IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 15- Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey on Reversible Watermarking
Country : India
Authors : Priyanka S. Aher, K. U. Rahane
: 10.9790/0661-1540104      logo

Abstract: A number of research papers has been produced about reversible watermarking. Reversible watermarking is one of the important scheme of the watermarking schemes. Some security measures must be there to protect the records from unauthorized user and destruction of information. Basic idea of digital watermarking is to embed the data into the cover media to provide the security to data. The watermarking techniques satisfying these requirements called as Reversible watermarking. Ownership of the original media remains same but the best thing is original media is recovered from the watermarked media. This is the best and main feature of reversible watermarking to extract the original image as it is without any distortion. This feature is applicable in various areas such as medical as well as military images. If there is effect on the cover then it would changes the meaning of this data. The aim of this paper is to represent the purpose of reversible watermarking, some of the techniques related to reversible watermarking.

Keywords: Reversible watermarking, Security, copyright protection

[1] Hsiang-Cheh Huang and Wai-Chi Fang (2011) IEEE/NIH Life Science Systems and Applications Workshop.

[2] Lain Luo, Zhenyong Chen, Ming Chen, Xiao Zeng, Zhang Xiong (2010) Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Trans-actions, vol.5, no.1, pp.187-193.

[3] C. S. Tsai and C. C. Chang, A repeating color watermarking scheme based on human visual model, Journal of Eurasip on Applied Signal Processing, volume 13, pp. 1965–1972, 2004.

[4] J. B. Feng, H. C. Wu, Tsai, Chu, A new multi-secret images sharing scheme using LaGrange's interpolation, Journal of Systems and Software, volume - 76, pp. 327–339, June 2005.

[5] C. C. Chang and Lin, Remarks on fingerprint based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards, ACM Operating Systems Review, vol. 38, no. 3, page no. 91–100, Oct. 2004.

[6] A. M. Alattar, Reversible watermark using the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 13, page- 1147–1156, Aug. 2004.

[7] M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, Saber, Lossless generalized-lsb data embedding, Transaction of IEEE on Image Processing, volume-14, page 253–266, Feb. 2005.

[8] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, Q. Chen, and V. Pathak, "Lossless data embedding with file size preservation," in SPIE Proceedings of EI, Jan. 2004.

[9] T. Kalker, Willems, Capacity bounds and code constructions for reversible data-hiding, Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2003, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, page- 604–611,USA, Jan- 2003.

[10] D. M. Thodi, Rodriguez, Reversible watermarking by prediction-error expansion, Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation, volume-3, page-21–25,USA,March. 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Sales in SME Using Internet Marketing
Country : Indonesia
Authors : M. Zainal Arifin, Ahmad Fahmi, Didik D.P, Heru WH, M. Ashar P
: 10.9790/0661-1540509    logo

Abstract: In Indonesia, SMEs are the backbone of the Indonesian economy. Number of SMEs until 2011 to reach around 52 million. SMEs in Indonesia is very important for the economy because it accounts for 60% of GDP and 97% of the workforce holds. But access is limited to financial institutions only 25% or 13 million SMEs who have access to financial institutions. Indonesian government, SMEs, through the Department of Cooperatives and SMEs, in each province or regency / city. Although Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is driving the nation's economy, but in reality many of the problems SMEs are still entangled. The main thing to note is the ability of SMEs to access a wider market. Because of the ability to change and adapt to a changing environment will determine the existence of small businesses in the nation's economy. In the end, the existence of small businesses that have high competitiveness will strengthen the nation's economy as a whole. Thus, in this study will use an appropriate technology tools that can provide assistance in introducing products through internet and increase sales in each SME This study uses a sample of students at the State University of Malang that can make a significant contribution in the small and medium businesses that are being initiated by students.

