-card, Microcontroller, Interfacing, Security Lock System.

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Cards. In Smart Card Programming and Security (E-smart 2001), Cannes, France, LNCS 2140, pp.200-210. September 2001.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Digital Audio watermarking using perceptual masking: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Anupama Barai, Associate Prof. Rohini Deshpande
: 10.9790/2834-0467378      logo

Abstract: Sharing electronic files on the internet has grown extremely fast over the last decade due to large volume of the mobile phones. These files include diverse forms of multimedia such as music, video, text and image. However digital files can be easily copied distributed and altered leading to copyright infringement. It is this ease of reproducing that causes copyright violations. Composers and distributors are more focused on implementing digital watermarking techniques to protect their material against illegal copying. Digital audio watermarking technique protects intellectual property by embedding watermark data into the audio file and recovering that information without affecting the audio quality of the original data. In this paper an overview of fundamental concepts of digital audio watermarking using perceptual masking is presented which includes a watermarking procedure to embed copyright protection into digital audio by directly modifying the audio samples. The procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking to guarantee that the embedded watermark is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by breaking each audio clip into smaller segments and adding a perceptually shaped pseudo-random sequence. The noise-like watermark is statistically undetectable to prevent unauthorized removal.
Keywords -Audio watermarking, Copyright Protection, Embedding, Frequency Masking Perceptual masking, Psychoacoustic Auditory Model, Temporal Masking.

[1] Pranab Kumar Dhar, Jong-Myon Kim, "Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Fast Fourier Transformation for Audio Copyright
Protection", International Journal of Security and Its Applications Vol. 5 No. 2,.pp33- 48, April, 2011
[2] Wahid Barkouti, Lotfi Salhi and Adnan Chérif, "Digital audio watermarking using Psychoacoustic model and CDMA modulation",
Signal & Image Processing : An International Journal (SIPIJ) Vol.2, No.2, June 2011
[3] Nedeljko Cvejic, "Algorithms for audio watermarking and steganography", University of Oulu., 2004, ISBN 951-42-7383-4.
[4] Wu M & Liu B, Multimedia Data Hiding. Springer Verlag, 2003, New York, NY.
[5] Arnold M, Wolthusen S & Schmucker M, "Techniques and Applications of Digital Watermarking and Content Protection" 2003 Artech House, Norwood, MA.
[6] David Martin Howard, James A. S. Angus, Acoustics and Psychoacoustics ( 4th Edition, illustrated, Focal 2009).
[7] Hugo Fastl, Eberhard Zwicker, Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models (Edition 3, Springer 2007).
[8] Oppenheim, A.V., and Schafer, R.W., Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Englewood Cliffs, 1989, NJ: Prentice-Hall).
[9] Taub and Schilling, Principles of Communication System (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1995).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Modified ABC Algorithm & Its Application to Wireless Sensor Network Dynamic Deployment
Country : India
Authors : Alina Rakhi Ajayan, Prof. S. Balaji
: 10.9790/2834-0467982      logo

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks plays a gargantuan role in instrumenting the modern day world; hence it is crucial to develop an optimal design flow. Out of the various Swarm intelligent algorithms developed so far, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm offers a vivid scope for this objective. First introduced for solving numerical optimization problems, ABC has now spread across almost every phase of WSN construction. In this study, an improved ABC algorithm has been proposed to match the different characteristics of wireless sensor network deployment process, which will be optimum for real time dynamic network functioning.
KEYWORDS: Wireless Sensor Networks, Swarm Intelligent Algorithms, scouts, foragers, onlookers, waggle dance, self organization, Opposition-based learning.

