IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 13- Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Image Hiding Algorithm using Cryptography and Steganography
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Hemlata Sharma, Ms. Mithlesh Arya, Mr. Dinesh Goyal
: 10.9790/0661-1350106      logo

Abstract: In the present scenario, any communication of internet and networks application requires security.Lots of data security and data hiding algorithms have been developed in the last decade.Cryptography and steganography are the two major techniques for secret communication.In this paper,the secret image is first encrypted by using BLOWFISH algorithm which has very good performance and is a most powerful technique compared to other Algorithms. Now this encrypted imageis embedded with videoby using LSB Approach of steganography. Our proposed model gives two layers of security for secret data, which fully satisfy the basic key factors of information security system that includes: Confidentiality, Authenticity, Integrity and Non – Repudiation.

Keywords: Cryptography, Steganography, Encryption,BlowfishAlgorithm,LSB.

[1]. Satinsown,D."Cryptography:Theory and practice"
[2]. RatinderKaur,V.K.Banga "Image Security using Encryption based Algorithm" International Conference on Trends in Electrical,Electronics and Power Engineering(ICTEEP 2012)July 15-16,2012 Singapore.
[3]. Zaidoon kh.AL-Ani, A.A.Zaidan, B.B.Zaidan and Hamdan.O.Alanazi "Overview: Main Fundamentals for Steganography" Journal of computing,Volume 2,Issue 3,March 2010 ISSN 2151-9617
[4]. Advanced Steganography Algorithm using encrypted secret message,JoyshreeNath and AsokeNath,InternationalJournalof Advanced Computer Science and Application(IJACSA) Vol-2 No.3,Page 19-24 ,March 2011
[5]. JawaharThakur,Nagesh Kumar, "DES, AES and Blowfish: symmetric key cryptography algorithms simulation based performance analysis",in International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume1,Issue 2,December 2011.
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[7]. Rafael C Gonzalez,Richard E. Woods "Digital Image Processing "Book Second Edition,Pearson Education.
[8]. Prof. DP Gaikwad, TruptiJagdale ,Swati Dhanokar, AbhijeetMoghe, AkashPathak"Hiding the Text and Image Message of Variable Size Using Encryption and Compression Algorithm in VedioSteganography"International Journal of Engineering Research and Application(IJERA) Volume 1,Issue2, pp.102-108
[9]. MrithaRamalingam, "Stego Machine – Video Steganography using Modified LSB Algorithm" ,World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 50 2011


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Selfish Node Detection in Replica Allocation over MANETs
Country : India
Authors : A. Kishore Kumar, Surya Bahadhur
: 10.9790/0661-1350713      logo

Abstract: MOBILE ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted a lot of attention due to the popularity of mobile devices and the advances in wireless communication technologies. A MANET is a peer-to-peer multi hop mobile wireless network that has neither a fixed infrastructure nor a central server. Each node in a MANET acts as a router, and communicates with each other. In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we develop a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and average query delay.

Index Terms: Mobile ad hoc networks, selfish nodes, router, replica allocation.

[1]. Jae-Ho Choi, Kyu-Sun Shim, "Handling Selfishness in Replica Allocation over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network" SangKeun Lee, and Kun-Lung Wu, Fellow, IEEE.2012.
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[4]. G. Cao, L. Yin, C.R. Das, "Cooperative cache-based data access in ad hoc networks", IEEE Computer 37 (2) (2004) 32–39.
[5]. Shailender Gupta, C. K. Nagpal and Charu Singla, "IMPACT OF SELFISH NODE CONCENTRATION IN MANETS" International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2011.
[6]. Yang Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Liangzhong Yin, Jing Zhao, and Guohong Cao, Fellow, IEEE, "Balancing the Tradeoffs between Query Delay and Data Availability in MANETs", IEEE Transactions On Parallel And Distributed Systems.
[7]. T. Hara, "Effective Replica Allocation in Ad Hoc Networks for Improving Data Accessibility," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1568- 1576, 2001.
[8]. T. Hara and S.K. Madria, "Data Replication for Improving Data Accessibility in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1515-1532, Nov. 2006.
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[10]. Y. Liu and Y. Yang, "Reputation Propagation and Agreement in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. And Networking Conf., pp. 1510-1515,


