IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 14- Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A framework for an Operating System-based Mobile Agent Interoperability
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Oyatokun Bosede O., Osofisan A. O., Aderounmu, G. A.
: 10.9790/0661-1460106      logo

Abstract: Mobile agent technology has grown in acceptance over the years for distributed applications, but it is yet to be adopted as ubiquitous solution technique. This is due to its complexity and lack of interoperability. Mobile agent executes on mobile agent platform, these platforms from different vendors are design, and language specific, and are thus non interoperable. In other words mobile agent built on one platform cannot interact with or execute on any other platform. There is a need to provide a common base on which agents from different vendors can interact and interoperate. This work presents a framework for mobile agent interoperability by providing an Embedded Mobile Agent (EMA) system into the Windows Operating System kernel so that it can run as a service; this was done to eliminate the overheads associated with the agent platforms and enhance mobile agents' interoperability. The targeted OS were Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows7.

Keywords: embedded mobile agent, interoperability, mobile agent platform, operating system service.

[1] Lange D. B. 1998. Mobile objects and mobile agents: the future of distributed computing? Proceedings of the European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP‟98), 1998.

[2] Aderounmu, G. A. 2001 Development of an intelligent mobile agent for computer network performance management. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

[3] Biermann E. 2004. A Framework for the Protection of Mobile Agents Against Malicious Hosts. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of South Africa, South Africa.

[4] Outtagarts Abdelkader (2009). "Mobile Agent-Based Applications: A Survey." International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 331 - 339.

[5] Bellifemine, F.L, Greenwood D and Caire G (2007). Developing Multi-agent systems with JADE. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England.

[6] Syed A., John D. and Pavana Y. (2000). A survey of mobile agent systems. Student Report, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego. (Date of last access: 03 July, 2013 from cseweb.ucsd.edu/classes/sp00/cse221/reports/dat-yal-and.pdf).

[7] van "t Noordende, G.J., Overeinder, B.J., Timmer, R.J., Brazier, F.M.T. and Tanenbaum, A.S. (2009). Constructing secure mobile agent systems using the agent operating system‟, International Journal of Intelligent Information and Database Systems, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.363–381.

[8] Gabriel S. and Claudiu I.P. 2010. A Proposal for an Enhanced Mobile Agent Architecture (EMA). Annals of the University of Craiova, Mathematics and Computer Science Series, 37(1): 71 – 79.

[9] Tudor M., Bogdan D., Mihaela D., Ioan S. 2004. A Framework of Reusable Structures for Mobile agent Development. Proceedings of the 8th IEEE international Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems (INES '04), Cluj-Napoca, 2004.

[10] Giovanni C. 2009. JADE Programming for Beginners. TILAB, S.P.A.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Integrated approach for color Image Segmentation using edge and color information
Country : India
Authors : M. Mary Synthuja Jain Preetha, L. Padma Suresh
: 10.9790/0661-1460713      logo

Abstract: Image segmentation is a fundamental and complex task in many image processing applications. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method for color image segmentation by integrating color edge information and seeded region growing. We use the color edge information to decide the best position to place the seed and to control the growth of the region. By using color edge detection technique, regions without edges are labeled as the initial seed. Regions are grown from this seed point by adding neighboring pixels that are similar based on homogeneity criterion. The obtained edge map and the region growth map are fused together to produce homogeneous regions with closed boundaries. Finally region merging is done to merge small regions.

Keywords: Seeded Region Growing, Color Similarity, Edge detection, Region Merging

[1] H. Cheng, X. Jiang, Y. Sun, and J. Wang, "Color image segmentation:Advances & prospects," Pattern Recognition., 34( 12), 2001, 2259–2281.

[2] N. Otsu, A threshold selection method from gray-level histogram, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics ,9(1), 1979, 62–66.

[3] A.K.C. Wong, P.K. Sahoo, A gray-level threshold selection method based on maximum entropy principle, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,19(4), 1989, 641–647.

[4] H.D. Cheng, C.H. Chen, H.H. Chiu, H. Xu, Fuzzy homogeneity approach to multilevel thresholding, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing ,7(7), 1998, 1084–1088.

