IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 3 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of Dual Meander Slot to Microstrip Patch Antenna
Country : Malaysia
Authors : M.Z.A Abd Aziz, N. A. Zainuddin, A. Salleh, M.A. Othman
: 10.9790/2834-0360106       logo

Abstract: A dual microstrip meander slot antenna is presented for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) application. The proposed antenna comprises a rectangular microstrip patch element embedded with two meander slots. The parametric study is performed to investigate the characteristic of microstrip patch antenna with double meandered slots compared to the same microstrip patch antenna with a single meandered slot. Microstrip patch antenna with dual meander slot can achieve return loss until -24.54dB. However the gain of the antenna is lower than microstrip patch antenna with single meander slot. Other antenna parameters are also investigated such as bandwidth, radiation patterns and directivity have been observed and simulated. The proposed antenna has been designed and simulated by using CST Studio Suite 2010.
Keywords:Dual Meander Slot, Microstrip Patch Antenna, Simulated, Single Meander Slot, WLAN

[1] D. Misman, I. A. Salamat, M. F. Abdul Kadir, M. R. Che Rose, M. S. R. Mohd Shah, M. Z. A. Abd. Aziz, M. N. Husain, P. J. Soh, "The Study of Meander Line for Microstrip and Planar Design", ITS Telecommunications, 2008. 8th Internationsal Conference, October 2008, pp. 24-28.
[2] A. Khalegi A. Azooulay. J. C. Bolomey, "A Dual Band Back Couple Meandering Antenna For Wireless LAN Applications", Gof Survvette, France, 2005.
[3] C.-C. Lin, S.-W.Kuo, and H.-R. Chuang, A 2.4-GHz Printed Meander-Line Antenna for USB WLAN With Notebook-PC Housing, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, VOL.15, NO.9, 546-548.
[4] Young Do Kim, Ho -Yong Kim, Hong Min Lee, Dual-band LTCC chip antenna design using stacked meander patch for mobile handsets, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 45, Issue 4, May 2005, pp: 271-273
[5] Gye-Taek Jeong, Woo-Soo Kim, Kyung-Sup Kwak, Design of a corner-truncated square-spiral microstrip patch antenna in the 5-GHz band, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp: 529-532
[6] L. C. Godara, Handbook of Antennas in Wireless Communication. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002.
[7] D. Misman, M. Z. A. Abd Aziz, M. N. Husain, M. K. A. Rahim, P. J. Soh, "Design of Dual Beam Meander Line Antenna", Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), April 2011, pp. 576-578.
[8] G. Kumar and K. R. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas. London, U.K.: Artech House, 2003.
[9] M. Z. A. Abd. Aziz, N. A. A. Mufit, M. K. Suaidi, M. K. A. Rahim, "Investigation of Single Stage λ/4 Transformer Matching Network to the X-Circular Polarized Antenna" Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-June 2012.
[10] M. Z. A. Abd Aziz, N. A. A. Mufit, M. K. Suaidi, A. Salleh, M. H. Misran, M. K. A. Rahim, "Study on Microstrip X-Linear Polarized and X-Circular Polarized Antenna", Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), March 2012, pp. 907-911.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation of ALU Using Asynchronous Design
Country : India
Authors : P. Amrutha and G. Hanumantha Reddy
: 10.9790/2834-0360712       logo

Abstract:Power consumption has become one of the biggest challenges in design of high performance microprocessors. In this paper we present a design technique using GALs (Globally-Asynchronous Locally-Synchronous) for implementing asynchronous ALUs, which aims to eliminate the global clock. Here ALUs are designed with delay insensitive dual rail four phase logic and CMOS domino logic. It ensures economy in silicon area and potentially for low power consumption. This has been described and implemented in order to achieve a high performance in comparison with synchronous and available asynchronous design. Also simulation results, show significant reduction in the number of transistors as well as delay.