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Cryptographic Cloud Storage with Hadoop Implementation
Country : India
Authors : Sowmya. D.
: 10.9790/0661-1351420      logo

Abstract: Cloud storage enables users to remotely store their data and enjoy the on-demand high quality cloud applications without the burden of local hardware and software management. Though the benefits are clear, it inevitably poses new security risks toward the correctness of the data in cloud. To address this problem, the proposed design allows users to audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and computation cost by utilizing the new cryptographic technique like homomorphic token and distributed erasure-coded data. By introducing the notion of parallel homomorphic encryption (PHE) schemes, which are encryption schemes that support computation over encrypted data via evaluation algorithms that can be efficiently executed in parallel. In addition, we can hide the function being evaluated with the MapReduce model runnable on Hadoop framework for element testing and keyword search. Analysis shows the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks and attempting to strike a balance between security, efficiency and functionality using Kerberos protocol and HDFS system.

[1] Amazon elastic mapreduce. See http://aws.amazon.com/elasticmapreduce.
[2] Cloudera. See http://cloudera.com.
[3] Powered by hadoop. See http://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/PoweredBy.
[4] Yahoo! launches world's largest hadoop production application. See http://developer.yahoo. net/blogs/hadoop/2008/02/yahoo-worlds-largest-production-hadoop.html, 2008.
[5] M. Abadi, J. Feingenbaum, and J. Killian. On hiding information from an oracle. In ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC 1987), pages 195{203, 1987.
[6] B. Applebaum, Y. Ishai, and E. Kushilevitz. Computationally private randomizing polynomials and their applications. Journal of Computational Complexity, 15(2), 2006.
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36(4):845{888, December 2006.
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[9] B. Krebs, "Payment Processor Breach May Be Largest Ever," http://voices.washingtonpost.com/securityfix/2009/ 01/
payment_processor_breach_may_b.html, Jan. 2009.
[10] A. Juels and B.S. Kaliski Jr., "PORs: Proofs of Retrievability for Large Files," Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '07), pp. 584-597, Oct. 2007.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secured E-Learning Content on Handheld Device
Country : India
Authors : V. Krishnamurthy, Sushma Dakh, Kirti Bhakkad, Nilima Bargal
: 10.9790/0661-1352126      logo

Abstract: To survive in this competitive world one has to update him continuously with the latest trends and new emerging technologies. It is not feasible for everyone to go and learn at different places. For this reason e-learning is a new emerging methodology of learning process. We have many such e-learning systems in existence but the e-content of those are easily prone to the piracy because of the lack of the security features in it. As online mode compels the user to use continuous internet connection for playing course, the offline solutions of such system would be more economic product for the users. In this paper we propose a system which provides security to the e-learning content deliver to users on handheld device with System Authentication, password protection, data encryption by using AES 128 bit Algorithm and piracy protection which is achieved by web-view control and managing system control. The handheld device can be connected to the television set to view the content which makes the solution very cheap and compact. Keywords: Piracy Protection, E- learning Security, Fingerprint Authentication, Data Encryption.

[1] N. Balacheff, "A modelling challenge: untangling learners' knowing", in Journées Internationales d'Orsay sur les Sciences Cognitives: L'apprentissage, JIOSC2000: Paris,2000 [

2] V. Krishnamurthy, Ajinkya Deshmukh, Rupesh Rathod and Nirajsingh Yeotikar, Secured E-Learning Content on USB/HDD Device,IOSR, Volume 3, Issue 1 (July-Aug. 2012)

[3] M. Pitchaiah, Philemon Daniel Praveen, Implementation AES Algorithm, IJSER Volume ,Iissue 3 (March 2012).

