IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 12- Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enabling Integrity for the Compressed Files in Cloud Server
Country : India
Authors : S. K. Prashanth, Dr. N. Sambasiva Rao, K. SUNITHA, V. TEJASWINI
: 10.9790/0661-1240105      logo

Abstract: Cloud computing has been envisioned as next-generation architecture of IT enterprise. Cloud computing is the internet based model which delivers computing services on demand. Cloud storage moves the users data to large data centers, which are remotely located and on which user does not have any control. Apart having more benefits, this unique feature of the cloud also poses many new security challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. The important concerns that need to be addressed in cloud computing is to assure the integrity of data i.e. correctness of his data in the cloud. In this paper we provide a scheme which gives a proof of data integrity in the cloud which the customer can employ to check the correctness of his data in the cloud. This proof can be done by both the cloud and the customer and can be incorporated in the Service level agreement (SLA). Here we are encrypting the hash values and providing the more security. This scheme ensures that the storage at the client side is minimal which will be beneficial for thin clients. Here the computational time is minimized by using integrity and encryption methodology on the data in cloud . It should be noted that this scheme applies only to archive storage data.

Key words : Cloud Computing, Data Integrity, Data Encryption.

[1] E. Mykletun, M. Narasimha, and G. Tsudik, "Authentication and integrity in outsourced databases," Trans. Storage, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107–138, 2006.
[2] G. Ateniese, R. Burns, R. Curtmola, J. Herring, L. Kissner, Z. Peterson, and D. Song, "Provable data possession at untrusted stores," in CCS ‟07: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 598–609.
[3] Juels and B. S. Kaliski, Jr., "Pors: proofs of retrievability for large files," in CCS ‟07: Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp.584–597.
[4] Sravan Kumar R, Ashutosh Saxena, "Data Integrity Proofs in Cloud Storage" 978-1-4244-8953-4/11/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE.
[5] Ku. Swati G. Anantwar, Prof. Karuna G. Bagde, "Data Integrity and Security in Cloud," International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 1, Issue 7, September 2012


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Video Streaming Compression for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Nethra B. M., Mr. Sudhakar K. N.
: 10.9790/0661-1240611      logo

Abstract:This Article Presents The Design Of Continuous Video Streaming Compression Of A Networked System For Joint Compression, Error Detection And For Error Correction. Video Compression Applications Are Becoming More Popular Over Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. To Save Energy In Bit Transmissions And Receptions Over A Video Sensor Network, The Video File Contents Need To Be Encoded Packet By Packet Before Its Transmission Over Network. The Quality At The Receiver Side Can Be Maximized By Designing The Cross Layer System. The Transmission Rate And Encoding Rate Can Be Controlled By The Cross Layer System. The Fairness Of The Received Video Quality Can Be Developed By The Rate Controller. Instead, An Adaptive Parity Scheme That Drops Samples In Error Is Proposed And Shown To Improve Video Quality. Finally A Low Complexity, Adaptive Video Encoder, Is Proposed That Performs Low Complexity Motion Estimation On Sensors And Implemented To Further Optimize Energy Consumption., Thus Greatly Reducing The Amount Of Data To Be Transmitted And Video File Can Be Decompressed.

Index Terms: Compression, Multimedia Streaming, Congestion Control, Sensor Networks, Rate Controller.

[1] S. Pudlewski, T. Melodia, And A. Prasanna, "C-DMRC: Compressive Distortion-Minimizing Rate Control For Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,‖ In Proc. Of IEEE International Conference On Sensor, Mesh And Ad Hoc Communications And Networks (SECON) 2010, Boston, MA, June 2010.

[2] I. F. Akyildiz, T. Melodia, And K. R. Chowdhury, ―A Survey On Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,‖ Computer Networks (Elsevier), Vol. 51, No. 4, Pp. 921–960, Mar. 2007.

[3] A. Aaron, S. Rane, R. Zhang, And B. Girod, ―Wyner-Ziv Coding For Video: Applications To Compression And Error Resilience,‖ In Proc. Of IEEE Data Compression Conf. (DCC), Snowbird, UT, March 2003, Pp. 93–102.

[4] D. Donoho, ―Compressed Sensing,‖ IEEE Transactions On Information Theory, Vol. 52, No. 4, Pp. 1289–1306, Apr. 2006.

[5] B. Girod, A. Aaron, S. Rane, And D. Rebollo-Monedero, ―Distributed Video Coding,‖ Proc. Of The IEEE, Vol. 93, No. 1, Pp. 71–83, January 2005.

[6] T. Sheng, G. Hua, H. Guo, J. Zhou, And C. W. Chen, ―Rate Allocation For Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding Without Feedback,‖ In ACM Intl. Conf. On Multimedia, New York, NY, USA, October 2008, Pp. 701–704.

[7] J. Romberg,‖Imaging Via Compressive Sampling,‖ IEEE Signal Processing Mag Azine,Vol.25,No.2,Pp.14-20,2008

[8] M. Duarte, M. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. Laska, T. Sun, K. Kelly, And R. Baraniuk, ―Single-Pixel Imaging Via Compressive Sampling,‖ IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 25, No. 2, Pp. 83—91, 2008.