[5] E. Saber, A. Tekalp, and G. Bozdagi, "Fusion of color and edge information for improved segmentation and edge linking," Imag. Vis.Comput., 15(10),1997, 769–780.

[6] J. Basak, B. Chanda, On edge and line linking with connectionist model, IEEE Transactions on System, Man, and Cybernetics ,24(3), 1994, 413–428.

[7] A. Marteli, An application of heuristic search methods to edge and contour detection, Graphics and Image Processing, 19(2), 1976, 73–83.

[8] V.S. Nalwa, E. Pauchon, Edgel aggregation and edge description, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, 40(1), 1987, 79–94.

[9] A. Tremeau, N. Bolel, A region growing and merging algorithm to color segmentation, Pattern Recognition .30(7), 1997, 1191–1203.

[10] Frank Y.Shih, Shouxian Cheng, Automatic Seeded Region Growing for color image Segmentation, Pattern Recognition, 23, 2005, 877-886.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Development - Web Application Security.
Country : India
Authors : Sayyad Arif Ulla
: 10.9790/0661-1461422      logo

Abstract: In Current scenario, many Web applications go through rapid development phases like adopting agile methodology of development with very short turnaround time, making it difficult to identify and eliminate vulnerabilities. This paper provides analysis of requirement of Secure Development and Web application security assessment mechanisms in order to identify poor coding practices that render Web applications vulnerable to attacks such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting. This paper also list out the different categories of vulnerability with the small examples along with prevention guidance and a sample of research by different vendors about the State of Software Security Report and Web Application Vulnerability Statistics of 2012.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Fpe Algorithm For Encrypting Credit Card Numbers
Country : India
Authors : Dr. K. Chitra, S. Vidhya
: 10.9790/0661-1462329      logo

Abstract: The more highly used Internet world contains many sensitive information. Encryption is a process to secure information. An encrypted data requires more storage space for storing. It also needs many changes in queries and application programs. This paper we introduce an efficient algorithm to encrypt the credit card number without changing the format and type.

Keywords: Credit card encryption, FPE, Structured preserving encryption, data type preserving encryption.

[1] Format Preserving Encryption Terence SpiesVoltage Security, Inc.

[2] M. Bellare, T. Ristenpart, P. Rogaway, and T. Stegers. Format-preserving encryption. SAC 2009. LNCS 5867,Springer, 2009.

[3] V. Hoang and P. Rogaway. On generalized Feistel networks. Conference version of this paper. CRYPTO 2010,Springer, 2010.

[4] Information security management Hnadbook, volume 6 by Harold F.Tipton, Micki Krause nozaki

[5] A new integer FPE scheme based on Feistel Network ( Jia, Z Liu, J Li, Z Dong, X you advances in Electric and Electronic, 2012 Springer.

[6] M. Bellare, P. Rogaway, and T. Spies. The FFXmode of operation for format-preserving encryption(Draft 1.1). February, 2010. Manuscript (standards proposal) submitted to NIST.

[7] Performance Comparison of the AES Submissions byBruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, Niels Ferguson


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey on Word Sense Disambiguation
Country : India
Authors : Rohit Giyanani
: 10.9790/0661-1463033      logo

Abstract: Ambiguity has been always interwoven with human language and its evolution. Some argue that ambiguity of the human languages is a byproduct of its complexity, with words that are frequently used in language often being assigned to more than one reference in the real world, thus resulting in ambiguity. One of the biggest challenges in Natural Language Processing is for the computer to comprehend in what sense a specific word is used. The process of identifying the correct sense of the word in a particular sentence is called Word Sense Disambiguation. WSD is simply the lexical and semantic analysis in order to determine the contextual meaning of a word. It is a complex problem as it involves drawing knowledge from various sources. Significant amount of effort has been put into resolving this problem in machine learning since its inception but the toil is still ongoing.

Keywords: word sense disambiguation, natural language processing, polysemy.

[1] Raviv, Ariel, Shaul Markovitch, and Sotirios-Efstathios Maneas. "Concept-Based Approach to Word-Sense Disambiguation." AAAI. 2012.

