IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 11- Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Full Adder Circuits
Country : India
Authors : M.B. Damle, Dr. S.S Limaye, M.G. Sonwani
: 10.9790/0661-1130109      logo

Abstract: The Full Adder circuit is an important component in application such as Digital Signal Processing (DSP) architecture, microprocessor, and microcontroller and data processing units. This paper discusses the evolution of full adder circuits in terms of lesser power consumption, higher speed. Starting with the most conventional 28 transistor full adder and then gradually studied full adders consisting of as less as 8 transistors. We have also included some of the most popular full adder cells like dynamic CMOS [9], Dual rail domino logic[14], Static Energy Recovery Full Adder (SERF) [7] [8], Adder9A, Adder9B, GDI based full adder.

Keywords : CMOS Transmission Gate (TG), Pass-Transistor Logic (PTL), Complementary Pass-transistor Logic (CPL), Gate Diffusion Input (GDI), Static Energy Recovery Full Adder (SERF), dynamic CMOS (D CMOS), Dual rail domino logic (DRD), Adder9A, Adder9B, GDI based full adder Power, Delay, Channel Length.

[1] Chandrakasan, R. Brodersen, ―Low Power Design‖, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

[2] A. M. Shams, and M. A. Bayoumi, ―A Novel High Performance CMOS 1-Bit Full Adder Cell‖, IEEE Transactions on Circuit and System, vol.47, NO. 5,May, 2000.

[3] J. H. Kang and J. B. Kim, ―Design of a Low Power CVSL Full Adder Using Low-Swing Technique‖, ICSE2004 Proc. 2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

[4] A. A. Khatibzadeh and K. Raahemifar, ―A Study and Comparison of Full Adder Cells based on the Standard Static CMOS Logic.‖, IEEE CCECE 2004 -CCGEI 2004, Niagara Falls, May 2004.

[5] S. M. Kang and Y. Leblebici, ―CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits: Analysis and Design‖, Third Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition 2003, pp 307-316.

[6] A. Morgenshtein, A. Fish and A. Wagner, ―Gate-Diffusion Input(GDI): A Power-Efficient Method for Digital Combinational Circuits‖, IEEE Trans.VLSI Syst., pp. 566-581, Oct. 2002.

[7] I. Hassoune, D.Flandre, I. O'Connor and J. D. Legat, ―ULPFA: a new efficient design of a power aware full adder‖, IEEE Transactions on Circuits andSystems I-5438, 2008.

[8] R. Zimmermann and W. Fichter, ―Low –power logic styles: CMOS versus pass-transistor logic,‖ IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 32, July 1997,pp.1079-90

[9] N. Weste and K. Eshraghian, ―Principles of VLSI Design, A System Perspective‖, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

[10] N. Zhuang and H. Wu, ―New Design of the CMOS Full Adder‖, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27,no. 5,pp. 840-844, May 1992


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Maximizing Efficiency Of multiple–Path Source Routing in Presence of Jammer
Country : India
Authors : Kande Archana, Linugtla Laxmi, Dr.A.Govardhan
: 10.9790/0661-1131016      logo

Abstract: Routing traffic through multiple paths is known as multipath routing. There was considerable research in the area of multiple-path source routing to overcome the problem of jamming. Many jamming-aware approaches existed. This paper explores the jamming aware concept of [1] with empirical studies using NS2. Moreover it also explores the possibility of relaxing the assumption of [1] with respect to in-network inference of correlations among related variables. In this implementation the source node allocates traffic to the available paths based on the awareness of jamming details at nodes. The practical implementation makes use of portfolio selection as explored in [1] and tries to explore the in-network inference of correlations among estimated random variables. The algorithm used to achieve this ensures that all available paths are optimally utilized without congestion while maximizing throughput. The simulation results revealed that the network is capable of performing jamming aware allocation of traffic.

Index Terms–Multiple path source routing, traffic allocation, jamming, optimization, and in-network inference.

[1] Patrick Tague, Sidharth Nabar, James A. Ritcey, and Radha Poovendran, "Jamming-Aware Traffic Allocation for Multiple-Path Routing Using Portfolio Selection", IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 19, NO. 1, FEB 2011.