[1] Fahad S. Abu-Mouti, Mohamed E. El-Hawary, "Overview of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm and Its Applications", 978-1-
4673-0750-5/12/ ©2012 IEEE
[2] Celal ¨OZT¨URK, Dervi¸s KARABO˘GA, Beyza G¨ORKEML˙, "Artificial bee colony algorithm for dynamic deployment of
wireless sensor networks", Turk J Elec. Eng & Comp Sci., Vol.20, No.2, 2012, c_ T¨UB˙ITAK doi:10.3906/elk -1101-1030
[3] Gaige Wang 1,2, Lihong Guo 1,*, Hong Duan 3, Luo Liu 1,2 and Heqi Wang. "Dynamic Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks
by Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm" J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2012, 1, 86-96; doi:10.3390/jsan1020086,Journal of
Sensor and Actuator NetworksISSN 2224-2708.
[4] 4 Siba K. Udgata, Samrat L. Sabat, S. Mini , "Sensor Deployment in Irregular Terrain Using Artificial Bee Colony algorithm", 978-
1-4244-5612-3/09/$26.00_c 2009 IEEE
[5] Avinash Kaur, Sonu Agrawal, Department of CSE, CSVTU, Bhilai, India , " Locality Detection in Wireless Sensor Network using
Population based Algorithm", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 51– No.4, August 2012.
[6] Zhang Dongli , Guan Xinping , Tang Yinggan, Tang Yong, "Modified artificial bee colony algorithms for numerical optimization" ,
IEEE, 2012
[7] Dervis Karaboga1, Selcuk Okdem, and Celal Ozturk, "Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Network Routings using Artificial Bee
Colony Algorithm", 978-1-4244-7107-2/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE
[8] Selcuk Okdem, Dervis Karaboga and Celal Ozturk, "An Application of Wireless Sensor Network Routing based on Artificial Bee
Colony Algorithm",
[9] Celal Ozturk *, Dervis Karaboga and Beyza Gorkemli, " Probabilistic Dynamic Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks by
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm", Sensors 2011, 11, 6056-6065; doi:10.3390/s110606056, ISSN 1424-8220, 3 June 2011.
[10] Tarun Kumar Sharma, Millie Pant, "Enhancing the Food Locations in an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm ",978-1-61284-052-
9/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE proceedings.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A 3 dimensional Digital Image Skeltonization using 3x3x3 Structuring Element
Country : India
Authors : P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. M. Madhavi Latha
: 10.9790/2834-0468388      logo

Abstract: Image Skeletonization promises to be a powerful complexity-cutting tool for compact shape description, pattern recognition, robot vision, animation, petrography pore space fluid flow analysis, model/analysis of bone/lung/circulation, and image compression for telemedicine. The existing image thinning/skeletonization techniques using boundary erosion, distance coding, and Voronoi diagram are first overviewed to assess/compare their feasibility of extending from 2D to 3D. Previously, skeletons have been a common tool for identifying shape components in a solid object. However, obtaining skeletons of a grayscale volume poses new challenges due to the lack of a clear boundary between object and background. In this paper we propose a fast, efficient and robust algorithm to generate the skeleton of large, complex 3D images such as CT, MRI data which make use of 3X3X3 structuring elements for processing. This algorithm has been developed in the frame work of cellular logic array processing. Cellular logic array processing is a logico mathematical paradigm developed using the fundamental notions of normal algorithms and cellular automata. The algorithm provides a straightforward computation which is robust and not sensitive to noise or object boundary complexity. Because 3D skeleton may not be unique, several application-dependent skeletonization options will be explored for meeting specific quality/speed requirements..
Keywords: 3D Image Skeleton, structuring element, cellular automata, normal algorithm.

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[2] Arcelli, C. and Ramella, G., "Finding grey-skeletons by iterated voxel removal", Image and Vision Computing, vol.13, no. 3, pp. 159-267, Apr. 1995.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Systematic Analysis on Power Consumption in Conventional Cmos, Multiplexer Based and Hybrid Adder
Country : India
Authors : J.Muruga bharathi , M.Kalaiyarasi, R.Anusuyadevi
: 10.9790/2834-0468993      logo

Abstract: There has been a rapid increase in the popularity of portable and wireless electronic devices, like laptop computers, portable video players cellular phones, which rely on embedded digital signal processors. Since the desire is to design digital systems at best performance without power sacrifices, the need for high performance and low power multipliers is inevitable. Since multiplication is one of the most critical operations in many computational systems, Multipliers are in fact complex adder arrays. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis on power consumption in three different adders, each offering different advantages and having tradeoffs in terms of circuit complexity and power consumption. The 28 Transistor full adder is the pioneer CMOS traditional adder circuit. Which is the one which consume more power when compare to other two adder, the number of transistors required for conventional CMOS adder is 28. Recently, it has been proved that the multiplexer-based multiplier outperforms the modified Booth multiplier both in speed and power dissipation by 13% to 26%, due to small internal capacitance. After analyzing the performance characteristics of conventional multiplier types, it is observed that the one designed using multiplexer-based multiplication algorithm is more advantageous, especially when the size of the multiplied numbers is small. The number of transistors required for multiplexer based adder is 16.
Key words: Hybrid Adder, SERF Adder