[2] Fernandez-Ordonez, Erwin, Rada Mihalcea, and Samer Hassan. "Unsupervised Word Sense Disambiguation with Multilingual Representations." LREC. 2012.

[3] Navigli, Roberto. "Word sense disambiguation: A survey." ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 41.2(2009): 10.

[4] Mihalcea, Rada, and Dan I. Moldovan. "A method for word sense disambiguation of unrestricted text." Proceedings of the 37th annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Computational Linguistics. Association for Computational Linguistics, 1999.

[5] Thottempudi, Sree Ganesh. "WORD SENSE DISAMBIGUATION."

[6] Ramakrishnan, Ganesh, et al. "Soft word sense disambiguation." Proceedings of GWC. Vol. 4. 2004.

[7] Dandala, Bharath, Rada Mihalcea, and Razvan Bunescu. "Word Sense Disambiguation Using Wikipedia." The People's Web Meets NLP. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 241- 262.

[8] Mihalcea, Rada - "Word Sense Disambiguation". (2010): 1027-1030.

[9] Satapathy, Shruti Ranjan. Word Sense Disambiguation. Diss. Indian Institute of Technology, 2013.

[10] Resnik, Philip, and David Yarowsky. "A perspective on word sense disambiguation methods and their evaluation." Proceedings of the ACL SIGLEX workshop on taggingtext with lexical semantics: Why, what, and how. 1997.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : New Skills for Testers
Country : India
Authors : Baibhav Bajpai, Nidhi Tripathi
: 10.9790/0661-1463436      logo

Abstract: In our world, software development and testing teams often work under ambitious deadlines, discovering what needs to be done at the same time as they're discovering how to do [1]. On the other front, there is a shift from quality assurance to operational assurance [2]. These ever changing and demanding expectations creates the requirement for the development of new skills in testers.

[1] C. Kaner, J. Bach, and B. Pettichord, Lessons Learned in Software Testing: A Context Driven Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002.
[2] http://www.testmagazine.co.uk/2012/08/the-end-of-the-road-for-the-test-phase/
[3] http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/change/
[4] http://cor.fja.com/fileadmin/Uploads/en/pdfs/products/PAC_Trend_Report_Core_Banking_EN.pdf
[5] http://quotations.about.com/od/famousquotes/a/famousliterary.htm
[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An SPRT Procedure for an Ungrouped Data using MMLE Approach
Country : India
Authors : V. Goutham, R. Satya Prasad
: 10.9790/0661-1463742      logo

Abstract: Sequential Analysis of statistical science could be adopted in order to decide up on the reliable/unreliable of the developed software very quickly. Sequential analysis is different from classical hypothesis testing. In classing hypothesis testing one can draw conclusion during the data collection and final conclusion can possible be reached at a later stage, whereas sequential analysis are easy to see as data collection can be terminated after fewer cases and decision taken earlier stage, thus saving in terms of reliability of software. In this paper we proposed the performance of sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) on time domain data using exponential model and analyzed the result by applying on 3 data sets. The parameters are estimated using Modified Maximum likelihood estimation. Keywords: Software reliability, software failure data, Sequential Probability Ratio Test, Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Mean Value Function.

[1] Card D., (1994), Statistical Process Control for Software, IEEE Software, May, 95-97.

[2] STIEBER, H.A.(1997). "Statistical Quality Control: How To Detect Unreliable Software Components", Proceedings the 8th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, 8-12.

[3] John D.Musa; "Software Quality and Reliability Basics"; AT&T Bell Laboratories. CH 2468-7/87/0000/014,1987 IEEE

. [4] Wald. A., "Sequential Analysis", John Wiley and Son, Inc, New York. 1947.

[5] Dr. R Satya Prasad ,K Ramchand H Rao and Dr. R.R. L Kantham (2011)," Software Reliability Measuring using Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation and SPC" IJCA Journal, Number 7 - Article 1.

[6] F. N. Chowdhiiry, John P. Christensen, Jorge L.Aravena, "Power System Fault detection and State Estimation Using Kalman Filt,er with Hypothesis Testing", IEEE Trans. on Power delivery, Vol. 6, No. 3, Jiily 1991,

[7] GOEL, A.L and OKUMOTO, K. (1979). "A Time Dependent Error Detection Rate Model For Software Reliability And Other Performance Measures", IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol.R-28, pp.206-211, 1979.