[1] I. E. Sutherland, "Micropipelines", Communications of the ACM, pp 720-738, vol. 32, No. 6, 1989.
[2] Scott Hauck, Asynchronous Design Mythologies: An Overview, in 1995, Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 69-93.
[3] A. J. Martin, S. Burns, T. K. Lee, D. Borkovie, and P. J. Hazewindus, The Design of an Asynchronous Microprocessor, in 1989, Proc. of the Decennial CalTech Conference on VLSI, MIT Press, pp 351-373.
[4] G. Gopalakrishnan, and P. Jain Some Recent Asynchronous System Design Methodologies, Technical Report Number UU-CS-TR-90-016, University of Utah, 1990.
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[8] M. Choi, and N. Park, Locally synchronous, globally asynchronous design for quantum-dot cellular automata (LSGA QCA), in 2005, Proc. IEEE NANO, pp. 121-124.
[9] S. Hauck, Asynchronous design methodologies: an overview, in 1995, Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, pp. 63-69.
[10] J. Sparso, and S. Furber, Principles of Asynchronous Circuit Design: A Systems Perspective, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Multiple Symbol Differential Detection of MPSK which is Invariant to Frequency Offset using Maximum-likelihood detection
Country : India
Authors : Fahmida Tarannum, P. Govardhan
: 10.9790/2834-0361320       logo

Abstract:It is well known that classical differential detection of MPSK signals, wherein the information is encoded as the first order phase difference, is a simple and robust form of communication in environments not subject to frequency variation. For channels that introduce into the carrier a random frequency shift, eg., those associated with moving vehicles, classical differential detection as above may yield poor performance, particularly if the frequency shift is an appreciable fraction of the data rate. In such situations, one must resort to a form of differential detection that encodes the information as higher order (second order for constant frequency shift) phase difference process. It is shown that the proposed receiver is robust to the distortions caused by the random frequency variation. A lower bound on the error probability of the proposed MSDD receiver is also derived and compared to that of an autocorrelation demodulator for the case where the observation interval approaches infinity..

[1] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, 2000.
[2] D.Divsalar and M.K.Simon, "Multiple-symbol differential detection of MPSK," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 300-
308, Mar. 1990.
[3] "Maximum-likelihood differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded amplitude phase moulation over AWGN and fading
channels- metrics and performance," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 76-89, Jan. 1994.
[4] S. G. Wilson, J. Freebersyser, and C. Marshall, "Multi-symbol detection of M-DPSK," in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf.,
Nov. 1989, pp. 1692-1697.
[5] A. M. Rabiei and N. C. Beaulieu, "Multiple symbol differential detection of MPSK in the presence of frequency offset,"
in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., vol. 1, May 2005, pp. 693-697.
[6] D. Divsalar and M. K. Simon, "Double differential detection," NASA New Technology Item 7170, Docket 17666, June 27;
presented at IEEE Commun. Theory Workshop, Apr. 1987.
[7] Y. B. Okunev, V. A. Pisarev, and V. K. Reshemkin, "The design and noise-immunity of multiphase autocorrelation
demodulators of second- order DPSK signals," Radiotekhnika, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 60-63, 1979; Telecomm. Radio Eng., part
2, vol. 34, no. 6, 1979, pp. 60-63.
[8] Y. B. Okunev and L. M. Fink, "Noise immunity of various receiving methods for binary systems with second-order
phase-difference mod- ulation," Radiotekhnika, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 51-56, 1984; Telecommun. Radio Eng., vol. 39, no. 8, 1984,
pp. 51-56.
[9] Y. B. Okunev and N. M. Sidorov, "Noise immunity of a carrier frequency-invarient demodulator of DPSK-2 signals,"
Radiotekhnika, no. 6, pp. 81-83, 1986; Telecommun. Radio Eng., no. 6, 1986, pp. 81-83.
[10] M. K. Simon and D. Divsalar, "On the implementation and performance of single and double differential detection schemes,"
IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 278- 291, Feb. 1992.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Realization Wilkinson Power Divider at Frequency 2400MHz for Radar S-Band
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Taufiqqurrachman, Deni Permana Kurniadi
: 10.9790/2834-0362630       logo