Keywords: Small Medium Enterprise, Internet Marketing, Sales Improvement

[1] Bailey, Matt, Internet Marketing: An Hour a Day (Sybex, 2011)
[2] Chaffe, Dave, Internet Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice (4th Edition), (Prentice Hall, 2009)
[3] Hodell, Chunk, SMEs From the Ground Up (ASTD-Press, 2013).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Filtering Techniques to reduce Speckle Noise and Image Quality Enhancement methods on Satellite Images
Country : India
Authors : K.M. Sharavana Raju, Mohammad Shahnawaz Nasir, T. Meera Devi
: 10.9790/0661-1541015    logo

Abstract: Noise in images is the vital factor which degrades the quality of the images. Reducing noise from the satellite images, medical images etc., is a challenge for the researchers in digital image processing. Several approaches are there for noise reduction. Generally speckle noise is commonly found in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite images and medical images. This research paper put forward some of the filtering techniques for the removal of speckle noise from the satellite images, which enhances the quality of the images. Although many filters are available for speckle reduction, some filters are best suited for SAR images are used for which the statistical parameters are calculated for the output images obtained from all the filters. The statistical measures SNR, PSNR, RMSE and CoC are compared. The output images corresponding to the best statistical values are displayed along with the filters name and corresponding values of the statistical measures.

Keywords: Filters, Speckle noise reduction, Image enhancement, Satellite images, Statistical measures.

[1] J. W. Goodman, "Some fundamental properties of speckle," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1145–1149, 1976.

[2] M. P.Wachowiak, R. Smolikova, J. M. Zurada, and A. S. Elmaghraby, "Estimation of K-distribution parameters using neural networks," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 617–620, Jun. 2002.

[3] J. M. Park, W. J. Song, and W. A. Pearlman, "Speckle filtering of sar images based on adaptive windowing," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Vis. Image Signal Process., vol. 146, no. 4, 1999.

[4] Yongjian Yu, Janelle A. Molloy and Scott T. Acton "Generalized Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion for Ultrasound Imagery", 17th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, 2004, pages: 279- 284

[5] C. B. Burckhardt, "Speckle in ultrasound b-mode scans," IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., vol. SU-25, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1978.

[6] Y. Yu and S. T. Acton, "Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1260–1270, Nov. 2002.

[7] Scott T. Acton, "De-convolution speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion", IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2005, Vol.1, pages: I- 5-8

[8] A. Achim, E.E. Kuruoglu and J. Zerubia, " SAR image filtering based on the heavy – tailed Rayleigh model", IEEE Trans. Image Process., Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 2686-2693, Sept. 2006.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Analysis on Business Value of Cloud Computing
Country : India
Authors : Tank Pranav, Sahil Zatakiya
: 10.9790/0661-1541619    logo

Abstract:The high costs incurred in multiple supplier/Buyer transaction forms the basis for the introduction of a high-value agent service. This type of agent-based model can lower the cost for both buyers and sellers, including monetary, mental and physical expenditure. Cloud computing is not just about cost. It can provide a platform for a business to achieve its ambitions of having an "inclusive" IT system that covers entire supply chain and its customers, enabling and generating business growth more effectively. Keywords: Cloud computing, inclusive, Supply chain

[1] Jing-Jang Hwang and Hung-Kai Chuang, Yi-Chang Hsu and Chien-Hsing Wu, "A Business Model for Cloud Computing based on a separate Encryption and Decryption Service".
[2] A. Weiss, "Computing in the clouds", networker, vol 11, no. 4, pp. 16-25, December 2007.
[3] C.Weinhardt, A.Anandasivam, B.Blau, N.Borissov, "Cloud Computing – a classification, business models and research directions", Business & Information System Engineering (BISE), vol 1, no. 5
[4] Zhu Bo and Cheng Rentian, "Business model innovations in cloud computing", January 2009.
[5] Jaakko Jaatma, "Financial Aspects Of Cloud Computing Business Models", Aalto School of Economics, January 2010


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mining Top-k Closed Sequential Patterns in Sequential Databases
Country : India
Authors : K.Sohini, Mr.V.Purushothama Raju
: 10.9790/0661-1542023    logo

Abstract: In data mining community, sequential pattern mining has been studied extensively. Most studies require the specification of minimum support threshold to mine the sequential patterns. However, it is difficult for users to provide an appropriate threshold in practice. To overcome this, we propose mining top-k closed sequential patterns of length no less than min_l, where k is the number of closed sequential patterns to be mined, and min_l is the minimum length of each pattern. We mine closed patterns since they are solid representations of frequent patterns.