[8] Pham. H., "System software reliability", Springer. 2006.

[9] Xie, M., Goh. T.N., Ranjan.P., "Some effective control chart procedures for reliability monitoring" -Reliability engineering and System Safety 77 143 -150¸ 2002.

[10] Michael. R. Lyu, "The hand book of software reliability engineering", McGrawHill & IEEE Computer Society press


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhance similarity searching algorithm with optimized fast population count method based on parallel design
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Seyed Vahid Dianat, Yasaman Eftekhary pour, Nurul Hashimah Ahamed Hassain Malim, Nur'Aini Abdul Rashid
: 10.9790/0661-1464352      logo

Abstract: In chemoinformatics, drug discovery helps the chemists find new drugs with minimum side effects. The new drug should have similar behavior in terms of the chemical molecular formula to a known drug by applying similarity searching algorithms. A lot of previous works speedup the mentioned task by applying a predefined function, popc, which is only available on new GPUs. This research attempt to provide optimized design using different parallel hardware such as Multicore and GPU processors. Here the aim is to minimize hardware memory allocation by proposed data conversion method and improve data transmission speed. We achieved significant results in terms of performance and execution time in both CUDA and OPENMP designs of fast population count method with data conversion when compared to the sequential code.

Keywords :CUDA, graphics processing unit, multicore architecture, OPENMP, similarity searching algorithm

[1] I. S. Haque, V. S. Pande, and W. P. Walters, "Anatomy of high-performance 2D similarity calculations," Journal of chemical information and modeling, vol. 51, pp. 2345-2351, 2011.
[2] S. Deshpande, P. Ravale, and S. Apte, "Cache Coherence in Centralized Shared Memory and Distributed Shared Memory Architectures," International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) Special Issue, 2010.
[3] J. Nickolls and W. J. Dally, "The GPU Computing Era," Micro, IEEE, vol. 30, pp. 56-69, 2010.
[4] N. Brown, "Chemoinformatics—an introduction for computer scientists," ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 41, p. 8, 2009.
[5] J. A. DiMasi, R. W. Hansen, and H. G. Grabowski, "The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs," Journal of health economics, vol. 22, pp. 151-186, 2003.
[6] J. Pitera, "Current developments in and importance of high-performance computing in drug discovery," Current opinion in drug discovery & development, vol. 12, p. 388, 2009.
[7] G. Rastelli, "Emerging Topics in Structure-Based Virtual Screening," Pharmaceutical Research, pp. 1-6, 2013.
[8] H. El-Rewini and M. Abd-El-Barr, Advanced computer architecture and parallel processing vol. 30: Wiley. com, 2005.
[9] A. R. Brodtkorb, T. R. Hagen, and M. L. Sætra, "Graphics processing unit (GPU) programming strategies and trends in GPU computing," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 73, pp. 4-13, 2013.
[10] I. Rajani and G. N. Gopal, "Advanced Trends of Heterogeneous Computing with CPU-GPU Integration: Comparative Study."


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Modular Approach To Intrusion Detection in Homogenous Wireless Network
Country : India
Authors : Ajita Mishra, Ashish Kumar Srivastava
: 10.9790/0661-1465359      logo

Abstract: Wireless network is the latest and popular technology nowadays. Due to its ample advantage in various fields, it has always been the prime target for hackers and attackers to break through its security and the number of attempts are growing day by day, so the need of real time monitoring and prevention system is required. There are so many methods to detect and prevent intrusion in wireless network but they lack in so many ways or are inefficient. This paper has an inclination to outline the fundamentals of intrusion detection in wireless network, describing the form of attacks and state the motivation for intrusion detection in wireless network and use the modular approach to detect intrusion in a wireless network. Then validation of proposed approach on real network data with analytical model for intrusion detection which allows us to analytically formulate intrusion detection possibility is done.

