IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 13- Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Determining the Different E-Services Required By the Pakistani Citizens
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Adnan Mahar, Muhammad Nawaz Tunio, Waseem Ahmed Soomro
: 10.9790/0661-1330104      logo
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Abstract: This primary effort of this research study was to highlight the needs of citizens in Pakistan. Since Pakistan is a developing country and day-per-day the demands and provisions of e-Services are being increased, therefore, this same research can be extended to the study of available e-Services in Pakistan in terms of respective levels of e-Services. This study might come up with the exact data, methods, policies, strengths and major weaknesses of continuous shifting of the e-Services from the bottom to the top level.

Keywords: e-service, ICT, transaction, globalization.

[1] Kayani, M. B., Ehsan ul Haq, Perwez, M. R., Humayun, H. Analyzing Barriers in e-Government Implementation in Pakistan. International Journal for Infonomics (IJI), Volume 4, Issue 3/4. 2011.

[2] Pak e-government strategy. 'E-Government Strategy and 5-Year Plan for the Federal Government'. 2005. Retrieved by ttp://[1].06.2005).pdf>. [Accessed 17/06/2013].

[3] Ahmad, M. O., Markkula, J., Oivo, M. Factors influencing the adoption of e-government services in Pakistan. European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems 2012 (EMCIS2012) June 7-8, Munich, Germany. 2012.

[4] UN. 'United Nation E-Government survey', Retrieved by < intradoc/ groups/public/documents/UN-DPADM/ UNPAN038853.pdf >, [Accessed 15.06.2013]. 2010.

[5] Shafique, F. Indicators of the Emerging Information Society in Pakistan. Information Development. vol. 24 no. 1 66-78. 2008.

[6] Tunio, M. N., Rashdi, P. I. S., Muhammad, Q., Abro, M., Sartaj, S., & Tunio, S. P. Social Impact of Virtual Communication on Nascent Society of Pakistan. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 10, Issue 5, 2013, PP 68-74. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.Iosrjournals.Org

[7] Tunio, M. N., Arain, N. R., & Tunio, S. P. Assessment of Computer Literacy at Secondary Education Level in Rural Areas of Sindh (Pakistan). International Journal of Emerging Science and Engineering (IJESE) ISSN: 2319–6378, Volume-1, Issue-7, 2013

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Doubletree: An Algorithm for Large-Scale Topology Discovery
Country : India
Authors : Ranjit Kumar Nukathati
: 10.9790/0661-1330512      logo
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Abstract: Monitoring Internet topology was a tractable problem. Topology discovery systems are starting to be introduced in the form of easily and widely deployed software. Unfortunately, they have a problem of how to perform such measurements efficiently and in a network-friendly manner. When scaled up, such methods will generate so much traffic that they will begin to resemble distributed denial-of-service attacks. The existing Doubletree algorithm faces the problem of redundancy. To solve this, the Efficient Doubletree algorithm is proposed which reduces redundancy while maintaining nearly the same level of nodes and link coverage. Algorithm quantifies the amount of redundancy in classic Internet topology discovery approaches by taking into account the perspective of a single monitor (intramonitor) and that of an entire system (intermonitor). Efficient Doubletree simultaneously meets the conflicting demands of reducing intramonitor and intermonitor redundancy. In both the above cases a hop in the middle that is between monitor and destination will be selected by Hop Selection to increase efficiency.

Keywords: Distributed denial-of-service(DDoS) attack, Efficient Doubletree, forward probing, backward probing, stopping rule.

[1] V. Jacobsen "Traceroute UNIX," 1989. [Online]. Available:, man page. [2] R. Braden, "Requirements for internet hosts. communication layers," Internet Engineering Task Force, RFC 1122, Oct. 1989.

[3] E.C. Rosen, "Vulnerabilities of network control protocols: An examples", RFC 789, July 1981.

[4] Y. Rekhter, "BGP Protocol Analysis", RFC 1265, October 1991.


[5] D. Atkins and R. Austein. "Threat Analysis of the Domain Name System (DNS)". RFC 3833 (Informational), August 2004.