[4] Yadav, Subhash Chandra, Singh, Sanjay Kumar, An Introduction to Client/Server Computing, New Age International Publication, 2009-03
[5] Sam R. Alapati, Charles Kim, Oracle Database 11g, Apress, 2007.

[6] V. Krishnamurthy, Pravin Gade, Practical Implementation of Secured E-Learning with Cryptographic Approach on Android Smart Devices,IJERT, Volume 2, Issue 7 (July 2013)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative study of IPv4 & IPv6 Point to Point Architecture on various OS platforms
Country : India
Authors : Dinesh Goyal, Rajendra Singh, Dr. Naveen Hemrajani
: 10.9790/0661-1352734      logo

Abstract: In this thesis, a comparative study on the performance analysis of IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks under Microsoft Windows 2007, MAC and Red Hat Linux Enterprise version 4 in point-to-point and router-to-router architectures have been done in terms of bandwidth utilization (throughput) for different data sizes, round trip time (latency) computation and overhead variation calculation. Real-time experiments have been carried out for the above-mentioned architectures in the laboratory. For point-to-point architecture, three PCs were configured at IPv4 and IPv6 under the Windows, MAC and Linux operating platforms respectively.

[1]. Postal, J. ―Internet Protocol‖. RFC 791, September 1981
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[10]. Ioan Raicu ―An Empirical Analysis Of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)‖ , Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, year 2002


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Access to Outsourced Databases
Country : India
Authors : Sanjeev Kumar Chauhan, Aravendra Kumar Sharma
: 10.9790/0661-1353542      logo

Abstract: Data security is one of the fundamental security requirement for outsourced databases in a cloud computing environment. Existing solutions usually suffer from problems such as information leakage, key management, revocation handling and user authentication. In this paper to overcome these security challenges, the proposed scheme uses a modified row- based encryption technique where each row of the database is encrypted using a separate key. The proposed scheme also uses client side memory, and selective encryption to increase performance of the system. The proposed approach also uses a modified Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm for establishing secure communication between cloud service provider and the user, inhibiting malicious outsiders.

Keywords - authentication, client side memory, key management, Outsourced databases, row-based encryption, selective encryption..

[1] H. Hacigumus; B. Iyer; S. Mehrotra; , "Providing database as a service," Data Engineering, 2002. Proceedings. 18th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.29-38, 2002.

[2] N. Bennani; E. Damiani; S. Cimato; , "Toward Cloud-Based Key Management for Outsourced Databases," Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2010 IEEE 34th Annual, vol., no., pp.232-236, 19-23 July 2010.

[3] F. Pagano; D. Pagano; , "Using in-memory encrypted databases on the cloud," Securing Services on the Cloud (IWSSC), 2011 1st International Workshop on, vol., no., pp.30-37, 6-8 Sept. 2011.

[4] S. Sanka; C. Hota; M. Rajarajan; , "Secure data access in cloud computing," Internet Multimedia Services Architecture and Application(IMSAA), 2010 IEEE 4th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1- 6, 15-17 Dec. 2010.

[5] C. Curino; E. Jones; R.A. Popa; N. Malviya; E. Wu; S. Madden; H. Balakrishnan; N. Zeldovich; , "Relational Cloud: A Database Service for the Cloud," Innovative Data Systems Research, 2011 5th Biennial Conference on, vol., no., pp., Jan. 2011.

[6] J. Heurix; T. Neubauer; , "On the Security of Outsourced and Untrusted Databases," Computer and Information Science (ICIS), 2010 IEEE/ACIS 9th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.125-132, 18-20 Aug. 2010.

[7] Wang Xiaoming; Zhang Yanhui; , "A Dynamic Access Control Scheme for Outsourced Database," Network Computing and Information Security (NCIS), 2011 International Conference on, vol.1, no., pp.3-7, 14-15 May 2011.