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International Conference on Microelectronics (2000), pp.75–80.
[2] Dhireesha Kudithipudi and Eugene John Implementation of Low Power Digital Multipliers Using 10 Transistor Adder Blocks,
Laboratory for Low Power Design, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San
Antonio, TX 78249, USA
[3] Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Samuel Sheng, and Robert W. Brodersen, Fellow, IEEE, Low-Power CMOS Digital Design IEEE
JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS. VOL 27, NO 4. APRIL 1992.
[4] A. R. Fridi, "Partial multiplication: A low-power approach for parallel multiplier," ECE729 Course Project, Dept. Electrical and
Computer Eng., Univ. Waterloo, Apr. 1994.
[5] J. J. F. Cavanagh, Computer Science Series: Digital Computer Arithmatic. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
[6] A. Bellaouar and M. I. Elmasry, Low-Power Digital VLSI Design Circuits and Systems. Boston: Kluwer, 1995.
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10-14 Nov. 1996 Page(s):270 – 277
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of MAC Protocol for Reliable Broadcast in VANETs
Country : India
Authors : Savita
: 10.9790/2834-04694101      logo

Abstract: Wireless communications are becoming the dominant form of transferring information,and the most active research field. In this dissertation, we will present one of the most applicable forms of Ad-Hoc networks; the Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). VANET is the technology of building a robust Ad-Hoc network between mobile vehicles and each other, besides, between mobile vehicles and roadside units.Traffic maintenance in highway using broadcasting protocol is a new theme. It is important to find a reliable broadcasting protocol that is especially designed for an optimum performance of public-safety and data travelling related applications. Using RSU and OBU, there are four novel ideas presented in this research work, namely choosing the nearest following node as the network probe node, headway-based segmentation, nonuniform segmentation and application adaptive. The integration of these ideas results in a protocol that possesses minimum latency, minimum probability of collision in the acknowledgment messages and unique robustness at different speeds and traffic volumes.
Keywords - Broadcasting protocol ,DSRC , headway,MATLAB,VANET

[1] "USA National Transportation Statistics 2007," Bureau of Transportation Statistics, USA, 2007.
[2] Y. M. Y. Hasan, M. M. I. Taha, S. Alshariff, and A. Alakshar, "Integrated intra-vehicle – VANET system for increasing the road
safety," in Proc. Global Knowledge Forum NOOR-2008, Almadina, KSA, June 2008.
[3] IEEE P802.11p, "Amendment 3: wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE)," Draft D0.26, January 2006.
[4] Q. Xu, T. Mak, J. Ko, and R.Sengupta, "Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC," in Proc. of the 1st ACM Int. Workshop on
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks VANET‟04, NY, USA, pp.19 -28, 2004.
[5] X. Yang, L. Liu, N. H. Vaidya, and F. Zhao, "A vehicle-to-vehicle communication protocol for cooperative collision warning," in
Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Networking and Services, pp.114-123, 2004.
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Vehicular Technology Conf. VTC‟05, vol.5, pp.2840–2844, 2005.
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Communications for Network-Centric Operations: Creating the Information Force, vol.2, pp.1008-1013, vol.2, 2001.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Functional Link Artificial Neural Network for Denoising of Image
Country : India
Authors : Charu Pandey ,Vartika Singh ,O.P.Singh ,Satish Kumar
: 10.9790/2834-046109115      logo

Abstract: Digital image denoising is crucial part of image preprocessing. The application of denoising procesn satellite image data and also in television broadcasting. Image data sets collected by image sensors are generally contaminated by noise. Furthermore, noise can be introduced by transmission errors and compression. Thus, denoising is often a necessary and the first step to be taken before the images data is analyzed. In this paper a Modified Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (M-FLANN) is proposed which is simpler than a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). It have been implemented for image restoration in this paper. Its computational complexity and speed and generalization ability to cancel Gaussian noise is compared with that of MLP. In the single layer functional link ANN (FLANN) the need of hidden layer is eliminated. The novelty of the FLANN structure is that it requires much less computation than that of MLP. In the presence of additive white Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, Random variable impulse noise and mixed noise in the image the performance of the proposed network is compared with that of MLP in this paper. The Performance of the of algorithm is evaluated for six different situations i.e. for single layer neural network, MLP and four different types of expansion in FLANN and comparison in terms of computational complexity also carried out.

Index Terms— MLP, FLANN, Salt and Pepper noise.

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