Abstract: This paper presents design and realization of 2-way Wilkinson Power Dividers (WPD) at frequency 2400MHz for Radar S-Band. Power dividers in radar S-Band used for divide the output power from oscillator where used for the mixer of transmitter and receiver section. The 2-way WPD used Wilkinson configuration where consist of two quarter-wavelength transmission line (λg/4) and one resistor chip between the both output ports. Design of the 2-way WPD presents by simulation result with ADS2011.10 and have been implemented using Roger Duroid 5880 substrate. The simulation and measurement result contains graph of insertion loss, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) or return loss, and isolation between the both output ports. The measurement result of the 2-way WPD indicating a good performance than the 2-way power dividers with wideband that currently used and its suitable to use at radar S-band for divide the output power from oscillator.
Keywords: Power Dividers, Radar S-Band, Wilkinson

[1] Daniel D. Harty, Novel Design of a Wideband Ribcage-Dipole Array and Its Feeding Network, Master Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2010.

[2] Huang Guangpu, Qing Songlin, Fu Jeffrey, Kwang Lee Ching, Design of Narrowband and Broadband Wilkinson Power Divider, Design and Innovation Project, Nanyang Technological University.

[3] David M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 2005).

[4] Jia-Sheng Hong, M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Application (John Wiley & Sons Inc, New Jersey, 2011)..


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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Numerical Simulation of Chromatic Dispersion and Fiber Attenuation in a Single-Mode Optical Fiber System
Country : Nigeria
Authors : S. H. Lawan, M. Ajiya and D. S. Shu'aibu
: 10.9790/2834-0363134       logo

Abstract: Chromatic dispersion and fiber attenuation pose a great problem in the detection of optical signals. Dispersion causes pulse broadening which limits the information carrying capacity of the fiber while attenuation limits the maximum transmission distance along the fiber. An approximate Gaussian pulse propagation model is obtained from the solution of Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation to represent the effects of chromatic dispersion and attenuation using Split-Step Fourier Method. It was found that pulse broadening and intensity loss in the optical signal is increasing proportionately with the propagation length of the fiber and this is what contributes to the causes of detection errors at the receiver.
Keywords:Chromatic dispersion, fiber attenuation, intensity loss, optical signals, pulse broadening

[1] K. Thyagarajan and A. Ghatak, Fiber Optic Essentials. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2007.

[2] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. UK: Academic Press. A Harcourt Sci. and Tec. Co., 2001.

[3] G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic Communication Systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc., 2002.

[4] B. Costa, D. Mazzoni, M. Puleo, and E. Vezzoni, "Phase shift technique for the measurement of chromatic dispersion in optical fibers using LED's," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 18, pp. 1509-1515, 1982.

[5] P. Merritt, R. P. Tatam, and D. A. Jackson, "Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurements on short lengths of monomode optical fiber," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 7, pp. 703-716, 1989.

[6] A. E. N. A. Mohammed, "New technique of chromatic dispersion management in optical single-mode binary glass fiber," 2004, pp. D9-1-12.

[7] S. H. S. Al-Bazzaz, "Simulation of Single mode fiber optics and optical communication Components Using VC++," International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 8, pp. 300-308, 2008

[8] K. S. Jeon, H. J. Kim, D. S. Kang, and J. K. Pan, "Optical fiber chromatic dispersion measurement using bidirectional modulation of an optical intensity modulator," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, vol. 14, pp. 1145-1147, 2002.

[9] H. Taga, S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, Y. Yoshida, S. Akiba, and H. Wakabayashi, "Fiber chromatic dispersion equalization at the receiving terminal of IM-DD ultra-long distance optical communication systems," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 12, pp. 1042-1046, 1994.