[6] S. Murphy. "BGP Security Vulnerable Analysis", RFC 4272 (Informational), January 2006.

[7] A. Retana, R. White, V. Fuller, and D. McPherson. "Using 31-Bit Prefixes on IPv4 Point-to- Point Links", RFC 3021 (Proposed Standard), December 2000.
[8] Y. Rekhter and T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 1771 (Draft Standard), March 1995. Obsoleted by RFC 4271.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hiding Text within Image Using LSB Replacement
Country : Iraq
hors : Nada Elya Tawfiq
: 10.9790/0661-1331316      logo
    Downloads : Times

Abstract: Our digital world and its hyper connectivity makes securing the digital content a paramount. Information hiding has always been seen as a way to protect sensitive data from adversaries. This research paper utilizes a new algorithm to hide atextmessagewitha gray image to achievesecurity and maintain high quality results. The new algorithm was appliedtogenerate a random key in the range of (1 to 256) to increase the level of security. This random key was used to determine the binary value of each character within the text message. Next XOR operation was applied on the numbers and the key matrix.Then, the last two bits of the gray level value was ANDed with the first two bits of the matrix to generate a randomized plain text and embed it within the original image. The usage of XOR and AND operations ensures that the resultant image has the minimum number of errors which in turn increases the quality of the image.

[1] V. K. Pachghare, ―Cryptography and Information Security ― , PHI Learning Private Linited, 2009.

[2] William Stallings, ―Cryptography and Network Security‖, Prentice Hall, Boston Columbus Indianapolis, 2011.

[3] H. Motameni, M. Norouzi, ―Labeling Method in Steganography‖, World Academy of Science, Engineering and technology, 2007.
[5] Pahati, OJ (2001-11-29). "Confounding Carnivore: How to Protect Your Online Privacy". AlterNet.Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2008-09-02.

[6] Atallah M. Al-Shatnawi. ―A New Method in Image Steganography with Improved Image Quality‖.Al-albayat University, Mafraq, Jordan.―data hiding fundamentals and applications‖ . 2004, HusrwSencar,

[7] Neil F. Johnson and SushilJajodia, ―Exploring Steganography Seeing the Unseen‖, George Mason Universit

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison Study of Multiple Traveling Salesmen Problem using Genetic Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Shalini Singh, Md. Ejaz Aslam Lodhi
: 10.9790/0661-1331722      logo
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Abstract: Multiple traveling salesman problems (MTSP) are a typical computationally complex combinatorial optimization problem, which is an extension of the famous traveling salesman problem (TSP). The MTSP can be generalized to a wide variety of routing and scheduling problems. The paper makes the attempt to show how Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be applied to the MTSP with ability constraint. In this paper, we compare MTSP in term of distance and iteration by considering several set of cities. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can find competitive solutions within rational time, especially for large scale problems. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, GA Operator, MTSP, TGA, TSP