Keywords - WNS, IDS, attacks, SID, WIPS

[1] A. Mishra, A.K. Srivastava, "A Survey on intrusion Detection System for Wireless Network", IJCA, vol. 73- No.21, pp. 37-40 July 2013.
[2] Y. Zhang, G. Chen, W. Weng, and Z. Wang, "An Overview of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems,"IEEE ICCSNA , vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 147–150, 2010.
[3] T. Badal, D. Verma, "A Modular Approach for Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Networks", IJACNS, vol. 1, pp. 57-61, 2011, ISSN:2250-3757.
[4] K. Suresh, A. Sarala Devi, and Jammi Ashok, "A Novel Approach Based Wireless Intrusion Detection System", IJCSIT, Vol. 3 (4) , 2012,4666 – 4669, ISSN:0975-9646.
[5] Heady, R., "The Architecture of a Network-level Intrusion Detection System."1st Edn., Department of Computer Science, Mexico, pp: 18, 1990.
[6] Zamboni, D., 2001. Using internal sensors for computer intrusion detection. Purdue University.
[7] Debar, H. M. Dacier and A. Wespi, 1999. Towards at taxonomy of intrusion-detection systems. Comput. Netw., 31: 805-822.
[8] S. Zhong, T. M. Khoshgoftaar and S. V. Nath, "A Clustering Approach to Wireless Network Intrusion Detection", in proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAL'O5), PP. 54-60, 2005.
[9] V. Gupta and S. Gupta, "Experiments in Wireless Internet Security", Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, (WCNC 2002), IEEE Volume 2, pp. 860-864, 2002.
[10] Z. Li, A. Das and J. Zhou, "Theoretical basis for intrusion detection," Information Assurance Workshop, (IAW 2005), proceedings from the sixth Annual IEEE SMC, pp. 184-192, 2005.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Prevention of SQL Injection Attacks having XML Database
Country : India
Authors : Preshika Tiwari, Ashish Kumar Srivastava
: 10.9790/0661-1466068      logo

Abstract: XML-based Web applications are broadly utilized in computer world, whose main applications are remote operation performance and bring arbitrary data. It is recently used in cloud interfaces, E-Government, Service Oriented Architectures etc. Due to abundant acceptance of this technology large attacks are raised like Denial of Service attacks, attacks on XML Encryption, and XML Signature Wrapping attacks. To stop these types of attacks different techniques were proposed however they're not enough to stop all varieties of attacks. The existing SQLIA prevention techniques can validate the client side data, one by one. It complicates the developer's task to write different validation codes for each data receiving page in the server. This paper proposed an idea of XML based SQLIA prevention technique which can validate the entire client side data by one single call of the dedicated validation function. In this process, the client will submit data in XML format and the server will verify the entire incoming XML file, based on some pr-decided rules called data-rules.

Keywords: SQL Injection, XML, Stored Procedure, Data Validation.

[1] P. Bisht, P. Madhusudan , and V. N. Venkatakrishnan, "CAN- DID: dynamic candidate evaluations for automatic prevention of SQL injection attacks," ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1–39, 2010.
[2] K. Kemalis and T. Tzouramanis, "Sql-ids: a specification- based approach for sql-injection detection," in Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on Applied computing, ser. SAC '08. ACM, 2008, pp. 2153–2158.
[3] Y.-W. Huang, S.-K. Huang, T.-P. Lin, and C.-H. Tsai, "Web application security assessment by fault injection and behavior monitoring," in Proceedings of the 12th international conference on World Wide Web, ser. WWW '03, 2003, pp. 148–159.
[4] G.Wassermann , C.Gould, Z.Su, and P.Devanbu, "Static checking of dynamically generated queries in database appli- cations," ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol., vol. 16, no. 4, Sep. 2007.
[5] G.Wassermann and Z. Su, "An analysis framework for security in web applications," in In Proceedings of the FSE Workshop on Specification and Verification of Component- Based Systems (SAVCBS 2004, 2004, pp. 70–78.
[6] Fu and K. Qian, "Safeli: Sql injection scanner using symbolic execution," in Proceedings of the 2008 workshop on Testing, analysis, and verification of web services and applications, ser. TAV-WEB '08, 2008, pp. 34–39.
[7] S. Bandhakavi, P. Bisht, P. Madhusudan, and V. N. Venkatakr- ishnan, "Candid: preventing sql injection attacks using dy- namic candidate evaluations," in Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security, ser. CCS '07, 2007, pp. 12–24.
[8] G. Buehrer, B. W. Weide, and P. A. G. Sivilotti, "Using parse tree validation to prevent sql injection attacks," in Proceedings of the 5th international workshop on Software engineering and middleware, ser. SEM '05, 2005, pp. 106–113.
[9] Z. Su and G. Wassermann, "The essence of command in- jection attacks in web applications," SIGPLAN Not., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 372–382, Jan. 2006.
[10] W. G. J. Halfond and A. Orso, "Amnesia: analysis and moni- toring for neutralizing sql-injection attacks," in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE/ACM international Conference on Automated software engineering, ser. ASE '05, 2005, pp. 174–183.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Integration of Irreversible Gates in Reversible Circuits Using NCT Library
Country : Egypt
Authors : Mohamed Osman, Ahmed Younes, Moustafa H. Fahmy
: 10.9790/0661-1466979      logo