[2] R. Anderson, Security Engineering: A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems. JohnWiley&Sons, Inc.,2001.

[3] J. Bellardo and S. Savage, "802.11 denial-of-service attacks: Real vulnerabilities and practical solutions," in Proc. USENIX Security Symposium, Washington, DC, Aug. 2003, pp. 15–28.

[4] D. J. Thuente and M. Acharya, "Intelligent jamming in wireless networks with applications to 802.11b and other networks," in Proc. 25thIEEE Communications Society Military Communications Conference (MILCOM'06), Washington, DC, Oct. 2006, pp. 1–7.

[5] G. Lin and G. Noubir, "On link layer denial of service in data wireless LANs," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 273–284, May 2005.

[6] W. Xu, K. Ma, W. Trappe, and Y. Zhang, "Jamming sensor networks: Attack and defense strategies," IEEE Network, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 41–47, May/Jun. 2006.

[7] R. Leung, J. Liu, E. Poon, A.-L. C. Chan, and B. Li, "MP-DSR: A QoSaware multi-path dynamic source routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks," in Proc. 26th Annual IEEE Conference on LocalComputer Networks (LCN'01), Tampa, FL, USA, Nov. 2001, pp. 132–141.

[8] H. Markowitz, "Portfolio selection," The Journal of Finance, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 77–92, Mar. 1952.

[9] E. M. Sozer, M. Stojanovic, and J. G. Proakis, "Underwater acoustic networks," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 72–83, Jan. 2000.

[10] A. D. Wood and J. A. Stankovic, "Denial of service in sensor networks," IEEE Computer, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 54–62, Oct. 2002.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Automated Transport Management System
Country : India
Authors : Ms Mithlesh Choudhary
: 10.9790/0661-1131721      logo

Abstract: Transport demand in most Indian cities has increased significantly due to increase in population as a result of both natural increase and migration from rural areas and smaller towns fast growth of India's population like other developing countries has trigger a greater need for used organized public transport system. Automation of bus transport has been gaining more importance because they provide accurate information of buses like reservation, air charges, route information, bus information etc anywhere and anytime. The dissertation has been divided into six modules based on the functionalities of the system namely, information system module, reservation system module. Administartive management system module, fleet management system module, and warehouse module and financial module. These modules have been designed to build up an integrated system to cover various aspects of automated bus transport management system. They provide full information about the bus enquiry, buses schedules, buses fairs, buses ticket reservation, buses time table enquiry.

[1]. S.L Bandarkar Dhanpat Rai & co (Eds.), Vehicle Transport Management.
[2]. G.V Rao Dhanpat Rai & co, principal of transportation and highway engineering.
[3]. Kumar Gaurav, Swati Agrawal and P.Krishna Reddy, Towards an It-based Bus Information System to Improve Bus Occupancy in Hyderabad, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Technology, CIT 2004, Hyderabad, India, December 2004. Pp.
[4]. S.Chaudhuri, Umeshwar Dayal, Vagrant (2001), Database Technology for decision support systems, IEEE Computer, pp.48-55, December 2001.
[5]. Delhi Transport Corporation.http://dtc.nic.in


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation of Semantic Analysis Using Domain Ontology
Country : India
Authors : Pratik Agrawal, Prof. A.J.Agrawal
: 10.9790/0661-1132234      logo

Abstract: In feedback analysis of an organization, the organization wants to produce a summary of feedback based on organization entity. However for the same entity students can express it with different words and phrases. For a meaningful summary, these words and phrases which are domain specific needs to be grouped under the same entitygroup.This paper proposes an semantic based feedback analysis system that makes use of an semantic lexicon and organization ontology as a base for matching the specified entity with the help of a Jaccard similarity method. Experimental results using three different training dataset shows that the proposed method is competent for the task.