[1] Gerard Reinelt. The Traveling Salesman: Computational Solutions for TSP Applications. Springer-Verlag, 1994.
[2] E.L. Lawler, J.K. Lenstra, A.H.G. Rinnooy Kan, and D.B. Shmoys. The Traveling Salesman. John Wiley and Sons, 1986.
[3] Bektas,T.(2006).The multiple traveling salesman problem: an overview of formulations and solution procedures. OMEGA: The International Journal of Management Science, 34(3), 209-219.
[4] Hamilton Paths in grid graphs by Alon Itai,Christos H. PapaDimitriou and Jayme Luis schwarchifter in 1982 Society for Industrial and Applied Science,Vol.11,no.4,November 1982.
[5] An Inexact Algorithm for the Sequential Ordering Problem, by Escudero in 1988.
[6] Immune-Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem by Jingui Lu and Min Xie. Nanjing University of Technology,P. R. China.
[7] Introduction to Genetic Algorithm by Dr. Rajib Kumar Bhattachariya Department of Civil Engineering IIT Guwahati
[8] A Search Procedure from Hamilton path and circuits by Frank Rubin IBM Corporation,Poughkeepsie,New York.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : How Cognitive Science Has Influenced the Applied Science of HCI "The evolution that envies the revolution
Country : United States of America
Authors : Thomas Virgona
: 10.9790/0661-1332329      logo
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Abstract: Science research contributions to applied science have been staggering, to say the least, over the last 25 years. Almost every computer related field or discipline has made significant strides that have impacted every day life. The field of human-computer interaction has made such minor break-throughs, one could argue if it is really an independent field of study, or simply a subset of analysis and design? Does the research belong in the field of psychology, as a result of the strong dependency on cognitive thinking? The study of HCI allows us to explain the overall decisions that individuals make when using technologies.Although a wealth of studies already exist on modeling mental processes, epistemological and methodological, issues in the context of developing user interfaces have remained untouched. (Stary, Chris, Peschl, Mark F 1998). Cognition is the subject of change. Has Cognitive Science influenced the Applied Science Of HCI? Yes. Has Cognitive Science impacted the Applied Science Of HCI? No.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement of Data Hiding Capacity in Audio Steganography
Country : India
Authors : Sheelu
: 10.9790/0661-1333035      logo
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Abstract: Nowadays, a lot of applications are Internet-based and demand of internet applications requires data to be transmitted in a secure manner. Data transmission in public communication system is not secure because of interception and improper manipulation by eavesdropper. So a technique for secure transmission of messages called Steganography, which send the messages in such a way that existence of the message is concealed. Audio Steganography is the scheme of hiding the existence of secret information by concealing it into an audio file. In this paper we will discuss how audio file can be used as carrier to hide the secret information. In this paper we also proposed a system that will enhance the data hiding capacity in Audio Steganography using LSB method. we will use last 4 LSB's instead of a single LSB , this will enhance the data hiding capacity of carrier file.

Keywords: Steganography, Audio Steganography , Cover file, Stego file, key

[1] Jammi Ashok, Y. Raju, S. Munishankaraiah, K. Srinivas " Steganography : An Overview" in International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(10), 2010, 5985-5992

[2] Pratap Chandra Mandal Modern "Steganographic technique: A survey" in International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET)

[3] Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay and Barnali Gupta "LSB Modification and Phase Encoding Technique of Audio Steganography Revisited" in International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol. 1, Issue 4, June 2012

[4] Jayaram P, Ranganatha H R, Anupama H S, " Information Hiding Using Audio Steganography – A Survey" in The International Journal of Multimedia & Its Applications (IJMA) Vol.3, No.3, August 2011

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Dynamic AI-Geo Health Application based on BIGIS-DSS Approach
Country : Egypt
Authors : Torky Sultan, Mona Nasr, Ayman E. Khedr, Randa Abdo
: 10.9790/0661-1333642      logo
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Abstract:Public health organizations use GIS on a daily basis for input, storage, manipulation, and output of geographic information which provides a powerful tool for public health assessment and monitoring in remote locations and developing countries [1]. Information technology is taking on a new level of importance due to its business intelligence application solutions. Our proposal is aimed at integrating these two different worlds in a single dynamic framework using web technology at health sector. Dynamic AI-Geohealth application based on BIGIS_DSS approach uses GIS tools and techniques to convert geographic information and analysis of data that becomes valuable information to make more informed business decisions and rational. Thus, the approach is not just a technical or business analytical process; But discipline which includes both. This paper explores the adopting Business Intelligence (BI) with Geographic Information System (GIS) to build a spatial artificial intelligence and predictive analytical approach. Also this paper will explores case research for implementation of proposed approach in developing countries like Egypt at health sector as dynamic health map web application. The proposed approach helps in solving spatial problem which faces decision makers at health sector.

Keywords: Business Intelligence (BI), Geographic information system (GIS), Decision support system (DSS), Artificial Intelligence (AI)..