Keywords: closed pattern, data mining, sequential pattern, scalability

[1] X. Yan, R. Afshar, and J. Han. CloSpan: Mining closed sequential patterns in large datasets. In May 2003, SDM, in California.

[2] C. J. Hsiao and M. J. Zaki. CHARM: An efficient algorithm for closed itemset mining. In April 2002, SDM, in Arlington,VA.

[3] J. Han, J. Wang, Y. Lu, and P. Tzvetkov. Mining topk frequent closed patterns without minimum support. In Dec. 2002, ICDM, in Maebashi, Japan.

[4] R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Mining sequential patterns. In Mar. 1995, ICDE, in Taipei, Taiwan.

[5] J. Pei, J. Han, B. Mortazavi-Asl, M.C. Hsu , Q. Chen,U. Dayal, and H. Pinto. PrefixSpan: Mining sequential patterns efficiently by prefix-projected pattern growth. In April 2001, ICDE, in Germany

. [6] M. Zaki. In 2001, SPADE: An efficient algorithm for mining frequent sequences.

[7] R.Srikant and R. Agrawal. Mining sequential patterns: Generalizations and performance improvements. In Avignon, France, Mar. 1996.

[8] J.Wang and J. Han. BIDE, Efficient Mining of Frequent Closed Sequences, in 2004, ICDE.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cloud-Based Impact for Mobile and Pervasive Environments: A Survey
Country : India
Authors : Sam Mathews M, Sundhari A, Vijaya Shanthi N
: 10.9790/0661-1542433    logo

Abstract: Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) which combines mobile computing and cloud computing, has become one of the industry buzz words and a major discussion thread in the IT world since 2009. Despite increasing usage of mobile computing, exploiting its full potential is difficult due to its inherent problems such as resource scarcity, frequent disconnections, and mobility. MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment and overcomes obstacles related to the performance (e.g., battery life,storage, and bandwidth), environment (e.g., heterogeneity, scalability, and availability), and security (e.g., reliability and privacy) discussed in mobile computing. As MCC is still at the early stage of development, it is necessary to grasp a thorough understanding of the technology in order to point out the direction of future research. With the latter aim, this paper presents a review on the background and principle of MCC, characteristics, recent research work, and future research trends.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Distributed Computing, Mobile Cloud Computing

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey on Vehicular Ad hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Bhagirath Patel, Ms. Khushbu Shah
: 10.9790/0661-1543442    logo

Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), a subclass of mobile ad hoc network (MANET), is a promising approach for the intelligent transport system (ITS). VANET allows vehicles to form a self-organized network without the need for a permanent infrastructure. As the VANET has a potential in improving road safety, real time traffic update and other travel comforts, it turns attention of the researcher. Though VANET and MANET shares some common characteristics like self-organized network, dynamic topology, ad hoc nature etc, VANET differs from MANET by challenges, application, architecture, power constraint and mobility patterns, so routing protocols used in MANET are not applicable with VANET. New routing strategy for VANET has been proposed by many researchers in recent year. This paper provides focus on the various aspects of VANET like architecture, characteristic, challenges, glimpse of routing protocols, and simulation models used for VANET.

Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; routing; position based routing; characteristics; transmission strategies

[1] A. K. Saha and D. B. Johnson, "Modeling mobility for vehicular ad hoc networks," in Proceedings of ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks, 2004, pp. 91-92.

[2] Mauve, et al. (2001). A survey on position-based routing in mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Network Magazine, November/December, 30-39.

[3] Mehran, et al. (2004). A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 2, 1-22. Doi:10.1016/S1570-8705(03)00043-X.

[4] Li F, Wang Y. Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine 2007;2(2):12-22.

[5] Hartenstein H, Laberteaux KP. A tutorial survey on vehicular ad hoc networks,Communication Magazine, IEEE 2008;46(6):164-71.

[6] Lin Y, Chen Y, Lee S. Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey and future perpectives. Journal of Information Science and Engineering 2010;26(3):913-32.

[7] C.C. Communication Consortium; IEEE trial-use standard for wireless access in vehicular environments; Olariu and Weigle, 2009.