[9] M . Wakin, J. Laska, M. Duarte, D. Baron, S. Sarvotham, D. Takhar, K. Kelly, And R. Baraniuk, ―Compressive Imaging For Video Representation And Co


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Scale-Free Networks to Search in Unstructured Peer-To-Peer Networks
Country : India
Authors : Yadma srinivas reddy, Mr. D. Raman
: 10.9790/0661-1241217      logo

Abstract: Unstructured peer-to-peer file sharing networks are very popular in the market. They introduce network traffic. The resultant networks are not perform search efficiently because existing overlay topology formation algorithms are creates unstructured P2P networks without performance guarantees. In this paper, We compares structured and unstructured overlays, Showing through analytical and simulation results how an unstructured solution relying on a scale-free topology is an effective option to deploy for offering services based on equivalent servants. Based on this result, The EQUivalent servAnt locaTOR (EQUATOR) architecture, which overcomes the issues related to the deployment of a scale-free topology for service location in a real network, mainly due to the static nature of the ideal scale-free construction algorithm and the lack of a global knowledge of the participating peers. Simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of EQUATOR, showing how it offers good lookup performance in combination with low message overhead and high resiliency to node churn and failures. Some possible future works are introduced and are related to some complementary issues ranging from the proximity-aware selection of servants to the introduction of proper incentives to encourage nodes to join the EQUATOR overlay and offer their resources.

Keywords: peer to peer systems, Random Networks, Scale-Free Networks, Communication Networks, Socio-Technical Networks, Diffusion.

[1]. Q.Lv ,P.Cao, E.Cohen, K.Li, and S. Shenker, "Search and replication in unstructured peer-to-peer networks," SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 258–259, 2002.
[2]. R. Albert and A.-L. Barabási, "Statistical mechanics of complex networks," Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 74, pp. 47–97, Jan. 2002.
[3]. L. A. Adamic, R. M. Lukose, A. R. Puniyani, and B. A. Huberman, "Search in power-law networks," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. Sep 2001.
[4]. Guido Marchetto, Luigi Ciminiera, Marco Papa Manzillo, Fulvio Risso, Livio Torrero, "Locating Equivalent Servants over P2P Networks"
[5]. Oliver Hein, Michael Schwind, Wolfgang Konig, "Scale-Free Networks" The Impact of Fat Tailed Degree Distribution on Diffusion and Communication Processes.
[6]. Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Albert, Reka: Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks. In: Science 286 (1999), pp. 509–512.
[7]. Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Bonabeau, Eric: Scale-Free Networks. Scientific American 2003.
[8]. Ebel, H.; Mielsch, L.-I.; Bornholdt., S.: Scale-free topology of e-mail networks. In: Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002), pp. 035103.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A practical approach for model based slicing
Country : India
Authors : Rupinder Singh, Vinay Arora
: 10.9790/0661-1241826      logo

Abstract: Software testing is an activity that will aim at evaluating an attribute or capability of system and determine that whether it meets required expectations. Test cases can be designed at model level of software development. But to visualize the software model or architecture is difficult due to its large and complex structure. We have presented a novel methodology to extract the sub-model from model diagrams correspond to point of interest to ease the software visualization. The proposed methodology use the concept of model based slicing to slice the sequence diagram to extract the desired chunk.

Keywords – Software Testing, Sequence diagram, Model based slicing.

[1] IEEE Standard 1059-1993, IEEE Guide for Software Verification and Validation Plans, IEEE, 1993.
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[9] J. Lallchandani and R. Mall, Slicing UML Architectural Models, ACM SIGSOFT, vol.33, no.3, May 2008.
[10] Jaiprakash T. Lallchandani, R. Mall, Static Slicing of UML Architectural Models, Journal of Object Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 159-188, January-February 2009.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Smart Way to Track the Location in Android Operating System
Country : India
Authors : Muthumurugesan D., Nalini S., Vinodini R.
: 10.9790/0661-1242732      logo

Abstract:A Location Based Service provides information that is accessible in the mobile devices through the mobile network and it also provides information about the contemporary geographical position of the mobile device. The user need not want to carry the desktop all the way along the journey to retrieve the details of destination location, to overcome this issue this application is used to extort the information about the mobile device which is integrated with Google Maps, Network provider and GPS to retrieve the latitude and longitude value. LBS use GPS to locate user's current location and user can select the new destination of their interest or they can choose the predetermined destination location which is closer to the current location. Through Query processing the user can retrieve the current location. The smart location tracker is deployed in the Android Operating system.
Keywords- LBS, GPS, Distance Calculator, Google Maps, Android

[[1] Ch. Radhika Rani and A. Praveen Kumar,"LOCATION BASED SERVICES IN ANDROID", International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, March 2012.

[2] Gurjeet Kaur and Monika Sachdeva ,"Mobile Client's Access Mechanism for Location based Service using Cell-ID ",International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 57– No.22, November 2012.

[3] J.F. DiMarzio "Android ™A Programmer's Guide".