[1]. Aschengrau, A., et al. 2008. Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives 116 (June) (6): 814–820.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving search time for contentment based image retrieval via,
LSH, MTRee, and EMD bounds
Country : Morocco
Authors : Bahri abdelkhalak, Hamid zouaki
: 10.9790/0661-1334352      logo
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Abstract: Comparison of images requires a distance metric that is sensitive to the spatial location of objects and features. The Earth Mover's Distance was introduced in Computer Vision to better approach human perceptual similarities. Its computation, however, is too complex for usage in interactive multimedia database scenarios. Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications, in particular if the method of similarity measure used be the EMD. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). In this paper, we propose a new index structure, named LSH-LUBMTree, for efficient retrieval of multimedia objects. It combines the advantages of LSH [27,28], the technique used to embedding [33] the EMD, and the advantages, of LUBMTree [19]. Unlike the images of each bucket are stored in the LUBMTree. Experimental results show that LSH-LUBMTree performs better than the standard LSH in term of search time.

Key words: CBIR, LSH, EMD, MTree, LUBMTree

[1] Swedlow, J.R., Goldberg, I., Brauner, E., Sorger, P.K.: Informatics and quantitative analysis in biological imaging. Science 300 (2003) 100–102

[2] Manjunath, B.S., Salembier, P., Sikora, T., eds.: Introduction to MPEG 7: Multimedia Content Description Language. Wiley (2002) [3] Mahalanobis, P.: On the generalised distance in statistics. Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 12 (1936) 49–55

[4] Y. Tao, K. Yi, C. Sheng, and P. Kalnis. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional nearest neighbor search. In SIGMOD '09: Proceedings of the 35th SIGMOD international conference on Management of data, pages 563–576, New York, NY, USA, 2009. ACM.

[5] Y. Ke, R. Sukthankar, L. Huston, Y. Ke, and R. Sukthankar. Efficient near-duplicate detection and sub-image retrieval. In In ACM Multimedia, pages 869–876, 2004 [6] Werman, M., Peleg, S., Rosenfeld, A.: A distance metric for multi-dimensional histograms. Computer, Vision, Graphics, and Image Proc. 32 (1985) 328–336

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[10] P. Ciaccia, M. Patella, and P. Zezula. M-tree: An efficient access method for similarity search in metric spaces. In Proc. 23rd Conference on Very Large Databases (VLDB'97), pages 196–435. Morgan Kaufmann, 1997.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Framework for Providing Selective Permissions to Android Applications.
Country : India
Authors : Aditi Tripathy, Prof. G. P. Potdar
: 10.9790/0661-1335358      logo
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Abstract: The latest version of Android 4.2 doesn't provide selective permissions for apps while they are being downloaded.This doesn't provide flexibility to the user to restrict the usage of their resources by the app. This paper proposes a framework for providing selective permissions in Android Operating System

Keywords: Android Operating System , Design , Protection , Security Selective Permissions, Verification .

[1] Nwokedi Idika,Aditya P. Mathur,A Survey of Malware Detection Techniques,.,Last Acessed:November 1,2012.

[2] Mahinthan Chandramohan,Hee Beng Kuan Tan.Detection of Mobile Malware in the wild.IEEE Computer Magazine Sep2012

. [3] Android open sourceproject, Application Sandbox.,

[4] Android open source project, Elements of Applications, Interprocess Communication,

[5] Mohammad Nauman and Sohail Khan. Design and Implementation of a Fine-grained Resource Usage Model for the Android Platform. The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol.8, No.4, Oct 2011

[6] Alexandre Bartel,Jacques Klein,Martin Monperrous.Automatically Securing Permission-Based Software by Reducing the Attack Surface:An Application to Android.