Abstract: The reversible circuit synthesis problem can be reduced to permutation group. This allows Schreier-Sims Algorithm for the strong generating set-finding problem to be used to synthesize reversible circuits using the NCT library. Applying novel optimization rules to minimize the number of gates gives better quantum cost than that shown in the literature. Applications on how to integrate any three irreversible Boolean functions on a single 3-bit reversible circuit will be shown.

Keywords: Reversible Circuit, Quantum Cost, Circuit Optimization, Group Theory

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[6]. A. De Vos, B. Desoete, F. Janiak, and A. Nogawski, Control gates as building blocks for reversible computers, Proc. 11th International Workshop on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation, pages 9201--9210 (2001).
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[10]. L. Storme, A. De Vos, and G. Jacobs, Group theoretical aspects of reversible logic gates, Journal of Universal Computer Science, 5(5): 307-321 (1999).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Importance of Mean Shift in Remote Sensing Segmentation
Country : India
Authors : Sambhu Surya Mohan, Sushma Leela
: 10.9790/0661-1468083      logo

Abstract: The segmentation of an image can be considered as a preprocessing step for many of the algorithms such as object detection and identification. Many algorithms exist in the field of remote sensing for segmentation, in every case the desirable output of segmentation is a well defined region or features of object which can be distinguished from another. The desirable features include well based edges, gradients, textures etc. For a real world image the desirable features are difficult to identify. With the advancement of the high resolution imagery, the features which defined the object are too finely defined. It also contains noises which are due to fine edges, gradient variations and non-uniform textures. Segmentation algorithms are plenty in image processing which can be broadly categorized as edge based, color based and textured based. Edge based techniques fails due to the noise content. Textures are not uniform in real world images leading to problems of segmentation. Color based techniques need homogeneous regions which can distinguish objects, which will be difficult with the gradient variation. Defined in this paper is the importance of non-parametric clustering technique called Mean Shift, which in its inherent nature is able to cluster regions according to the desirable properties. The paper is a study on Mean-shift and its probable use in clustering of remote sensing imagery. Rather than a theoretical paper, the paper is arranged as an application based survey which can show the possible use and importance of mean shift in remote sensing.

Keywords: Mean shift, Remote sensing, Segmentation

[1] J. Schiewe, Segmentation of High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Data - Concepts, Applications and Problems, Symposium On Geospatial Theory, Processing And Applications, Ottawa, 2002.

[2] Rohit Maurya, Dr. Shalini Singh, Dr. P.R Gupta and Manish Kumar Sharma, Road Extraction Using K-Means Clustering And Morphological Operations, International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Sciences And Technologies, Vol. No. 5, Issue No. 2, pp 290 – 295, 2011.

[3] M. Airouche, L. Bentabet and M. Zelmat, Image Segmentation Using Active Contour Model and Level Set Method Applied to Detect Oil Spills, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, London, July 1 - 3, 2009.

[4] Jun Zhang and Xiyuan Zhou, Object Recognition Based On Template Correlation In Remote Sensing Image, XXth ISPRS Congress, Commission 3, Istanbul, Turkey, ISPRS, 2004.