Keywords - Natural language processing, Ontology, Semantic lexicon, Semantic analysis

[1] Feature-Rich Part-of-Speech Tagging with a Cyclic Dependency Network Kristina Toutanova ,Dan Klein Computer Science Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-9040 kristina@cs.stanford.edu ,klein@cs.stanford.edu Manning (2011)
[2] Automatic Text Classification: A Technical Review Mita K. Dalal and Mukesh A. Zaveri International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 28– No.2, August 2011.
[3] Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis on the Experience Project Raymond Hsu Computer Science Dept. Stanford University hsuray@cs.stanford.eduBozhiSeeElectricalEngineeringDept.StanfordUniversitybozhi@stanford.eduAlanwuElectricalEngineeringDept.StanfordUniversityalanw@stanford.edu published in 2011.
[4] Survey on Feedback Analysis using Domain Ontology. International Conference on Computer Science & Information Technology, 20th Jan-2013, Mumbai, ISBN: 978-93-82208-56-3. Pratik agrawal Department of Computer Science, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & ManagementNagpur, India Prof. A.J.Agrawal Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & ManagementNagpur, India
[5] Ontology-based Natural Language Processing for In-store Shopping Situations Sabine Janzen Furtwangen University Furtwangen, Maass FurtwangenUniversityFurtwangen,Germanywolfgang.maass@hs-furtwangen.de
[6] Extracting Product Features and Opinions from Reviews Ana-Maria Popescu and Oren Etzioni Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2350 {amp, etzioni}@cs.washington.edu Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (HLT/EMNLP), pages 339–346, Vancouver, October 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics.
[7] Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down? Semantic Orientation Applied to Unsupervised Classification of Reviews Peter D. Turney Institute for Information Technology National Research Council of Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0R6 peter.turney@nrc.ca Computational Linguistics (ACL), Philadelphia, July 2002, pp. 417-424
[8] Semantic Indexing using WordNet Senses Rada Mihalcea and Dan Moldovan department of computer science and engineering southern Methodist university dallas texas 75275-0122 in 2000
[9] Automatic Text Classification: A Technical Review Mita K. Dalal and Mukesh A. Zaveri International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 28– No.2, August 2011.
[10] Predicting the semantic orientation of adjectives. Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou and Kathleen R.Mckeown published in 1997.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Introducing a Gennext Banking with a Direct Banking Solution
Country : India
Authors : Mrs. Sowjanya Lakshmi A, Dr.B.S.Pradeep
: 10.9790/0661-1133541      logo

Abstract: Banking Industry is competing with the current Enterprise Industry using advanced Technology. Technology evolved from ATM till core banking solutions .Later revolution in technology came with online banking, mobile banking solutions. Involvement of Technology in Banking Industry is improving customer relationship and also preventing customers from waiting in long queues. This paper proposes Direct Banking Solutions to facilitate customer with 'Anytime Anywhere Banking'.

Keywords: Direct Banking, Next Generation Banking, Core Banking Solution, Banking Delivery Channels, Branchless Banking, SOEA, Business services.

[1] Ralph Whittle, Conrad Myrick, "Enterprise Business Architecture: The Formal Link between Strategy and Results", White Paper, August.

[2] Dr. K. C. Chakrabarty, Deputy Governeor of RBI, Conference, Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology(IDRBT) in Collaboration with Union Bank of India, Mumbai, "Beyond Core Banking Solutions-Fast Forward to Banking 2.0", Technical Paper, 18 Feb 2011

[3] Akhil Tandulwadikar, Senior Research Associate, Cognizant Research Center, Cognizant, " Innovative Imperatives in Retail Banking", White Paper, 2012

[4] Xu Ming Chen, Solution Architect, IBM, Shan Jian Hong, Chief Architect, IBM, Shao Yu, Software Engineer, IBM, IBM, "Next-generation banking with Web 2.0", White Paper, 01 Dec 2009

[5] Infosys Technologies, "Finacle Direct Banking Solution", White paper, 2012

[6] Eberhardt, A.; Gausmann, O.; Albani, A., On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems, Workshops, Part I, pp. 763-779 "Case Study – Automating Direct Banking Customer Service Processes with Service Oriented Architecture", Technical Paper, October/November 2006

[7] Rajashekara V Maiya, Product Manager, Infosys Technologies Limited, Infosys Technologies Limited, Finacle, "Go Direct for Deposits", White Paper, 2009 [8] Danske Bank, "Special Terms and Conditions for Direct Banking", White Paper, 15th Nov 2012