[7] Lakhmi Priya Sekar,Vinitha Reddy Gankidi, Selvakumar Subramanian.,Avoidance of Security Breach through Selective Permissions in Android Operating System.ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes,September 2012 Volume 37 Number 5.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mobility Contrast Effect on Environment in Manet as Mobility Model
Country : India
Authors : Tarkeshwari kaul, R. K. Kapoor
: 10.9790/0661-1335967      logo
    Downloads : Times

Abstract: Manet is a type of ad-hoc network without any infrastructure and connects mobile nodes through wireless channels. It gives environment in which nodes can be connected dynamically as they enter the area. The area can be any place where nodes can move uniformly or randomly like disaster hitting places, shopping malls, airport, station, campus, business meeting, and temple etc. Depending on the terrene, and physical infrastructure and environment that may cause obstacle in the movement of nodes in the given area, the mobility pattern of nodes is different. These involve the mobility environment as major factor for mobile nodes while sharing information in mobile ad-hoc network. The characteristics of mobility of nodes in Manet are application based and have significant impact on the performance of routing protocols. While studying the performance of MANET routing protocols, environment parameter as mobility is important and can be considered remarkably so that realistic scenario can be constructed for the accurate analysis of performance of routing protocols.

Keywords - Mobile ad-hoc network (Manet), Mobility Models, and Routing protocols.

[1] Sabina Baraković, Suad Kasapović, and Jasmina Baraković, "Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Different Traffic and Mobility Model", Telfor Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2010

[2] M.K.Jeya Kumar and R.S.Rajesh, "Performance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in different mobility models", IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network 22 Security, VOL.9 No.2, February 2009.

[3] E. Hyytiä, H. Koskinen, P. Lassila, A. Penttinen and J. Virtamo "Random Waypoint Model in Wireless Networks" [4] Youssef Saadi, Said El Kafhali, Abdelkrim Haqiq, Bouchaib Nassereddine, " Simulation Analysis of Routing Protocols using Manhattan Grid Mobility Model in MANET", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 45– No.23, May 2012

[5] Joy Ghosh, Sumesh J. Philip, Chunming Qiao, "Performance Analysis of Mobility Based Routing Protocols in MANET", UB CSE 2004

[6] Per Johansson, Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman, Bartosz Mielczarek Mikael Degermark," Scenario-based Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks", Mobicom "99 Scattlc Washington USA.

[7] Narinderjeet Kaur, Maninder Singh, "Caching Strategies in MANET Routing Protocols", International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2012 1 ISSN 2250-3153

[8] Natarajan Meghanathan, "A Simulation Study on the Impact of Mobility Models on the Network Connectivity, Hop Count and Lifetime of Routes for Ad hoc Networks", Informatica 34 (2010) 207–221

[9] Valentina Timcenko, Mirjana Stojanovic, Slavica Bostjancic Rakas, "MANET Routing Protocols vs. Mobility Models:Performance Analysis and Comparison", Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on applied informatics and communications (AIC '09)

[10] Fan Bai, Ahmed Helmy,"A survey of Mobility Models in wireless Ad-hoc networks".

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Approximating Source Accuracy Using Dublicate Records in Da-ta Integration
Country : Egypt
Authors : Ali Al-Qadri, Ali El-Bastawisi, Osman Hegazi
: 10.9790/0661-1336872      logo
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Abstract: Currently, there are two main basic strategies to resolve conflicts in data integration: Instance-based strategy and metadata-based strategy. However, the two strategies have their limitations and their problems. In a metadata-basedstrategy, the data integration administrator uses some features of source to determine how they may participate to provide a single consistent result for any conflicted object. One of the most important featuresin metadata-based strategyis source accuracy, which is concerned with the correctness and precision with which real world data of interest to an application domain is represented correctly in the data store and used for conflict resolution. However, it is difficult and time consum-ing to calculate accuracy for all data sources and compare data about objects with what is in real world, in this article we propose a new way to approximate sources accuracy using known accuracy of predefined source as a reference. In this paper wepresenthow to determine most appropriate source as a reference using some criteria do not depend on comparing with real objects. After that we demonstrate how to use this reference source and its known accuracy to approximate other sources accuracies using common objects between them and reference source.