[10] G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. NJ: Wiley, Hoboken, 2002


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Silicon Nanowire Based MOSFET Parameter Analysis
Country : India
Authors : P. S. Raja, R. Joseph Daniel, Bino. N
: 10.9790/2834-0363543       logo

Abstract: As the conventional silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) approaches its scaling limits many novel device structures are being extensively explored. Among them, the silicon nanowire transistor (SNWT) has attracted broad attention from both the semiconductor industry and academia. To understand device physics in depth and to assess the performance limits of SNWTs, simulation is becoming increasingly important. The objectives of this paper are to assess the performance of SNWTs. A nano device simulator called fettoy was utilized for this purpose. The various output parameters analyzed were Quantum capacitance vs. gate voltage, Drain current vs. gate voltage, drain current vs. drain voltage, Drain induced barrier lowering, Threshold swing, Carrier injection velocity, on current, off current, Output conductance, Transconductance and Voltage gain for variation in input parameters like Dielectric materials, Thickness of dielectric material, Diameter of silicon nanowire and Gate Control Parameter. Also the effect of temperature was also studied.

[[1] Dr.E.N.Ganesh, Kaushik Ragavan, Krishna Kumar "Study and simulation of silicon nanowire field effect transistor at subthreshold conditions using high k dielectric layer at room temperature" GESJ: Physics 2010
[2] Nagsen Meshram " Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowire using Hot Wire Chemical Vapour deposition"
[3] Yi Cui, Zhaohui Zhong, Deli Wang, Wayne U. Wang, and Charles M. Lieber "High Performance Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors" nano letters 2003
[4] www.nanohub.org

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : CEMR: Congestion evasion Multicast Routing to Maximize Throughput for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Sailaja Chinege, P. Prasanna Murali Krishna
: 10.9790/2834-0364451       logo

Abstract: This paper is focused on a new solution for congestion evasion in ad hoc multicast routing that referred as Congestion Evasion Multicast Routing short CEMR. CEMR is aimed at Congestion Evasion in Multicast Mobile Ad hoc routing protocol. The current MAC level routing strategy is independent which can work with any multicast routing protocol irrespective of tree or mesh structure. During the study of CEMR performance, the CEMR tested along with On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol where simulation results proved that CEMR raises the performance of ODMRP in order of magnitude.
Keywords: multicast, on-demand routing, congestion control, ad hoc network, CEMR

[1] G. Krishna, "Routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks," pp. 1-30, 2006 http://www.cs.umu.se/ education/examina/Rapporter/Krish naGorantala.pdf

[2] L. Sung-Ju, S. William, G. Mario, "On-demand multicast routing protocol in multihop wireless mobile networks," Mobile Networks and Applications, 2001.

[3] S. J. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, "A performance comparison study of ad hoc wireless multicast protocols," Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM'00, 2000.

[4] P. Madhan, J. James, K. Murugan, V. Ramachandran, "A Comparative and Performance Study of On Demand Multicast Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks," 9th International Conference on High Performance Computing (HiPC), 2002.

[5] V. Kumar, O. Katia and T. Gene, "Exploring mesh- and tree based multicast routing protocols for MANETs," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, pp. 28–42, 2006

[6] Prashant Dewan, Partha Dasgupta and Amiya Bhattacharya; "On Using Reputations in Ad hoc Networks to Counter Malicious Nodes" Tenth International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2004; ICPADS 2004. Proceedings; July 2004

[7] L. Butty´an and J.-P. Hubaux. Enforcing Service Availability in Mobile Adhoc WANs, In ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, pages 87–96, Boston, Massachusetts, 2000. ACM Press

[8] S. Zhong, J. Chen, and R. Yang Sprite: A Simple, Cheat-proof, Credit-based System for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM, San Francisco, USA, 2002. IEEE Press.

[9]. E. Bommaiah, M. Liu, A. McAuley, and R. Talpade, "AMRoute: Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol," Internet- Draft, draft-talpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, Aug. 1998, Work in progress

. [10] C.W. Wu, Y.C. Tay, and C.-K. Toh, "Ad hoc Multicast Routing Protocol utilizing Increasing id-numberS (AMRIS) Funcational Specification," Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-amris-spec-00.txt, Nov. 1998, Work in progress