[9] Shreyas Rao, Sowjanya Lakshmi, Salma Banu, "Needs Assessment Approach to Product Bundling in Banking Enterprise", ISSN: 2278-0661, Volume 3, Issue 2, PP 12-17, published in IOSR-JCE, Technical Paper, July-Aug 2012

[10] Jeff Brown, Principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP, David Cox, Director of Research, Scott Griffiths, Senior Consultant, Deloitte Canada, Nita Sanger, Manager, Deloitte Consulting LLP, Deron Weston, Senior Manager, Center of banking Solutions, Deloitte, "Evolving Models of Retail Banking Distribution", White Paper, 2008


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Diabetic Retinopathy Space Subjective Fuzzy Clustering In Digital Fundus Images
Country : India
Authors : Padmalal. S, C.Nelson Kennedy Babu
: 10.9790/0661-1134250      logo

Abstract: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a very rigorous and extensive eye disease which causes blindness in diabetic patients. DR primary cause for blindness is not for the reason that it has the highest occurrence but it often remains unobserved until severe vision loss occurs. Diabetic Retinopathy is characterized by changes in the retina that comprise of change in blood vessel diameter, micro aneurysms, lipid, and protein deposits with cotton coat spot. It depends on the appearance, hemorrhages and new vessel growth. For the further improvement in detection of DR, a new technique named Space Subjective Fuzzy Clustering Method (SSFC) is introduced which used for the extraction of retinal vessels. Initially the segmentation of digital fundus images takes place and then SSFC method introduced with mathematical study of shape. In mathematical study of shape, the digital fundus image is smoothed and strengthened so that the retinal vessels are enhanced and the backdrop information is suppressed. The Space Subjective Fuzzy Clustering algorithm is then employed to the enhanced segmented image. After the SSFC, a refinement process is used to decrease the fragile edges noise, and the final results of the retinal vessels of DR are accordingly achieved. The performance of the SSFC method is compared with some existing segmentation methods using Gold Standard Database, STARE, and DRIVE Dataset. Performance of Space Subjective Fuzzy Clustering Method is measured in term of segmentation accuracy ratio and clustering efficiency. The approach has been tested on a series of digital fundus images, and experimental results show that our technique is hopeful and effective.

Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, Space Subjective Fuzzy Clustering, Retinal Vessels, Digital Fundus Images, Clustering Efficiency, Purification, Segmentation Accuracy Ratio.

[1]. Balint Antal., and Andras Hajdu., "An Ensemble-based System for Microaneurysm Detection and Diabetic Retinopathy Grading," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 2010
[2]. Akara Sopharak., Bunyarit Uyyanonvara., and Sarah Barman, "Automatic Microaneurysm Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Mathematical Morphology Methods," IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 2011
[3]. Parisut Jitpakdee., Pakinee Aimmanee., Bunyarit Uyyanonvara., "A Survey on Hemorrhage Detection in Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images," 978-1-4673-2025-2/12/$31.00, IEEE, 2012
[4]. Anderson Rocha., Tiago Carvalho., Herbert F. Jelinek., Siome Goldenstein., and Jacques Wainer., "Points of Interest and Visual Dictionaries for Automatic Retinal Lesion Detection," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 2012
[5]. Keerthi Ram., Gopal Datt Joshi., and Jayanthi Sivaswamy., "A Successive Clutter-Rejection based Approach for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, 2010
[6]. Simon Barriga., "A Hybrid Top-Down Approach to Diabetic Retinopathy Screening,", 2011
[7]. Lingfeng Yu., Zhongping Chen., "Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography," Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2010
[8]. N. Venkata Krishna., N. Venkata Siva Reddy., M. Venkata Ramana., E. Prasanna Kumar., "The Communal System for Early Detection Microaneurysm and Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Through Color Fundus Images," International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology (ISSN : 2277-1581) Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013
[9]. Ragav Venkatesan., Parag Chandakkar., Baoxin Li., and Helen K. Li., "Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Images Using Multi-Class Multiple-Instance Learning Based on Color Correlogram Features," 2012
[10]. Neera Singh., Ramesh Chandra Tripathi., "Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Image Analysis Techniques," International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 8– No.2, 2010


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Hybrid Technique for Shape Matching Based on chain code and DFS Tree
Country : India
Authors : Kirti Jain, Dr.Sarita Singh Bhadauria , Dr.Gulab Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1135156      logo

Abstract: Lower features content of image are playing a very important role for content based image retrieval. The lower features content of image are color ,texture and shape. Shape finds outliers of object stored in database. The retrieval of image is used in many areas such as multimedia, medical science and internet technology. The semantic gap between query image and result of retrieval image. In this paper we propose a hybrid technique for shape matching based on chain code and DFS tree. Chain code is important and well method for boundary structured detection and DFS is graph searching technique. Here merge both method for detection of boundary pattern and matching of object. Used of DFS technique find the absolute detection of decide edge value of chain code.