[4] Shane Conder and Lauren Darcey "Android™ Wireless Application development", Second Edition.

[5] Katina Michael , Andrew McNamee and MG Michael," The Emerging Ethics of Human centric GPS Tracking and Monitoring", School of Information Technology and Computer Science and University of Wollongong, Australia.

[6] Gurjeet Kaur, Monika Sachdeva and Navdeep Singh" Mobile Client's Access Mechanism for Location based Service using Cell-ID " in International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 57– No.22, November 2012

[7] Manav Singhal1 and Anupam Shukla " Implementation of Location based Services in Android using GPS and Web Services" in IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 1, No 2, January 2012 ISSN.

[8] Ch. Radhika Rani1, A. Praveen Kumar2, D. Adarsh2, K. Krishna Mohan2, K.V.Kiran2 "LOCATION BASED SERVICES IN ANDROID" International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, March 2012. [9] Jason Ostrander "Android UI Fundamentals Develop and Design".

[10] RetoMeier "Professional Android™ Application Development".


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : User Identity Verification Using Mouse Signature
Country : India
Authors : B. J. Gorad, D. V. Kodavade
: 10.9790/0661-1243336      logo

Abstract: Stealing Identity of the user is a crime in which hackers does the unauthorized activity under the stolen identity by using credentials such as passwords, usernames etc. User verification system provides security layer in addition to username and password by continuously validating the identity of the logged-on user based on their behavioral and physiological characteristics. We introduced a novel method that continuously verifies the user according to characteristics of their interaction with the mouse. The research contribution is in two parts. First, user signature is created according to the user's interaction with mouse while he is doing some predefined activity such as, drawing any alphabet or his signature on canvas application and it gets stored in a database and used for verification purpose. In the second part design hierarchy, to generate a user signature for the current session is discussed. The paper also discusses a decision making system to take decision about to continue the log in or log out from the system based on matching of his current signature and previously created signature. The system developed gives better verification accuracy by reducing the response time of the system.

Index Terms— LC – Left click, RC – Right Click, DC- Double Click, MM- Mouse Move etc

[1]. Clint Feher, Yuval Elovici, Robert Moskovitch, Lior Rokach, Alon Schclar, "User identity verification via mouse dynamics", Information Sciences 201 (2012) 19–36.
[2]. Chao Shen, Zhongmin Cai, Xiaohong Guan, Youtian Du, and Roy A. Maxion, User Authentication Through Mouse Dynamics. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITYVOL. 8, NO. 1, Jan 2013
[3]. Zach Jorgensen and Ting Yu, On Mouse Dynamics as a Behavioral Biometric for Authentication. ACM 978-1-4503-0564-8/March 2011.
[4]. Z. Jorgensen, T. Yu, "On mouse dynamics as a behavioral biometric for authentication, in: Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Symposium on Information, Computer, and Communications Security" (AsiaCCS), March 2011
[5]. Saurabh Singh, Dr K V Arya, "Mouse Interaction based Authentication System by Classifying the Distance Traveled by the Mouse" International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 17– No.1, March 2011
[6]. Lívia C. F. Araújo, Luiz H. R. Sucupira Jr., Miguel G. Lizárraga, Lee L. Ling, andJoão B. T. Yabu-Uti, "User Authentication through Typing Biometrics Features, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing", Vol. 53, No. 2, February 2005
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[8]. L. Ballard, D. Lopresti, F. Monrose, "Evaluating the security of handwriting biometrics, in: The 10th International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition" (IWFHR "06), La Baule, France, 2006.
[9]. H. Gamboa, A. Fred, "An identity authentication system based on human computer interaction behavior, in: 3rd International Workshop on Pattern Recognition on Information Systems", 2003, pp. 46–55.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Delivery of Web Mining in Healthcare System on Cloud Computing
Country : India
Authors : Nidhi Solanki, Aman Duraja
: 10.9790/0661-1243741      logo

Abstract: In Current economic trends The Healthcare organizations are seeking ways to improve their workflows and information management to discover knowledge for understanding the cause of any disease and its treatment, more accurate control of medicines and supplies, faster coding and billing, and efficient patient processes that support optimal care more flexible. The construction, delivery & management of software services through Cloud Computing have been changed radically. Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage. These services are great innovation in the field of computing. So now it has become indispensable to the healthcare organizations to adapt new technology and new ideas to develop new information that meet the need of current business requirements. Internet has played a vital & crucial role in the business environment in current scenario, the term "Cloud computing" is quite important because of their versatility as they serve for enterprises and individuals around the globe. The Cloud Computing deliver many business advantages like computation, data access, storage, Zero install, Reduce business costs, Centralized data, Quick and easy updating and make all these available 24 x 7 hour from anywhere any time through any internet compatible devices. However there are certain aspects related to the issues which are needed to get attention and handle cautiously. In our present study various advantages while delivering healthcare services on cloud computing like unlimited storage, Flexible, Backup & Recovery, Automatic software Integration, Quick Deployment, Easy Access to Information, Cost Efficient are critically analyzed, synthesized. The outcome of the study would be of a great significance to deal with the issues for future enhancement.