[5] Doman Comaniciu and Peter Meer, Mean Shift: A Robust Approach towards Feature Space Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 2002.

[6] S. Boukir1, S. Jones and K. Reinke, Fast Mean-Shift Based Classification of Very High Resolution Images: Application to Forest Cover Mapping, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISPRS Congress, Melbourne, Australia, Volume I-7, 2012, 25 August – 01 September 2012.

[7] Moacir P. and Ponti Jr., Segmentation Of Low-Cost Remote Sensing Images Combining Vegetation Indices And Mean-Shift, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, 18 May 2012.

[8] Torsten B¨uschenfeld and J¨orn Ostermann, Edge Preserving Land Cover Classification Refinement Using Mean Shift Segmentation, Proceedings Of The 4th GEOBIA, May 7-9, 2012.

[9] Xin Xie, Mengliang Liu, Leiguan Wang and Qianqin Qin, A Remote Sensing Image Segmentation Method Based on Spectral and Structural Information Fusion, Proceeding ITNG, International conference on information technology, 2009.

[10] Wenbing Tao, Hai Jin and Jin Liu, Unified Mean Shift Segmentation And Graph Region Merging Algorithm For Infrared Ship Target Segmentation, Optical Engineering, December 2007


Paper Type : Review Article
Title : MAC Protocols: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Shifali Hans
: 10.9790/0661-1468488      logo

Abstract: Mobile adhoc networks (MANETS) are infrastructureless networks which uses radio signals, to establish communication among mobile nodes. MANET media is open shared media, multiple mobile nodes may access the medium at the same time, which causes various MAC problems. This paper provides a review of various MAC problems being faced by MANETS and various MAC protocols which try to resolve these issues.

Keyword: MANETs, MAC, IEEE, Protocols, NCS.

[1] A. Jayasuriya, S. Perreau, A. Dadej, S. Gordon, "Hidden vs. Exposed Terminal Problem in Ad hoc Networks", Institute for Telecommunications Research, Australian Telecommunication Networks & Applications Conference(ATNAC), pp 52-59, 2004
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[3] C. Huang, Chin-Tau Lea, Albert Kai-Sun Wong, "A joint solution for the hidden and exposed terminal problems in CSMA/CA wireless networks" Computer Networks, vol 56, Issue 14, pp. 3261-3273, 28 September 2012
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Paralyzing Bioinformatics Applications Using Conducive Hadoop Cluster
Country : India
Authors : Bincy P. Andrews, Binu A.
: 10.9790/0661-1468993      logo

Abstract: Bioinformatics may be defined as the application of computer science to molecular biology in the form of statistics and analytics. The bioinformatics applications deal with bulk amount of data. Researchers are now facing problems with the analysis of such ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. More over big challenge is involved in processing, storing and analyzing these peta bytes of data without causing much delay. Most of the bioinformatics algorithms are sequential thus making situation rather worse. This implies that data manipulations by means of uniprocessor systems are impractical. However most of the biological problems have parallel nature. Hence a practical and effective approach involves the usage of parallel clusters of workstations. Hadoop can be used to tackle this class of problems with good performance and scalability. This technology could be the basis of a computational parallel platform for several problems in the context of bioinformatics applications. Normally, Hadoop is deployed over high performance computing systems which are expensive involving complex deployment scenarios that only big enterprises are able to make it possible. So for smaller research organizations where cost is an important factor cannot choose systems with high computational capabilities for cluster set up. Rocks cluster is a viable solution in such scenarios. Rocks Cluster Distribution originally called NPACI Rocks is a Linux distribution intended for high-performance computing clusters. This paper implements a cost-effective cluster for paralyzing bioinformatics applications by deploying Hadoop over rock cluster and Emphasizes on the usage of commodity clusters for paralyzing bioinformatics applications by providing necessary justifications. Results show that paralyzing bioinformatics application saves much time compared to stand alone mode of execution effectively under optimal cost considerations.

Keywords :Hadoop, Clusters, Rocks Cluster, commodity clusters, cluster environment, big data, bioinformat

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