Keywords: Shape Matching, Features Descriptors, chain Code, DFS

1] Eli Saber ,Yaowu Xub,, A. Murat Tekalp‖ Partial shape recognition by sub-matrix matching for partial matching guided image
labeling‖ in Pattern Recognition 38 (2005) 1560 – 1573
[2] Dengsheng Zhang and Guojun Lu‖ A Comparative Study of Three Region Shape Descriptors‖ in Digital Image Computing
Techniques and Applications, 21—22 January 2002
[3] Sanjoy K. Saha , Amit K. Das , Bhabatosh Chanda‖ Image retrieval based on indexing and relevance feedback‖ in Pattern
Recognition Letters 28 (2007) 357–366
[4] Dengsheng Zhang, Guojun Lu‖ Evaluation of MPEG-7 shape descriptors against other shape descriptors ‖ in Multimedia Systems c
Springer-Verlag 2003
[5] Lili Ayu Wulandhari, Habibolah Haron,‖ The Evolution and Trend of Chain Code Scheme‖ ICGST-GVIP, ISSN 1687-398X,
Volume (8), Issue (III), October 2008.
[6] Naif Alajlan_, Mohamed S. Kamel, George Freeman‖ Multi-object image retrieval based on shape and topology‖ in Signal
Processing: Image Communication 21 (2006)
[7] Dengsheng Zhang, Guojun Lu‖ Review of shape representation andd description techniques ‖ in Pattern Recognition 37 (2004)
[8] Thomas H. Cormen Charles E. Leiserson Ronald L. Rivest‖ Introduction to Algorithms‖ in IEEE 2002


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "A new approach for user identification in web usage mining preprocessing"
Country : India
Authors : Arvind kumar Dangi, Asst. Prof. Sunita Sangwan
: 10.9790/0661-1135761      logo

Abstract: Web usage mining is a subset of data mining. In order to huge amount of data but the data is less appropriates "quantity and quality" of the web data is opposite to each other this is the main problem. Web data usage Mining is a variation of this field is untapped source of richly offered free textual information. The importance of web data usage mining is mounting along with the immense volumes of data generated in web habitual existence data always arrives in a various, continuous, rapid and time varying flow. Web data usage mining taking out procedures are important in extracting useful streaming on-line sources. As throughout the globe no. of web users are continuously and rapidly growing, it is necessary for the web usage miners to utilize efficient tools in order to discover, extort, clean and assess the desired information. The data pre-processing stage is the most important phase in the preprocessing for investigation of the web user & his usage behavior. To fulfill this requirement the navigations are recorded in web log file as well as the IP address of the website, session of usage & visited web link. In order to improve the performance & quality of data preprocessing in order to identify unique users and user sessions. We propose a new method for web data preprocessing in which it has three phases. "In the first phase some websites are selected and by different locations access these website & by applying the (java) tools & methods then find out the IP address of that websites, session usage time & navigations, in the final phase combine them i.e.(web link navigation + IP address of website + session of usage ). This framework helps to investigate the web user usage behavior efficiently.

Keywords - :-weblink, navigation, threading, networking, diminution, web logs, session, Data clearout, Data makeover..

[1] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using elevance Analysis Approach", International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Advanced Engineering, pages. 201-210, 2012.

[2] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using Divide and Conquer Approach", International journal of Computational Intelligence Research, pages. 201-210, 2012.

[3] Dr. M. Giri and Dr. Akash Kumar, "An Efficient Web Content Mining using Multi Threading Approach", International Journal of Systems, Algorithms and Applications, pages. 1-4, 2012

[4] Yan LI, Boqin FENG and Qinjiao MAO, "Research on Path Completion Technique In Web Usage Mining", IEEE International Symposium On Computer Science and Computational Technology, pp. 554-559, 2008.