Keyword: Storage, Data Integration, Backup & Recovery, Security and Privacy, Quick Deployment, Flexibility, Decrease Cost.

[1] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using elevance Analysis Approach", International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Advanced Engineering, pages. 201-210, 2012.

[2] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using Divide and Conquer Approach", International journal of Computational Intelligence Research, pages. 201-210, 2012.

[3] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using Multi Threading Approach", International Journal of Systems, Algorithms and Applications, pages. 1-4, 2012

[4] Yan LI, Boqin FENG and Qinjiao MAO, "Research on Path Completion Technique In Web Usage Mining", IEEE International Symposium On Computer Science and Computational Technology, pp. 554-559, 2008.

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[6] C. Romero, S. Ventura "Educational data Mining: A Survey from 1995 to 2005", Expert Systems with Applications (33), pp. 135-146, 2007

[7] R.Cooley, B. Mobasher, and J. Srivastava. "Web mining: Information and Pattern Discovery on the World Wide Web." In Proceedings of Ninth IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence" (ICTAI'97), November 1997.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Human Skin Cancer Recognition and Classification by Unified Skin Texture and Color Features
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Shubhangi D. C., Nagaraj
: 10.9790/0661-1244249      logo

Abstract: In this paper we have proposed a novel method called automatic segmentation of skin lesion in conventional macroscopic images. Many approaches have been proposed to determine the skin cancer. An extensive literature survey is done to study the state-of-art techniques for skin cancer recognition; level set active contours (LSAC), skin lesion segmentation (SLS) and multidirectional gradient vector flow (MGVF) have given considerable results. A technique based on stochastic region merging (SRM) and region adjacency graph (RAG) is adopted in the proposed method. Segmenting the skin lesion from macroscopic images is a very challenging problem due to some factor such as, illumination variation, presence of hair, irregular skin color variation and multiple unhealthy skin regions. To solve all these factors we have introduced a new approach called novel iterative stochastic region merging likelihood for segmenting the skin lesion from macroscopic images based on the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT).

Keywords: Lesion, MRF, RAG, ROI, Skin Cancer, SRM.

[1] Skin Cancer Foundation, "Skin Cancer Facts," [Online]. Available: http://www.skincancer.org/Skin-Cancer-Facts/, Accessed: Jul. 4, 2010.

[2] H. Oka, M. Hashimoto, H. Iyatomi, and M. Tanaka, "Internet-based program for automatic discrimination of dermoscopic images between melanoma and Clark nevi," Br. J. Dermatology., vol. 150, no. 5, p. 1041, 2004.

[3] H. Iyatomi, H. Oka, M. Emre Celebi, M. Hashimoto, M. Hagi- wara, M. Tanaka, and K. Ogawa, "An improved Internet-based melanoma screening system with dermatologist-like tumor area extraction algorithm," Comput. Med. Imag. Graph, vol. 32, pp. 566–579, 2008.

[4] L. Xu, M. Jackowski, A. Goshtasby, D. Roseman, S. Bines, C. Yu, A.Dhawan,andA.Huntley,"Segmentation of skin cancer images," Image Vis. Comput., vol. 17, pp. 65–74, 1999.

[5] M. Celebi, Y. Aslandogan, W. Stoecker, H. Iyatomi, H. Oka, and X. Chen, "Unsupervised border detection in dermoscopy images," Skin Res. Tech- nol., vol. 13, pp. 454–462, 2007.

[6] M. Yuksel and M. Borlu, "Accurate segmentation of dermoscopic images by image thresholding based on type-2 fuzzy logic," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 976–981, Aug. 2009. *

[7] M. Silveira, J. Nascimento, J. Marques, A. Marcal, T. Mendonca, S. Yamauchi, J. Maeda, and J. Rozeira, "Comparison of segmentation meth- ods for melanoma diagnosis in dermoscopy images," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 35–45, Feb. 2009.

[8] B. Erkol, R. Moss, R. Stanley, W. Stoecker, and E. Hvatum, "Automatic lesion boundary detection in dermoscopy images using gradient vector flow snakes," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 11, pp. 17–26, 2005.

[9] J. Tang, "A multi-direction GVF snake for the segmentation of skin cancer images," Pattern Recognit., vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1172–1179, 2009.

[10] H. Zhou, G. Schaefer, A. Sadka, and M. E. Celebi, "Anisotropic mean shift based fuzzy c-means segmentation of dermoscopy images," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Feb. 2009.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Automated Pelvic Bone Geometrical Feature Measurement Utilities on Ct Scanning
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Shubangi D. C., B. Samirana Acharya
: 10.9790/0661-1245056      logo

Abstract: An accurate depth location of pelvic land mark could be affected by the acoustic properties of the penetrated tissues and improper depth estimation could lead to a miscalculation of the acetabular cup implant. In the case of obese patient it is very difficult to locate the place of damage. Errors in land mark location leads to the improper treatment by orthopedic surgeons. The aim of this system is to determine pelvic orientation from CT scan images based on patch statistical shape model multilevel measurement utility tools by image calibration system; by applying a hierarchical registration scheme. Here a plastic bones and cadaveric specimen are used. Many approaches have been proposed in the literature to replace the percutanesous digitization, Involvement of the experts in the system to give the solution or conclusion.