[8] Wang Zheng-Fei; Ai-Guo Tang; , "Implementation of encrypted data for outsourced database," Computational Intelligence and Natural Computing Proceedings (CINC), 2010 Second International Conference on, vol.2, no., pp.150-153, 13-14 Sept. 2010.

[9] H. Hacigumus; B. Iyer; S. Mehrotra; C. Li; , "Executing SQL over encrypted data in the database-service-provider model," In Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD 2002, Madison, WI, USA, June 2002.

[10] R. Agrawal; J. Kierman; R. Srikant; Y. Xu; , "Order preserving encryption for numeric data," In Proc. of ACM SIGMOD 2004, Paris, France, June 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Relational Analysis of Software Developer's Quality Assures
Country : India
Authors : A. Ravi, Dr. Nirmala
: 10.9790/0661-1354347      logo

Abstract: Software engineering approach ensures the quality of software and the delivery of the product on to time to their client. The development process is facing many challenges to optimize the resource and provide the delivery on time. Each phase of the development has its unique functionality. Software development model and the architectural approaches are differ that will creates an impact in the quality of the delivery .however the developers role and their skill sets are vital role in the developmental process and to meet the deadlines of the development tasks. The developer's skills and the developmental tasks inline to the functional domain and its relational process are determine the quality factors such minimum error, functional correctness and user satisfactory. This research attempted observes the functional process of the development sector and determine the influencing factor and its associative relationship. The data from the industry and its descriptive analysis with the determined factors are discussed as part of the paper.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Challenge to Analyze and Detect Altered Human Fingerprints
Country : India
Authors : Chandrakanth Biradar, Vijeth Rao
: 10.9790/0661-1354855      logo

Abstract: The deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has escalated the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. Several problems related to fingerprint system security have been investigated carefully;, the problem of fingerprint alteration has received very scarce attention [1]. Fingerprint alteration refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by a person for masking his/her identity. Several cases of fingerprint alteration have been reported previously. The main contributions of this paper is: 1) Analysis of the altered fingerprints 2) classifying the alterations into three major categories: Obliteration, distortion and imitation and suggesting possible countermeasures 3) Demonstrating by using an example of database, where based on matching score the person of interest is branded as guilty or not and then based on decrease in value of matching score[4][1] if below threshold value we can declare that the fingerprint is altered or not then combine fingerprint Image with person's UID(Unique Identity) comparing with that fingerprint with existing fingerprints showing if there is any match in the form of percentage and display his/her details with criminal record, 4) developing the above system by a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on segmentation using Morphological operations, minutia marking with special considering the triple branch counting[11], minutia unification by decomposing a branch into three terminations[11][12], and matching in the unified x-y coordinate system orientation estimation[13], minutiae matching after a two-step transformation.

Keywords: Fingerprints, AFIS, alteration, orientation estimation, minutiae matching, threshold, UID.

[1] Altered Fingerprints: Analysis and Detection by Jianjiang Feng (2012)

[2] Yi (Alice) Wang and Jiankun Hu "Global Ridge Orientation Modelling for Partial Fingerprint Identification" (2011)

[3] Jianjiang Feng "Detecting Altered Fingerprints" (2010) [4] Anil k jain "Fingerprint Alteration" 2009

[5] Kajal Singh "Altered Fingerprints" 2009

[6] Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching by RAVI. J, K. B. RAJA 2009

[7] Systematic Methods for the Computation of the Directional Fields and Singular Points of Fingerprints by M. Bazen (july 2002)

[8] Sweden refugees mutilate fingers BBC news

[9] Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology

[10] Lin Hong. "Automatic Personal Identification Using Fingerprints", Ph.D. Thesis, 1998.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Hybrid Approach for Content Based Image Retrieval System
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. Madhavi Kshatri, Prof. Yogesh Rathore
: 10.9790/0661-1355661      logo

Abstract: Processing of a two-dimensional picture are generally refers to term digital image processing through a digital computer .Also say it implies digital processing of some two-dimensional data . Include methodology for query image in my project work are based on matching and retrieval & Euclidean distance are used for distance calculation. Initially for feature extraction different feature like row sum, column sum, back ward diagonal sum, diagonal sum, for ward diagonal sum are used .In next Only histogram method are used where Threshold value are used for comparison . In final step row sum, column sum, back ward diagonal sum, diagonal sum, far ward diagonal sum and histogram method are combining applied to images stored in the database. The feature vector of database images is stored as .mat file .Distance calculation between the feature vector of the images stored in the database and the feature vector of the query image is accepted.