[5] JING Chang-bin and Chen Li, " Web Log Data Preprocessing Based On Collaborative Filtering ", IEEE 2nd International Workshop On Education Technology and Computer Science, pp.118-121, 2010.

[6] Huiping Peng, "Discovery of Interesting Association Rules Based On Web Usage Mining", IEEE Coference, pp.272-275, 2010.

[7] Tasawar Hussain, Dr. Sohail Asghar and Nayyer Masood, "Hierarchical Sessionization at Preprocessing Level of WUM Based on Swarm Intelligence ", 6th International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET) IEEE, pp. 21- 26, 2010



Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Motivation for Green Computing, an Analytical Approach
Country : PAKISTAN
Authors : Syed Furqan Qadri, Suneel Shehzad, Muhammad Amjad, Masood Anwar, Muhammad Asif Mahmood Khan, Salman Afsar Awan
: 10.9790/0661-1136873      logo

Abstract: Depleting wastage in computing tool life cycle from initial launch to delivery green computing is a domain which makes system more energy efficient. The aim of this crucial issue is to introduce eminent research that bespeaks the latest enhancements in the field of green computing. In designing the next generation computing technologies green computing has to be considered as a significant component. In this research different component of green computing are discussed, evolution, applications, thin client, different strategies and its framework. This includes truly sustainable green computing technologies development and related solution. Finally it is demonstrated a framework and a SWOT analysis of green computing.

Keywords: Green computing, thin client, green cloud computing framework, SWOT analysis.

[1] (2006-10-23). "EPA Announces New Computer Efficiency Requirements". A report regulated by Jones, Ernesta.

[2] IBM Global Technology Services January 2007 report.

[3] Natural Resources Defense Council ‗‗Recommendations for Tier I ENERGY STAR ComputerSpecification'',www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/prod_development/revisions/downloads/computer/ RecommendationsTierICompSpecs.pdf.

[4] Kevin Francis, Peter Richardson, Green Maturity Model for Virtualization, http://msdn.microsoft.com/enus/library/dd393310.aspx. [5] AkshatVerma, GargiDasgupta, Tapan Kumar Nayak, Pradipta De, Ravi Kothari, Server workload analysis for power minimization using consolidation. in:Proceedings of the 2009 Conferenceon USENIX Annual Technical Conference, USENIX'09, USENIX Association, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2009, pp.28–28.
[6] R. Zhu, Z. Sun, and J. Hu, ―Special section: Green computing,‖ Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 368-370, Feb. 2012

[7] S. Marston, Z. Li, S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Zhang, and A. Ghalsasi, ―Cloud computing — The business perspective,‖ Decision Support Systems, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 176-189, Apr. 2011.
[8] MujtabaTalebi. Computer Power Consumption Benchmarking For Green Computing.Master's Thesis, Villanova University, Department of Computing Sciences, 2008. [9] Colin Holland. Oxford University launches low carbon computing project. EE Times UK, March 14, 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Green Cloud Computing: A Constructive Advent To Curtail The Carbon Emission Radiation Due To Servers
Country : India
Authors : PalakMakhija*, ShrutiAgarwal*, Monali Jindal*, Niyati Gupta
: 10.9790/0661-1137477      logo

Abstract: This paper analytically scrutinizes the energy dissipation based on services and invades the conditions to promote green cloud computing to save energy crisis. In conventional, cloud computing emphasis on the data computing efficiency whereas green cloud computing accredit to the research and practice of applying computing resources in virtuous, adequate and commercial way. At present, the cloud computing systems waste an enormous volume of energy and large amount of carbon dioxide are substantially emitted. The extensive ejections of carbons are primarily due to heat generated by the data centre servers.Information systems that are organized are needed to be amended directly. Through admittance to remote servers accumulated in "green data centres" disbursed by the service providers, employees in the company are endowed with lighter pcs. The pivot able aspect of green cloud computing is to asset the approach of decussating the desolation of power resources. The intent of green computing is analogous to green chemistry; aggrandize the energy adequacy in the midst of product's lifetime, pauperize the adoption of precarious component.