Key words: CT-Scanning, Patch statistical shape model (SSM), pelvis.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Comparative Approach to Handle Ddos Attacks
Country : India
Authors : Aaruni Goel, Anirudh Kumar Tripathi, Paresh Pathak
: 10.9790/0661-1245762      logo

Abstract: Denial of Service Attacks basically means denying valid Internet and Network users from using the services of the target network or server. It basically means, launching an attack, which will temporarily make the services, offered by the Network unusable by legitimate users. In others words one can describe a DOS attack, saying that a DOS attack is one in which you clog up so much memory on the target system that it cannot serve legitimate users. Or you send the target system data packets, which cannot be handled by it and thus causes it to either crash, reboot or more commonly deny services to legitimate users. In this paper we focus on the cause and severity caused by some of the major types of DoS/DDos attacks and their countermeasures.

Keywords: TCP/IP, Zombies, Flooding, UDP, Ingress Routers, Engress Routers, Botnets, IP Spoofing, Firewalls, Intrusion Detection and prevention system.

[1] M. Robinson, J. Mirkovic, M. Schnaider, S Michel, P. Reiher, ―Challenges and principles of DDoS defense‖, SIGCOMM 2003. [2] K. Kumar, R.C. Joshi, K. Singh, ―An Integrated Approach for Defending against Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks‖, IRISS, 2006, IIT Madras.

[3] Reeta Mishra, Amit Asthana, Jayant Shekhar,"Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Prevention,‖VSRD-IJCSIT, Vol. 1(1), 2011,pp 1-8.

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[5] K. Park, H. Lee, ―On the effectiveness of route-based packet filtering for Distributed DoS attack prevention in power law Internets‖, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 01Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, ACM Press, New York, 2001, pp. 15–26.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review: Semi-Supervised Learning Methods for Word Sense Disambiguation
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Ankita Sati
: 10.9790/0661-1246368      logo

Abstract: Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is an open problem of natural language processing, which governs the process of identifying the appropriate sense of a word in a sentence, when the word has multiple meanings. Many approaches have been proposed to solve the problem, of which supervised learning approaches are the most successful. However supervised machine learning are limited by the difficulties in defining sense tags, acquiring labeled data for training and cannot utilize raw un-annotated data. Semi-supervised learning has recently become active research area because it require small amount of labeled training data and sometimes able to improve performance using unlabeled data. In this paper, we discuss the methods of semi-supervised learning and their performance.

Keywords: -word sense disambiguation, supervised learning, semi-supervised learning.

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[9] Lin, J. 1991. Divergence Measures Based on the Shannon Entropy. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 37:1, 145–150.
[10] McCarthy, D., Koeling, R., Weeds, J., & Carroll, J.. 2004. Finding Predominan Word Senses in Untagged Text. ACL-2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Way of Storing Data in Cloud Using Third Party Auditor
Country : India
Authors : Miss. Roopa G., Mr. Manjunath S.
: 10.9790/0661-1246974      logo

Abstract: Cloud computing provides users to remotely store their data and high quality of cloud applications by reducing risk of local hardware and software management. To protect data from outsourced leakages, we propose a flexible distributed storage integrity auditing mechanism (FDSIAM), these mechanism utilizes the homomorphic tokens (MAC address and secret key), blocking and unblocking factors and distributed erasure-coded data. Suppose user is out of station we can generate alert information to mobile devices, if any attacker attacks the data immediate message has been given to particular user through mobiles. The auditing results not only ensure storage correctness, but simultaneously identifies misbehaving server. Our proposed design provides very lightweight communication and computation cost for users to audit the data. Cloud data are dynamic in nature, our design supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on outsourced leakages, including block insertion, modification, append and delete operations. Our experimental results are highly efficient and secure against malicious data modification attack, server colluding attacks and byzantine failures.

Keywords- Data integrity, dependable distributed storage, Fast data error localization, data dynamics, cloud computing, data redundancy.

[1]. Amazon.com, "Amazon web services (aws)," at http://aws.amazon.com/, 2009.

[2]. Q. Wang, C. Wang, W. Lou, and K.. Ren, "Ensuring data storage security in cloud computing," in Proc. Of IWQoS‟09, July 2009, pp.1–9.

[3]. Q. Wang, C. Wang, W. Lou, and K. Ren "Privacy-preserving public auditing for storage security in cloud computing," in Proc.of IEEE INFOCOM‟10, San Diego, CA, USA, March 2010.
[4]. Sun Microsystems, Inc., "Building customer trust in cloud computing with security," at https://www.sun. com/offers/details/sun transparency.xml, November 2009.

[5]. C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, "Privacy-preserving public auditing for storage security in cloud computing," in Proc.of IEEE INFOCOM‟10, San Diego, CA, USA, March 2010.

[6]. A. Juels, K. D. Bowers, and A. Opera, " A high integrity and availability layer for cloud data storage. In lroc. Of CCS‟09, 2009.