Keywords: Row sum, Column Sum, Forward & backward diagonal sum, Histogram & Euclidean Distance..

[1]. Vijay Bagdi, Sulabha Patil Professor, R.V. Dharaskar "Analysis Of Various Cbir Techniques For Retriving Forensically Viable Information From The Images", International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 2 Issue 1, January- 2013 ISSN: 2278-0181.
[2]. Xiang Sean Zhou,Thomas S. Huang, "Edge-Based Structural Features for Content-Based Image Retrieval", Appeared in Pattern Recognition Latters, April 2001
[3]. Christopher C. Yang , "Content-based image retrieval: a comparison between query by example and image browsing map approaches ",Journal of Information Science, page no .254-267 ,June 2004,30 .
[4]. Ch.Kavitha ,Dr.B.Prabhakara Rao & Dr.A.Govardhan ,"Image Retrieval Based On Color and Texture Features of the Image Sub-blocks ",International Journal of Computer Applications -(0975 - 8887) Volume 15- No.7, February 2011
[5]. Dr.H.B.Kekre ,Sudeep Thepade, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Miti Kakaiya, Shobhit Wadhwa, Satyajit Singh , "Edge Texture Based CBIR using Row Mean of Transformed Column Gradient Image" ,Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887) Volume 7- No.10, October 2010
[6]. Rafael C.Gonzalez & Richard E.Woods, Digital Image Processing - A Remote Sensing Perspective, Second Edition, Pearson Prentice-Hall Education, 2006.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : High Speed and Time Efficient 1-D DWT on Xilinx Virtex4 DWT Using 9/7 Filter Based NEDA Technique
Country : India
Authors : Ambikesh Prasad Gupta, Prof. Shweta Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1356267      logo

Abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient Xilinx Virtix4 discrete wavelet transform (DWT) using 9/7 filter based new efficient distributed arithmetic (NEDA) Technique. We demonstrate that NEDA is a very efficient architecture with adders as the main component and free of ROM, multiplication, and subtraction. This technique supports any size of image pixel value and any level of decomposition. The bit-parallel structure has 100% hardware utilization efficiency. Compared with the existing multiplier-less structures, the proposed structures offer significantly higher throughput rate and involve less area-delay product.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), NEDA, Xilinx Simulation, Synopsis Simulation..

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[2] M. Alam, C. A. Rahman, and G. Jullian, "Efficient distributed arithmetic based DWT architectures for multimedia applications," in Proc. IEEE Workshop on SoC for real-time applications, pp. 333 336, 2003.
[3] X. Cao, Q. Xie, C. Peng, Q. Wang and D. Yu, "An efficient VLSI implementation of distributed architecture for DWT," in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Multimedia and Signal Process., pp. 364-367, 2006.
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[5] M. Martina, and G. Masera, "Low-complexity, efficient 9/7 wavelet filters VLSI implementation," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Syst. II, Express Brief vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1289-1293, Nov. 2006.
[6] M. Martina, and G. Masera, "Multiplierless, folded 9/7-5/3 wavelet VLSI architecture," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and syst. II, Express Brief vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 770-774, Sep. 2007.
[7] Gaurav Tewari, Santu Sardar, K. A. Babu, " High-Speed & Memory Efficient 2-D DWT on Xilinx Spartan3A DSP using scalable Polyphase Structure with DA for JPEG2000 Standard," 978-1-4244-8679-3/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE.




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