[8] Al-Sultan S, et al. A comprehensive survey on vehicular Ad Hoc Network and Computer Application (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10/1016/j.jnca.2013.02.036i. [9] Jakubiak J, Koucheryavy Y. State of art and research challenges for vanets. In: consumer communications and networking conference. CCNC 2008. 5th IEEE; 2008. P. 912-6

[10] Dahiya A, Chauhan R. A comparative study of MANET and VANET environment, Journal of Computing 2010; 2(7) ISSN 2151-9617.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study and Analysis of Image Inpainting Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Bagadiya Vishal ,Prof.B.A.dixit
: 10.9790/0661-1544352    logo

Abstract: Image inpainting is a technique to fill missing region or reconstruct damage area from an image.It removes an undesirable object from an image in visually plausible way.For filling the part of image, it use information from the neighboring area. In this dissertation work, we present a Examplar based method for filling in the missing information in an image, which takes structure synthesis and texture sysnthesis together. In exemplar based approach it used local information from an image to patch propagation.We have also implement Nonlocal Mean approach for exemplar based image inpainting.In Nonlocal mean approach it find multiple samples of best exemplar patches for patch propagation and weight their contribution according to their similarity to the neighborhood under evaluation. We have further extended this algorithm by considering collaborative filtering method to synthesize and propagate with multiple samples of best exemplar patches. We have to preformed experiment on many images and found that our algorithm successfully inpaint the target region.We have tested the accuracy of our algorithm by finding parameter like PSNR and compared PSNR value for all three different approaches.

Keywords: Texture Synthesis, Structure Synthesis, Patch Propagation ,imageinpainting ,nonlocal approach, collabrative filtering.

[1] M. Bertalmio, G. Sapiro, V. Caselles, and C. Ballester. "Image inpainting." in Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 417–424, 2000.

[2] T. Chan and J. Shen, "Non-texture inpainting by curvature-driven diffusions," J.Visual Comm. Image Rep., vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 436-449, 2001.

[3] M. Bertalmio, A. L. Bertozzi, and G. Sapiro. "Navier–Strokes, fluid dynamics, and image and video inpainting." in Proc. IEEE Computer Society Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 355–362, 2001.

[4] T. Chan and J. Shen. "Mathematical models for local non-texture inpaintings." SIAM J. on Appl. Math, vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 1019–1043, 2002.

[5] M. Bertalmio, L. Vese, G. Sapiro, and S. Osher. "Simultaneous structure and texture image inpainting," in Proc. Conf. Comp. Vision Pat-tern Rec., Madison, WI, pp.1-6, 2003.

[6] A. Criminisi, P. Perez, and K. Toyama. "Region filling and object removal by exemplar-based image inpainting." IEEE Trans. Image Process, vol. 13, no.9, pp.1200–1212, 2004.

[7] A. Wong and J. Orchard. "A nonlocal-means approach to exemplar-based inpainting."in Proc. the IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, pp. 2600-2603, 2008.

[8] Z. Xu and J. Sun. "Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity." IEEE Trans.Image Process, vol. 19, no. 5, p.p 1153-1165, 2010.

[9] Xinran Wu, Wei Zeng, Zhenzhou Li," Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting with Collaborative Filtering" in Proc. IEEE Computer Society Sixth International Conference on Image and Graphics, pp. 8–11,2011.37

[10] D. Lemire and A. Maclachlan. "Slope one predictors for online rating-based collaborative filtering." in Proceedings of the SIAM Data Mining Conference (SDM '05), 2005.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey on Restful Web Services Using Open Authorization (Oauth)
Country : India
Authors : K. V. Kanmani, P. S. Smitha
: 10.9790/0661-1545356    logo

Abstract: Web services are application based programming interfaces (API) or web APIs that are accessed through Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to execute on a remote system hosting the requested services. A RESTFUL web service is a budding technology, and a light weight approach that do not restrict the client-server communication. The open authorization (OAuth) 2.0 protocol enables the users to grant third-party application access to their web resources without sharing their login credential data. The Authorization Server includes authorization information with the Access Token and signs the Access Token. An access token can be reused until it expires. An authentication filter is used for business services. This paper presents a secure communication at the message level with minimum overhead and provides a fine grained authenticity using the Jersey framework.

Keywords: Open authorization (oauth), Restful web services, HTTP protocols and uniform resource identifier(URI).