Keywords: Green Virtual network, energy aware routing, global Green Cloud Computing, warming.

[1]. Gartener, "Data Centres Consolidation": Trends and Best Practices, http, 2010.
[2]. S.Srikantaiah, A.Kansal, and F.Zhao, "Energy aware consolidation for cloud computing," Proc the 2008 conference on Power aware computing and system (Hot Power'08), CA, USA, 2008.
[3]. "Gartener Estimates ICT Industry Accounts for 2 Percent of global CO2 Emissionshttp://www.gartner.com/it/page.jdp?id=503867, Available the March 2011.
[4]. Char-Dir Chung, Ten-Chu kao, Jia-Xu Yang, Cloud Computing and Industrial Development, Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, Research and Evaluation, Bimonthly, 34(4). August 2010. 20-31. (in Chinese).
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Machine Translation and Word Sense Disambiguation in Natural Language Processing
Country : India
Authors : Gurleen Kaur Sidhu, Navjot Kaur
: 10.9790/0661-1137883      logo

Abstract: Natural language is most common way to communicate with each other but sometime we can't understand other languages to understand different languages machine translation is needed. Machine translation is the best application which helps to understand any other language in less cost and less time. In this some problems are faced by researchers: words which pronounce same but having different meaning, some words spelled different but having same meaning, in some cases combination of words may change the meaning. To resolve such kind of problems Word Sense Disambiguation is needed. Word Sense Disambiguation is used to understand the correct meaning of the word with respect to context in which that is used; Word Sense Disambiguation is the part of natural language processing. Word Net plays an important role in Word Sense Disambiguation. In this paper, we will discuss about the basic concept of Natural language processing, Machine Translation and Word sense disambiguation.

Keywords - Natural Language Processing, Machine Translation, Word Net, Word Sense Disambiguation..

[1] M Ozaki, Y. Adachi, Y. Iwahori, Fabio Ciravegna, Sanda Harabagiu , IEEE Computer Society 2003. Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing.
[2] Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing
[3] J. Hutchins and H. Somers. An introduction to Machine Translation. Academic Press, 1992.
[4] Durgesh D Rao, "Machine Translation",pp.61-70, July1998Available: www.ias.ac.in/resonance/July1998/pdf/July1998p61-70.pdf
[5] Available:http://www.cse.iitb.ac.in/~cs626-460-2012/lecture_slides/cs626-460-lect9-MT-2012-1-19.pdf
[6] Nancy Ide, Jean Veronis "Introduction to the Special Issue on Word Sense Disambiguation: The State of the Art", 1998J.
[7] Pushpak Bhattacharyya, "CS460/626 : Natural LanguageProcessing/Speech, NLP and the Web (Lecture 25– Knowledge Based andSupervised WSD)", IIT Bombay, 6th March, 2012, p.24.
[8] Pushpak Bhattacharyya, "CS460/626 : Natural LanguageProcessing/Speech, NLP and the Web (Lecture 25– Knowledge Based andSupervised WSD)", IIT Bombay, 6th March, 2012, p.36


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microscopic Image Analysis of Nanoparticles by Edge Detection Using Ant Colony Optimization
Country : India
Authors : Shwetabh Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1138489      logo

Abstract: In this paper, I present an approach for analyzing nanoparticles microscopic images by edge detection using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to obtain a well-connected image edge map. Microscope image analysis of nanoparticles are subject to errors. Initially, the edge map of the image is obtained using various matlab toolbox conventional edge detectors & adaptive thresholding. The end points obtained using such detectors are calculated. The ants are then placed at these points. The movement of the ants is guided by the local variation in the pixel intensity values. The probability factor of only undetected neighboring pixels is taken into consideration while moving an ant to the next probable edge pixel. The two stopping rules are implemented to prevent the movement of ants through the pixel already detected. The method is applied on the atomic force microscope (AFM) images of Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles & SEM image of ZnO nanoparticles. The results show that the edges obtained in the images can be used for classification of particles, determining sizes & shapes & also distinguishing particles in agglomerates more precisely.

Keywords - Nanoparticles microscopic image, Ant Colony Optimization, Pheromone, Adaptive Thresholding.

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