IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 4 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Low Power H.264 Video Compression Achitecture for Mobile Communication
Country : India
Authors : K. Venkataphani Raja, S.Srilakshmi
: 10.9790/2834-0430114       logo

Abstract: This paper presents a method to reduce the computation and memory access for variable block size motion estimation (ME) using pixel truncation. Previous work has focused on implementing pixel truncation using a fixed-block size(16×16 pixels) ME. However, pixel truncation fails to give satisfactory results for smaller block partitions. In this paper, we analyze the effect of truncating pixels for smaller block partitions and propose a method to improve the frame prediction. Our method is able to reduce the total computation and memory access compared to conventional full-search method without significantly degrading picture quality. With unique data arrangement, the proposed architectures are able to saveup to 53% energy compared to the conventional full-search architecture. This makes such architectures attractive for H.264application in future mobile devices.
Keywords:Low-power design, motion estimation (ME), video coding, VLSI architecture.

[1] Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Services, ITU-T Recommendation H.264 & ISO/IEC 14496-10 (MPEG-4) AVC,
2005.
[2] C.-Y. Chen, S.-Y. Chien, Y.-W. Huang, T.-C. Chen, T.-C. Wang, and L.-G. Chen, "Analysis and architecture design of variable block-size motion estimationfor H.264/AVC," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Regular Papers, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 578–593, Mar.
2006.
[3] Z.-L. He, C.-Y. Tsui, K.-K. Chan, and M. L. Liou, "Low-power VLSI design for motion estimation using adaptive pixel
truncation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 669–678, Aug. 2000.
[4] A. Bahari, T. Arslan, and A. T. Erdogan, "Low computation and memory access for variable block size motion estimation using
pixel truncation," in Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Process. Syst. 2007 (SiPS '07), pp. 681–685.
[5] A. Bahari, T. Arslan, and A. Erdogan, "Low-power hardware architecture for vbsme using pixel truncation," in Proc. 21st Int. Conf.
VLSI Design, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 2008, pp. 389–394.
[6] B. Natarajan, V. Bhaskaran, and K. Konstantinides, "Low-complexity block-based motion estimation via one-bit transforms," IEEE
Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 702–706, Aug. 1997.
[7] A. Erturk and S. Erturk, "Two-bit transform for binary block motion estimation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.
15, no. 7,pp. 938–946, Jul. 2005.
[8] S. Lee, J.-M. Kim, and S.-I. Chae, "New motion estimation algorithm using adaptively quantized low bit-resolutionimage and its
VLSI architecture for MPEG2 video encoding," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 734–744, Oct. 1998.
[9] Y. Chan and S. Kung, "Multi-level pixel difference classification methods," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process., vol. 3.
Washington D.C., 1995, pp. 252–255.
[10] V. G. Moshnyaga, "Msb truncation scheme for low-power video processors," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 4.
Orlando, FL,1999, pp. 291–294.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Mobile Robot Navigation System Using RFID Technology
Country : India
Authors : S. Srilakshmi, K.Venkata Phani Raja
: 10.9790/2834-0431520       logo

Abstract:Skilled navigation in mobile robotics usually re-quires solving two problems pertaining to the knowledge of the position of the robot, and to a motion control strategy. When no prior knowledge of the environment is available, the problem becomes even more challenging, since the robot has to build a map of its surroundings as it moves. These three tasks ought to be solved in conjunction due to their interdependency. The present manuscript proposes a novel mobile robot navigation technique using a customized RFID reader with two receiving antennas mounted on the robot and a number of standard RFID tags attached in the robot's environment to define its path. In here, we show that using the RF signal from the RFID tags as an analog feedback signals can be a promising strategy to navigate a mobile robot within an unknown or uncertain indoor environment. This method is computationally simpler and more cost-effective than many of its counterparts in the state of the art. It is also modular and easy to implement since it is independent of the robot's architecture and its workspace. A set of numerical computer simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Keywords: RFID, Phase Difference, Fuzzy Logic Con-troller, Robot Sensing and Perception.