[1] Serme, G.,de Oliveira, A.S. ; Massiera, J. and Roudier, Y." Enabling Message Security for RESTful Services".In Proceedings Web Services (ICWS), 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference on web services pages 114 – 121.

[2] S. Vinoski, "RESTful Web Services Development Checklist," Internet Computing, IEEE, vol. 12, no. 6, 2008, pp. 96-95.

[3] Paul Adamczyk, Patrick H. Smith, Ralph E. Johnson, and Munawar Hafiz "REST and Web Services: In Theory and in Practice" Pages (35-57), 2011, springer NewYork.
[4] D. Booth et al., "Web Services Architecture," W3C Working Group Note, February 2004. http://www.w3.org/TR/ws-arch/.
[5] Belqasmi, F.Glitho, R. and Chunyan Fu "RESTful web services for service provisioning in next-generation networks" Communication Magazine, IEEE (Volume:49 , Issue: 12 on December 2011.

[6] San-Tsai Sun and Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov "An empirical analysis of OAuth SSO systems"In proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on computer and communication security, pages (378-390).
[7] Christian Prehofer, Jilles van Gurp, Vlad Stirbu, Sailesh Sathish, Pasi P. Liimatainen, Cristiano di Flora, and Sasu Tarkoma "Practical web-based smart spaces" Pervasive Computing, IEEE (Volume:9 , Issue: 3 on july-sept 2010.
[8] Noureddine, M. and Bashroush, R., A Performance Optimization Model towards OAuth 2.0 Adoption in the Enterprise Cybernetic Intelligent Systems (CIS), 2011 IEEE 10th International Conference on 1-2 Sept. 2011, pp 76-80.
[9] Fielding, R.T. and Taylor, R.N., "Principled design of the modern Web architecture" Software Engineering, 2000. Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on June 2000, pg 407-416.
[10] Frank Leymann "Web Services: Distributed Applications without Limits" http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu Conference held on 2003 pg: 26-28.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Uncompressed Image Steganography using BPCS: Survey and Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Vipul J Patel, Ms. Neha Ripal Soni
: 10.9790/0661-1545764    logo

Abstract: Steganography is the art and science of hide secret information in some carrier data without leaving any apparent evidence of data alternation. In the past, people use hidden tattoos, invisible ink or punching on papers to convey stenographic data. Now, information is first hide in digital image, text, video and audio. This paper discusses existing BPCS (Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation) steganography techniques and presences of some modification. BPCS technique makes use of the characteristics of the human visible system. BPCS scheme allows for large capacity of embedded secret data and is highly customized. This algorithm offers higher hiding capacity due to that it exploits the variance of complex regions in each bit plane. In contrast, the BPCS algorithm provided a much more effective method for obtaining a 50% capacity since visual attacks did not suffice for detection.

Keywords: BPCS, Data security, Information hiding, Steganography, Stego image

[1] Behroz A. Forouzan, "Cryptography & Network Security", McGraw Hill Publication,2008, New Delhi.

[2] N.F. Johnson and S. Jajodia. "Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen". IEEE Computer, Volume 31: pages 26–34, 1998.

[3] Souvik Bhattacharyya, Indradip Banerjee and Gautam Sanyal. "A Survey of Steganography and Steganalysis Technique in Image, Text, Audio and Video as Cover Carrier". Volume 2, No. 4, April 2011 JGRCS.

[4] Hassan Mathkour, Batool Al-Sadoon, Ameur Touir, "A New Image Steganography Technique", Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 4th International Conference , 2008 IEEE,pp-1-4

. [5] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn, "Information Hiding-A Survey", Proc. of the IEEE, Vol.87, No.7, pp. 1062-1078, 1999.