Keywords: Data Integration, Metadata, Source Accuracy, Similarity ratio.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Modified KS-test for Feature Selection
Country : India
Authors : K. Subrahmanyam, Nalla Shiva Sankar, Sai Praveen Baggam, Raghavendra Rao S.
: 10.9790/0661-1337379      logo
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Abstract: A central problem in machine learning is identifying a representative set of features from which to construct a classification model for a particular task. Feature selection, as a preprocessing step to machine learning, is effective in reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data, increasing learning accuracy, and improving result comprehensibility. The central hypothesis is that good feature sets contain features that are highly correlated with the class, yet uncorrelated with each other. In this paper a fast redundancy removal filter is proposed based on modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, utilizing class label information while comparing feature pairs. Results obtained from this algorithm are compared with other two algorithms capable of removing irrelevancy and redundancy, such as Correlation Feature Selection algorithm (CFS) and simple Kolmogorov Smirnov-Correlation Based Filter (KS-CBF). The efficiency and effectiveness of various methods is tested with two of the standard classifiers such as the Decision- Tree classifier and the K-NN classifier. In most cases, classification accuracy using the reduced feature set produced using the proposed approach equaled or bettered accuracy obtained using the complete feature set and other two algorithms.

[1]. Te-Shun Chou, Kang K.Yen, JunLuo, NikiPissinou and KiaMakki Correlation Based Feature Selection for Intrusion Detection Design.
[2]. Feature Subset Selection: A Correlation Based Filter Approach Mark A. Hall, Lloyd A. Smith ([mhall, las] of Computer Science, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
[3]. A Novel Information Theory for Filter Feature Selection BoyenBonov, FransiscoEscolonov and MiguelAnguel.
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[5]. Conditional Entropy Metrics for Feature Selection by Iain Bancarz.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Load Aware Proposal for Maximum Available Bandwidth Routing in Wireless Mesh Network
Country : India
Authors : Jaseena C. A., Govindaraj E.
: 10.9790/0661-1338086      logo
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Abstract: Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) consists of a large number of wireless nodes. The nodes form a wireless overlay to cover the service area while a few nodes are wired to the internet. Seeking the path with the maximum available bandwidth is one of the fundamental issues in the wireless mesh networks. If the traffic rate of a new flow on a path is no greater than the available bandwidth of this path, accepting the new traffic will not violate the bandwidth guarantees of the existing flows. The routing protocols should be satisfying the optimality and consistency requirement. This survey analyses the different routing techniques which provides bandwidth guarantee and high throughput and also discusses different problems faced out by those methods and identifies a routing technique which route through the maximum available bandwidth path from source to destination with the satisfaction of optimality and consistency requirement, plot the throughput and delay graph and then analyses the results with other method. Finally propose a load aware bandwidth guaranteed routing protocol.

Keywords: Isotonicity, ETX, CAB, widest path, AVAIL

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Reactive Routing approach for preventing wormhole attack using hybridized WHOP
Country : India
Authors : Miss Neha Jain, Associate Prof. Ashish Kr. Shrivastava
: 10.9790/0661-1338795      logo
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Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc network is additionally a network that is self-organized and adaptive in nature. As a results of lack of centralized infrastructure several security problems are arises and malicious activity performed by offender. Here we've got an inclination to tend to denote specific attack referred to as wormhole attack , throughout that the degree offender with the help of malicious node to record packets at one location among the network and transmit to a distinct location by a secrete tunnel and retransmits them into the network. In previous research work have got process delay time is a lot of as compare to traditional process delay time because of some suspicious activity of wormhole attack. The aim of this research work is to reduce the process delay time, using the idea of hybridize WHOP protocol with time synchronization mechanism. The proposed approach provides efficient results to secure data packet transmission and reduce the process delay time while not use of any expensive hardware. We are going to work with DSR routing protocol that simulates the behavior of wormhole attack using network simulator NS-2.

Keywords: Ad Hoc Networks, DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), Malicious Node attacks, Wormhole attack, WHOP

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[9] H.S. Chiu and K.S. Lui, "DelPHI: Wormhole Detection Mechanism for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," in Proc. International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive computing, Phuket, Thailand, pp. 1-6, 2006.

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