[1] W. Gueaieb and M. S. Miah, "Experiments on a novel modular cost-effective RFID-based mobile robot naviga- tion system," in
Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Montral,Canada, October 7–10 2007, pp.
1658–1663.
[2] J. Borenstein, H. R. Everett, L. Feng, and D. Wehe, "Mo-bile robot positioning: Sensors and techniques," Journal ofRobotic Systems, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 231–249, April 1997.
[3] L. R. Ojeda, G. D. Cruz, and J. Borenstein, "Current-based slippage detection and odometry correction for mo-bile robots and
planetary rovers," IEEE Transactions onRobotics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 366–378, April 2006.
[4] H. Makela and K. Koskinen, "Navigation of outdoor mobile robots using dead reckoning and visually detected landmarks," in Fifth
International Conference on AdvancedRobotics, 1991.
[5] T. D'Orazio, M. Ianigro, E. Stella, F. P. Lovergine, and
[6] J. Borenstein, H. R. Everett, L. Feng, and D. Wehe, "Mo-bile robot positioning: Sensors and techniques," Journal ofRobotic Systems, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 231–249, April 1997.
[7] L. R. Ojeda, G. D. Cruz, and J. Borenstein, "Current-based slippage detection and odometry correction for mo-bile robots and
planetary rovers," IEEE Transactions onRobotics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 366–378, April 2006. Canada, October 7–10 2007, pp. 1658–
1663.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Brain Computer Interface on its types on a future look
Country : India
Authors : Subha Austalekshmi.T.V, Vijaya Sarathi.S
: 10.9790/2834-0432124       logo

Abstract:A Brain computer interface acts as communication channel between human brain and the computer system. Many challenging disorders and diseases is been faced by the brain in the past, but still that may not be the case in the mere future. Among all the challenges, paralysis stands the most. An advanced brain computer interface called as Nano brain computer interface that could provide a two – way communication between human brain and external system. The major goal of BCI research is to develop a system that allows disabled people to communicate with other persons and help in replacing the destroyed neurons. This paper provides an insight into the future look BCI, its application recent developments and an open discussion in the measures and evaluation of brain activity.
Keywords: Nano BCI, BCI, Invasive and Non – Invasive, EEG, MEG, MRI and FRMI.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud deployment model and cost analysis in Multicloud
Country : India
Authors : Subash Babu Pandiri, Sangeeta Kulkarni
: 10.9790/2834-0432531       logo

Abstract:Cloud computing is a revolution in the way it offers computational capability. The information technology organizations do not need to oversize the infrastructure anymore, potentially reducing the cost of deploying a service. The two main objective of this paper is to study a cloud deployment model which involves user, broker, federated catalog system and to decrease the cost of deploying a service using a scheduling model. Many research works are going on to obtain the best out of the cloud. In this work, we propose a system which analyzes the cost by a scheduling model for optimizing virtual cluster placements across available cloud offers.
Keywords:cloud computing, federated cloud computing, intercloud, SLA, resource allocation

[1] B. Furht, "Cloud Computing Fundamentals, " Handbook of Cloud Computing, pp. 3-19, Springer, 2010.
[2] H. Khazaei, J. Mi~si~c, and V.B. Mi~si~c, "Performance Analysis of Cloud Centers," Proc. Seventh Int'l ICST Conf. Nov. 2010.
[3] M. Mihailescu and Y. M. Teo, "Dynamic resource pricing on federated clouds" 10th IEEE/ACM international conference on
cluster ,cloud and grid computing.
[4] Grimmett and D. Stirzaker, Probability and Random Processes, third ed. Oxford Univ. Press, July 2010.
[5] Sotomayor.R.monotero,I.LIorento.and I.Foster "Virtual infrastructure management in private and hybrid clouds," Internet
Computing IEEE, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 14 –22, sept.-oct. 2009.
[6] Bernstein, D.; Vij, D.; "Intercloud Security Considerations," Cloud Computing Technology and science , IEEE Second International
Conference on , vol., no., pp.537-544, Nov. 30 2010-Dec. 3 2010.
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Advances in Future Internet (AFIN), 2010 Second International Conference on , vol., no., pp.94-101, 18-25 July 2010.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on EBG Based Power Dividers
Country : India
Authors : Pranavi Mhatre, Jyoti. M. Varavdekar
: 10.9790/2834-0433235       logo