[6] Eiji Kawaguchi and Richard O. Eason, "Principle and Applications of BPCS-Steganography", Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan – University of Maine, Orono, Maine

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[10] HIOKI Hirohisa. "A data embedding method using bpcs principle with new complexity measures". http://www.i.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~hioki/research/DH/files/abcde_steg02_revised.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Approach for Requirement Traceability Integrated With Software Repository
Country : India
Authors : P.M.G.Jegathambal, N.Balaji
: 10.9790/0661-1546571    logo

Abstract: Traceability links between requirements of a system and its source code are helpful in reducing system conception effort. During software updates and maintenance, the traceability links become invalid since the developers may modify or remove some features of the source code. Hence, to acquire trustable links from a system source code, a supervised link tracing approach is proposed here. In proposed approach, IR techniques are applied on source code and requirements document to generate baseline traceability links. Concurrently, software repositories are also mined to generate validating traceability links i.e. Histrace links which are then called as experts. Now a trust model named as DynWing is used to rank the different types of experts. DynWing dynamically assigns weights to different types of experts in ranking process. The top ranked experts are then fed to the trust model named as Trumo. Trumo validates the baseline links with top ranked experts and finds the trustable links from baseline links set. While validating the links, Trumo is capable of discarding or re-ranking the experts and finds most traceable links. The proposed approach is able to improve the precision and recall values of the traceability links.

Index Terms: Traceability, requirements, features, source code, repositories, experts.

[1] O. C. Z. Gotel and C. W. Finkelstein, "An analysis of the requirements traceability problem," Requirements Engineering., Proceedings of the First International Conference on, pp. 94-101, April 1994.

[2] N. Ali, Y.-G. Guéhéneuc, and G. Antoniol, "Trust-based requirements traceability," in Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Program Comprehension, S. E. Sim and F. Ricca, Eds. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2011, 10 pages.

[3] G. Antoniol, G. Canfora, G. Casazza, A. D. Lucia, and E. Merlo, "Recovering traceability links between code and documentation," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 970-983, 2002.

[4] A. Marcus and J. I. Maletic, "Recovering documentation-to-source-code traceability links using latent semantic indexing," in Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Software Engineering. Portland Oregon USA: IEEE CS Press, 2003, pp. 125-135.

[5] J. H. Hayes, A. Dekhtyar, S. K. Sundaram, and Howard, "Helping analysts trace requirements: An objective look," in RE '04: Proceedings of the Requirements Engineering Conference, 12th IEEE International. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2004, pp. 249-259.

[6] J. I. Maletic and M. L. Collard, "Tql: A query language to support traceability," in TEFSE '09: Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE Workshop on Traceability in Emerging Forms of Software Engineering. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2009, pp. 16-20

[7] J. H. Hayes, G. Antoniol, and Y.-G. Guéhéneuc, "Prereqir: Recovering pre-requirements via cluster analysis," in Reverse Engineering, 2008. WCRE '08. 15th Working Conference on, Oct 2008, pp. 165-174

[8] D. Poshyvanyk, Y.-G. Guéhéneuc, A. Marcus, G. Antoniol, and V. Rajlich, "Feature location using probabilistic ranking of methods based on execution scenarios and information retrieval," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 420-432, 2007.

[9] M. Gethers, R. Oliveto, D. Poshyvanyk, and A. D. Lucia, "On integrating orthogonal information retrieval methods to improve traceability recovery," in Software Maintenance (ICSM), 2011 27th IEEE International Conference on, sept. 2011, pp. 133 -142.

[10] N. Ali, Y.-G. Guéhéneuc, and G. Antoniol, Factors Impacting the Inputs of Traceability Recovery Approaches, A. Zisman, J. Cleland-Huang, and O. Gotel, Eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Content Based Image Retrieval for Unlabelled Images
Country : India
Authors : Rikin K Thakkar, Ms Ompriya Kale
: 10.9790/0661-1547275    logo

Abstract: Recently, content-based image retrieval has become hot topic and the techniques of content-based image retrieval have been achieved good development. Content-based image retrieval systems were introduced to address the problems associated with text-based image retrieval. In this paper, basic components of content-based image retrieval system are introduced here. Images are classified as lablled and unlablled images. Here survey on content based image retrieval given with some Image retrieval methods based on unlabelled data like D-EM, SVM, Relevance Feedback, Semi-Supervised/Active Learning, Transductive Learning, Bootstrapping SVM, Active learning, SSMIL and Label propagation Methods are presented in this paper. Comparison of these all methods is also presented in this paper.