[7]. J. Hen, M. Rei, and G. Gan, " Verifying distributed correctness of coded data", in proc. Of 26th ACM of distributed computing, 2007, pp.139-146.

[8]. G. Ateniese, R. D. Pietro, L. V. Mancini, and G. Tsudik, "Scalable and efficient provable data possession," in Proc. of SecureComm‟08, 2008, pp. 1–10. [9]. Q. Wang, C. Wang, K. Ren and W. Lou, " Privacy-preserving public auditing for secure cloud storage". 2011

[10]. K. Ren, Q. Wang, Y. Zhang and W. Lou "Dependable and secure data storage with dynamic integrity assurance", IEEE INFOCOM 2011


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Risk Assessment for Identifying Intrusion in Manet
Country : India
Authors : M. Siva Shankar Reddy, D. Raman
: 10.9790/0661-1247578      logo

Abstract: In this paper we have taken one of the most amazing network concepts which makes network simpler. By considering the aspect of both side as of good and its related issues like most important and unavoidable is i.e. "Security". Hence, enhancing the security in wireless networks has become of vital importance. In this perspective of concept, we mainly study two security aspects of wireless networks. One is service confidentiality and access control that is to ensure only legitimate users can access service data according to their privileges and in other perspective is of service attack. Wireless broadcast is a convenient and effective approach for disseminating data to a number of users. User training in computer and network security is crucial to the survival of modern networks, yet the methods employed to train users often seem ineffective. The secrecy issues in the context of mandatory and discretionary access control in a multilevel networked environment. Hence of, we stressed on two aspects key management scheme is proposed to address secrecy and efficiency in broadcast services, where keys are used for service confidentiality and access control.

Keywords: Security, Unauthorized Access, Authentication

[1]. Y. Sun, W. Yu, Z. Han, and K. Liu, "Information Theoretic Framework of Trust Modeling and Evaluation for Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 24, no. 2,feb 2006, 305-317
[2]. M. Refaei, L. DaSilva, M. Eltoweissy, and T. Nadeem, "Adaptation of Reputation Management Systems to Dynamic Network Conditions in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 5, may 2010,707-719
[3]. C. Mu, X. Li, H. Huang, and S. Tian, "Online Risk Assessment of Intrusion Scenarios Using D-S Evidence Theory," Proc. 13th European Symp. Research in Computer Security (ESORICS '08), 2008pp. 35-48
[4]. K. Sentz and S. Ferson, "Combination of Evidence in Dempster- Shafer Theory," technical report, Sandia Nat'l Laboratories, 2002
[5]. H. Wu, M. Siegel, R. Stiefelhagen, and J. Yang, "Sensor Fusion Using Dempster-Shafer Theory," Proc. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf., vol. 1, 2002, 7-12
[6]. C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, "Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing," Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Working Group, vol. 3561, 2003.
[7]. Y. Hu and A. Perrig, "A Survey of Secure Wireless Ad Hoc Routing," IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, May/june 2004, 28- 39


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Secure Network Discovery for Risk-Aware Framework in Manet
Country : India
Authors : Miss. Poornima N., Mrs. Sridevi K. N.
: 10.9790/0661-1247983      logo

Abstract: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETS) are dynamic in nature. Because of its dynamic nature of its network infrastructure, MANETS are highly vulnerable to attacks. Among these attacks routing attack has considerable attention, since it could cause most destructive damage to MANET. In existing system, binary isolation and DRC techniques are used to isolate the malicious nodes. However, binary isolation leads to unexpected network portioning and DRC is associative and non-weighted. In this paper we proposed adaptive risk-aware response mechanism with an extended trusted center, where a risk-aware approach which is based on an extended Dempster-Shafer mathematical theory of evidence introducing a notion of importance factors. Adaptive decision making technique has been used to prevent routing attacks. We also analyses and evaluate routing cost with respect to different technique.

Keywords- MANETS, risk-aware, trusted centre, DS theory, adaptive decision.

[1] Nabendu Chaki , Reshmi Maulik, "A study on WORMWHOLE Attacks in MANET," IJCISIM, Volume 3 (2011) pp. 271-279.

[2] M. Mohana Priya, K. Urmila Vidhya, "A Novel Technique for mitigating routing Attacks in OLSR MANET," IEEE ICIC-2010.

[3] P. Cheng, C. Keser, P. Rohatgi ,P. Karger, and A. Reninger, G. Wagner, "Fuzzy Multi-Level Security: An Experiment on Quantified Risk- Adaptive Access Control," Proc. 28th IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, 2007.

[4] W. Yu, Y. Sun, K. Liu , and Z. Han, "Information Theoretic Framework of Trust Modeling and Evaluation for Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communication, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 305-317, Feb. 2006.

[5] L. DaSilva, M. Refaei, M. Eltoweissy, and T. Nadeem, "Adaptation of Reputation Management Systems to Dynamic Network Conditions in Adhoc Networks," IEEE Transactions Computers, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 707- 719, May 2010.

[6] Gail-Joon Ahn, Ziming Zhao, "Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing Attacks," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol 9, No. 2, March/April 2012.