Abstract:In the recent years, there has been considerable activity in the area miniaturization of microwave devices. Miniaturization offers the benefits of low material costs, high production output and potentially faster operation. It can be achieved through various techniques such as 'Defected Ground Structure' (DGS), 'Electromagnetic Bandgap' (EBG), etc. This paper is a comprehensive review of EBG Based Power Dividers. The objective of the paper is to provide the readers with a broad perspective of the principle behind miniaturization of power dividers using EBG and the different EBG structures used for miniaturization of power dividers.
Keywords: Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG), Harmonic Suppression, Hybrid Ring, Miniaturization, Power Divider, Slow Wave Structure (SWS)

[1] Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York, 2005.
[2] Dusan Nesie, , Frequency A Brief Review of Microwave Photonic Bandgap (PBG) Structures, Microwave Review, pp 1824,
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[4] Chih-Ming Lin; Hsuan-Hung Su; Jui-Chieh Chiu; Yeong-Her Wang; , Wilkinson Power Divider Using Microstrip EBG Cells for
the Suppression of Harmonics, Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE , vol.17, no.10, pp.700-702, Oct. 2007
[5] Hsin-Hao Chen and Yi-Hsin Pang, A Dual-band Wilkinson Power Divider Utilizing EBG Structure, PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh,
MOROCCO, March 20-23, 2011, pp 1018-1020
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THEORYAND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 53, NO. 7, JULY 2005, pp 2329-2334

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Gain Enhancement of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Dual-FSS Superstrate Layer for ISM Band
Country : India
Authors : Shitiz Upreti, Saurabh Katiyar
: 10.9790/2834-0433640       logo

Abstract:In this paper, an effort is made to optimize the gain to show better performance analysis on the basis of design and simulation results by implementing FSS structured superstrate layer with circular microstrip patch antenna at operating frequency of 5.8 GHz for ISM Band applications. In this proposed antenna, co-axial feeding technique is utilized in order to have better impedance matching effects. In order to show our results better, we have made a comparative analysis with conventional microstrip patch antenna at the same frequency band to increase the gain, directivity and minimize the return loss of the desired antenna. In addition to this, it shows the advantages of utilizing the ism band and fss superstrate layers compared to other frequency bands. Full wave 3-D simulation results is carried out by using Ansoft based HFSS software, that is, based on Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling technique.
Keywords: Microstrip Antenna, FSS, ISM Band, Co-axial Feed, Impedance Matching. Directivity, Return Loss.

[1] Abbas Pirhadi, Hadi Bahrami, and Javad Nasri, Wideband High Directive Aperture Coupled Microstrip Antenna Design by Using a
FSS Superstrate Layer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. Vol. 60, No.4, April 2012.
[2] A. Foroozesh and L. Shafai, Investigation Into the Effects of the Patch-Type FSS Superstrate on the High-Gain Cavity Resonance,
IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 58, No.2, February2010.
[3] Muhammad Mahfuzul Alam, Md. Mustafizur Rahman Sonchoy, and Md. Osman Goni, "Design and Performance Analysis of
Microstrip Array Antenna", Progress In Electromagnetic Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 18 -21, 2009.
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[6] M. F. Islam, M. A. Mohd. Ali, B. Y. Majlis and N. Misran, Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Sar Applications, Australian
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(10): 4585- 4591, 2010.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Arterial Blood Pressure Measurement and Pulse Wave Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Prof.Subhash k.Ohal, Prof.R.J.Vaidya
: 10.9790/2834-0434146       logo

Abstract:The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform.
Keywords: Arterial pressure, sphygmomanometer, hypertension, ageing, cardiovascular risk, pulse pressure, heart rate, pulse waveform, pulse wave

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Improvement of OFDM Using Subcarrier Frequency Diversity
Country : India
Authors : Kiran V. Shanbhag
: 10.9790/2834-0434749       logo

Abstract:Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a key contender for broadcasting standards, due to its immunity towards multipath fading and ease of implementation. Here a novel scheme to exploit the frequency diversity within OFDM subcarriers has been proposed which further increases the bit error rate performance. The diversity is achieved by circularly shifting the OFDM subcarrier coefficients in pseudorandom manner. Thus we notice a significant performance improvement without any additional bandwidth requirements.
Keywords: OFDM, BER performance, Matlab, Frequency Diversity, Pseudo Noise sequence

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