Keywords: Image retrieval, CBIR, Unlabelled images, SVM

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study on Live analysis of Windows Physical Memory
Country : India
Authors : Divyang Rahevar
: 10.9790/0661-1547680    logo

Abstract: Memory forensics and data carving methods are usually used during volatile investigation and is nowadays a big area of interest. Volatile memory dump is used for offline analysis of live data. Live analysis of the running system gives the information of which events are going on. Volatile memory analysis can give the sensitive information such as User Ids, Passwords, Hidden Processes, Root kits, Sockets etc. which are not stored on the physical drive. This Paper represents various approaches and tools used to capture and analyse data from computer memory.

Keywords: Memory forensics, RAM, sensitive information.

[1] Cutifa Safitri , "A Study: Volatility Forensic on Hidden Files", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064
[2] Sasa Mrdovic, Alvin Huseinovic, Ernedin Zajko, "Combining Static and Live Digital Forensic Analysis in Virtual Environment"
[3] Liming Cai, Jing Sha ,Wei Qian," Study on Forensic Analysis of Physical Memory"
[4] FTKImager download , http://www.accessdata.com/support/product-downloads
[5] X-ways software Technology AG, WinHex Editor http://winhex.com/winhex/
[6] Autopsy download , http://www.sleuthkit.org/autopsy/
[7] Qian Zhao, Tianjie Cao, "Collecting Sensitive Information from Windows Physical Memory", JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, VOL. 4, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009
[8] Gabriela Limon Garcia," Forensic physical memory analysis:an overview of tools and techniques "
[9] Andrea Schuster, Searching for processes and threads in Microsoft Windows memory dumps. Digital forensic research workgroup, 2007.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of Soft RoCE over 1 Gigabit Ethernet
Country : India
Authors : Gurkirat Kaur, Manoj Kumar, Manju Bala
: 10.9790/0661-1548187    logo

Abstract: Ethernet is most influential & widely used technology in the world. With the growing demand of low latency & high throughput technologies like InfiniBand and RoCE have evolved with unique features viz. RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access). RDMA is an effective technology, which is used for reducing system load & improves the performance. InfiniBand is a well known technology, which provides high-bandwidth and low-latency and makes optimal use of in-built features like RDMA. With the rapid evolution of InfiniBand technology and Ethernet lacking the RDMA and zero copy protocol, the Ethernet community has came out with a new enhancements that bridges the gap between InfiniBand and Ethernet. By adding the RDMA and zero copy protocol to the Ethernet a new networking technology is evolved called RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE). RoCE is a standard released by the IBTA standardization body to define RDMA protocol over Ethernet. With the emergence of lossless Ethernet, RoCE uses InfiniBand efficient transport to provide the platform for deploying RDMA technology in mainstream data centres over 10GigE, 40GigE and beyond. RoCE provide all of the InfiniBand benefits transport benefits and well established RDMA ecosystem combined with converged Ethernet. In this paper, we evaluate the heterogeneous Linux cluster, having multi nodes with fast interconnects i.e. gigabit Ethernet & Soft RoCE. This paper presents the heterogeneous Linux cluster configuration & evaluates its performance using Intel's MPI Benchmarks. Our result shows that Soft RoCE is performing better than Ethernet in various performance metrics like bandwidth, latency & throughput.

Keywords: Ethernet, InfiniBand, MPI, RoCE, RDMA, Soft RoCE

[1] Jiuxing Liu,Balasubramanian chandrasekaran, Jiesheng Wu, Weihang Jiang, Sushmitha Kini, Weikuan Yu,Darius Buntinas, Peter Wyckoff, DK Panda, "Performance Comparison of MPI Implementations over InfiniBand, Myrinet and Quadrics",1-58113-695-1/03/0011 @ 2003 ACM [2] Panduit, "Introduction to InfiniBand", 2006@ InfiniBand Trade Association
[3] (2013), The Wikipedia website.[Online] available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RDMA_over_Converged_Ethernet
[4] (2013), The Wikipedia website.[Online] available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabit_Ethernet
[5] Supratik Majumder, Scott Rixner, "Comparing Ethernet and myrinet for mpi communication",in Proceedings of the 7th workshop on Workshop on languages, compilers, and run-time support for scalable systems , 10.1145/1066650.1066659 @ 2004 ACM