[7] Sudhir Agrawal, Sanjeev Sharma, Sanjeev Jain, "A Survey of Routing Attacks and Security Measures in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Jornal of computing, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2011, ISSN 2151-9617.

[8] T.J. Giuli, Sergio Marti, Mary Baker, Kevin Lai, "Defending Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Dept. of CSE, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 U.S.A.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : To Improve the Recognition Rate with High Security with Ear/Iris Biometric Recognition Technique with feature Extraction & Matching
Country : India
Authors : Paridhi Agarwal , Dr. Naveen Hemrajani
: 10.9790/0661-1248488      logo

Abstract: Ears are the new biometric with major advantage in that they appear to maintain their structure with increasing age. Contending that the ear is mainly a planar shape 2D images are used, which are consistent with deployment in surveillance and other planar- image scenarios. In this paper, a new model-based approach to ear biometrics is proposed. The model parts are derived by a stochastic clustering method on a set of scale invariant features on a training set. The model description is extended by proposing a new wavelet-based analysis with a specific aim of capturing information in the ear's outer structures. The performance is evaluated on test sets selected from the XM2VTS database. By results, both in modeling and recognition, the new model-based approach does indeed appear to be a promising new approach to ear biometrics. The recognition performance has improved notably by the incorporation of the new wavelet-based analysis. A model-based approach has an advantage in handling noise and occlusion. A wavelet can offer performance advantages when handling occluded data by localization. A robust matching technique is also added to restrict the influence of corrupted wavelet projections. Furthermore, the automatic enrolment is tolerant of occlusion in ear samples. The hybrid method obtains promising results recognizing occluded ears. The results have confirmed the validity of this approach both in modeling and recognition. The new hybrid method does indeed appear to be a promising new approach to ear biometrics, by guiding a model-based analysis via anatomical knowledge.

Keywords: hybrid method, model-based approach, stochastic clustering, XM2VTS database, wavelet-based analysis

[1] Basit, A., Javed, M. Y. and Anjum, M. A., "Efficient iris recognition method for human identification", ENFORMATIKA, pp. 24-26, vol 1, 2005.

[2] Moreno, B., Sanchez, A., Velez, J., F., "On the Use of Outer Ear Images for PersonalIdentification in Security Applications", IEEE 33rd Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, pp. 469-476, 1999.

[3] M. Ali, M. Y. Javed, A. Basit, "Ear Recognition Using Wavelets‟, Proceedings of Image and Vision Computing New Zealand 2007, pp. 83–86, Hamilton, New Zealand, December 2007

[4] Cesar Santos, Edson J.R, Justino, Flavio Bertolozzi, Robert Sabaourin, "An offline Signature Verification Method Based on the questioned document expert‟s Approach and a Neural Network Classifier", Catolica do Parana, Rua Imaculada onceicao,1155,Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

[5] John .G. Daugman, "How Iris Recognition Works", IEEE Trans, Circuit and Syst for Video Tech., vol.14, no.1, pp213, Jan 2004


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Context Based Web Indexing For Semantic Web
Country : India
Authors : Anchal Jain, Nidhi Tyagi
: 10.9790/0661-1248993      logo

Abstract: A context based focused crawler downloads web pages that are more relevant for user query in syntax of context. Wherein downloaded web pages are indexed for providing the speed to search engine. This paper purposes a new indexing technique based on B+ tree that indexed the context along with ontology's of keywords. These keywords are extracted from the web documents that are stored in web repository. This purposed indexing technique increases the speed of search engine for finding the more relevant documents from semantic web

Keywords - Architecture, B+ Tree, Context, Semantic web, Web repository

[1]. Nidhi tyagi, Rahul Rishi ,R.P. Agarwal "Context based Web Indexing for Storage of Relevant Web Pages" International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 40– No.3, February 2012
[2]. Parul Gupta and A.K.Sharma "Context based Indexing in Search Engines using Ontology", International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 1 No. 14, pp 49-52, 2010.
[3]. Pooja Gupta , Dr. A K Sharma, J. P.Gupta, Komal Bhatia " A Novel Framework for Context Based Distributed Focus Crawler (CBDFC)" Int. J. Computer and Communication Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009
[4]. Naresh Chauhan and A. K. Sharma," Design of an Agent Based Context Driven Focused Crawler", BVICAM'S International Journal of Information Technology, pp 61-66, 2008.
[5]. Changshang Zhou, Wei Ding and Na Yang, "Double Indexing Mechanism of Search Engine based on Campus Net", Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Services Computing (APSCC'06), 2006.
[6]. O. Zamir, O. Etzioni, O. Madanim, and R.M. Karp "Fast and Intuitive Clustering of Web Documents," Proceeding Third International Conference Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 287-290, Aug. 1997.
[7]. S. Chakrabarti, K. Punera, Mallena Subramanyam, "Accelerated Focused Crawling through Online relevance feedback", paper presented at WWW conference December 2002.
[8]. Steve Lawrence, "Context in Web Search", IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, 2000.
[9]. S. Chakrabarti, M. van den Berg, and B. Dom. "Focused crawling: a new approach to topic-specific web resource discovery". In WWW-8, 1999.
[10]. Word Net-Online dictionary and hierarchical thesaurus Obtained through the Internet http://www.wordnetonline.com [accessed 28/12/2009].