[6] Basem Madani, raed al-Shaikh, "Performance Benchmark and MPI Evaluation Using Westmere-based Infiniband HPC cluster", IJSSST, Volume 12, Number 1, page no 20-26, Feb. 2011

[7] Paul Grun, "Introduction to InfiniBand for End Users", Copyright @ 2012 InfiniBand Trade Association

[8] Jerome Vienne, Jitong Chen,Md.Wasi-ur-Rahman,Nusrat S.Islam, Hari Subramoni, Dhabaleswar K.(DK) Panda, " Performance Analysis and Evaluation of InfiniBand FDR and 40GigE RoCE on HPC and Cloud Computing Systems", in 2012 IEEE 20th annual Symposium on High-Performance Interconnects, 978-0-7695-4831-9/12 @ 2012 IEEE
[9] (2003), The networkworld Website(Online) available at http://www.networkworld.com/details/5221.html


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A comparative analysis on qos multicast routing protocols in MANETs
Country : India
Authors : Mamata Rath
: 10.9790/0661-1548892    logo

Abstract: Simultaneous transmission of data from one sender to multiple receivers is called multicasting. Several widely used applications require multicasting at least at the logical level. Examples include audio video teleconferencing, real time video streaming and the maintenance of distributed databases. In many cases it is advantageous to implement multicasting at the level of the routing algorithm (other approaches would be one-to-all unicast or the implementation of multicasting at the application layer). In this paper we are presenting a comparative analysis on various multicast routing protocols in adhoc networks.

Keywords: multicasting, multicast protocols,dynamic core, performance evaluation,Qos Parameters

[[1] J. Jetcheva, D. Johnson, Adaptive demand-driven multicast routing in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, in: Proceedings of ACM MobiHoc, October 2001, pp. 33–44.

[2] S.K. Das, B.S. Manoj, C.S.R. Murthy, A dynamic core based multicast routing protocol for ad hoc wireless networks, in: Proceedings of ACM MobiHoc, June 2002, pp. 24–35.

[3] J. Xie, R.R. Talpade, A. McAuley, M. Liu, Amroute: ad hoc multicast routing protocol, MONET 7 (6) (2002) 429–439.

[4] D. Li, Q. Liu, X. Hu, X. Jia, Energy efficient multicast routing in ad hoc wireless networks, Computer ommunications 30 (18) (2007) 3746–3756.

[5] L. Layuan, L. Chunlin, A QoS multicast routing protocol for clustering mobile ad hoc networks, Computer Communications 30 (7) (2007) 1641–1654.

[6] H. Wu, X. Jia, QoS multicast routing by using multiple paths/trees in wireless ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Networks 5 (5) (2007) 600–612.

[7] L. Randaccio, L. Atzori, Group multicast routing problem: a genetic algorithms based approach, Computer Networks 51 (14) (2007) 3989–4004.

[8] L. Law, S. Krishnamurthy, M. Faloutsos, A novel adaptive protocol for lightweight efficient multicasting in ad hoc networks, Computer Networks 51 (3) (2007) 823–834.

[9] D. Pompili, M. Vittucci, PPMA, a probabilistic predictive multicast algorithm for ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Networks 4 (6) (2006) 724– 748.

[10] C. Gui, P. Mohapatra, Hierarchical multicast techniques and scalability in mobile ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Networks 4 (5) (2006) 586–606.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Protecting the movable Endeavor with Network-Based validation and Virtual Computing
Country : India
Authors : K.A.Varunkumar, S.Sibi Chakkaravarthy, A.Laxmareddy, M.Ganesan, K.Kavitha, M.Dhilsath fathima
: 10.9790/0661-1549399    logo

Abstract: A new security architecture for the mobile enterprise which uses network-based security and cloud computing has been proposed in these paper. This newly proposed architecture is mainly for both simplifying and enhancing the security of enterprises, and reinstates the currently disappearing security perimeter.

Keywords-cloud computing; cloud-based security; enterprise security architecture; mobile enterprise; network-based security; security.

[1] William R. Cheswick and Steven M. Bellovin. Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wily Hacker. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1st edition, 1994.

[2] Steven M. Bellovin, Clouds from Both Sides, IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 9, no. 3, May--June, 2011.



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