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "The Driving Analysis System through Wireless Network"
Country : India
Authors : Manohar Gs, Manju Devi
: 10.9790/0661-12494100      logo

Abstract: This paper studies the process of obtaining a driving license in INDIA. On the average, individuals pay about twice the official amount to obtain a license and very few take the legally required driving test, resulting in many unqualified yet licensed drivers. The magnitude of distortions in the allocation of licenses increases with citizens' willingness to pay for licenses. These results support the view that corruption does not merely reflect transfers from citizens to bureaucrats but that it distorts allocation. The paper also shows that partial anti-corruption measures have only a limited impact because players in this system adapt to the new environment. Specifically, a ban on agents at one regional transport office is associated with a high percentage of unqualified drivers overcoming the residency requirement and obtaining licenses at other RTOs. Our project avoids paper cost, identifies correct driver who is eligible for driving, If our product made mandatory to all vehicles Traffic management becomes easier, E-tolling: Eliminates the delay on roads by collecting tolls electronically, Applying for driving license becomes much more convenient, Bring consistency in test drive process, Reduce man power. As our survey, around 1500 RTO centers are there in India. Actual cost for applying driving license is Rs250, most of people go through mediator to get their DL and pay about RS1000 to mediator. Daily 30000 people register for DL in India add total amount paid to mediator is RS 30L per day and It turns into Rs100Crores per year. According to times of India 1300 people are dying due to accidents per day in India, most of them(10%) are got their DL from mediator who are unfit for driving.

Keywords: RTO, Licenses, Unqualified, Corruption, India, Accidents.

Table 3: New INDIA rtO Obtained License Obtained License at New INDIA Elsewhere (1)

(2) Hired agent 0.12 0.74 Cost 601.18 1157.65 Took RTO licensing exam 0.82 0.50 Failed independent exam 0.06 0.41 Sample in column 1 includes the 17 individuals who obtained a license at New INDIA. Sample in column 2 includes the 70 individuals who live in the New INDIA district, but obtained a license elsewhere.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Energy Efficient and Secure, Trusted network discovery for Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Kumuda T. P., Mrs. Sridevi K. N.
: 10.9790/0661-124101111      logo

Abstract:While routing Wireless Sensor nodes in the Multi-hop network ,nodes may undergo some attacks such as sink hole attack, worm hole attack, Sybil attack etc., by the attackers through identity deception. So, to secure WSN's against attackers or hackers misdirecting the nodes in the network while routing, in our base paper we have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust aware routing framework concept for dynamic for WSN's. TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route and also it provides security against all these attacks which are mentioned above. In our work, we are using modern technology like ECC i.e., Elliptic Curve Cryptography for encoding and decoding purpose. To know the performance of this TARF routing, in our paper we are comparing TARF Routing with Existing Routing and generating routing tables. To find the secure network discovery we are generating Combinatorial Key for Pre Key-Distribution in TARF Network. In the handheld devices like mobile we are trying to find the attacker information.
Keywords: Sinkhole attack, wormhole attack, Sybil attack, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Pre Key-Distribution

[1] Guoxing Zhan, Weisong Shi, Senior Member, IEEE, and Julia Deng, IEEE 2012 Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Volume: 9 , Issue: 2:" Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs"

[2] F. Zhao and L. Guibas, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2004.

[3] Yusnani Mohd Yussoff1, Habibah Hashim2 and Mohd Dani Baba, IEEE Transaction on Dependable and Secure Computing,Vol 13,Issue 4: Identity-based Trusted Authentication in Wireless Sensor Network

[4] C. Karlof and D. Wagner, "Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures," in Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications, 2003. [5] M. Jain and H. Kandwal, "A survey on complex wormhole attack in wireless ad hoc networks," in Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies (ACT ‟09), 28-29 2009, pp. 555 –558.

[6] I. Krontiris, T. Giannetsos, and T. Dimitriou, "Launching a sinkhole attack in wireless sensor networks; the intruder side," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications(WIMOB ‟08), 12-14 2008, pp. 526 –531.

[7] J. Newsome, E. Shi, D. Song, and A. Perrig, "The sybil attack in sensor networks: Analysis and defenses," in Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN‟04), Apr. 2004.

[8] L. Bai, F. Ferrese, K. Ploskina, and S. Biswas, "Performance analysis of mobile agent-based wireless sensor network," in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Reliability, Maintainability and Safety (ICRMS 2009), 20-24 2009, pp. 16 –19.

[9] L. Zhang, Q. Wang, and X. Shu, "A mobile-agent-based middleware for wireless sensor networks data fusion," in Proceedings of Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC ‟09), 5-7 2009, pp. 378 –383.

[10] W. Xue, J. Aiguo, and W. Sheng, "Mobile agent based moving target methods in wireless sensor networks," in IEEE International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology (ISCIT 2005), vol. 1, 12-14 2005, pp. 22 – 26.




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