IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 11- Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A New Approach for Improving Performance of Intrusion Detection System over MANET
Country : India
Authors : Kusum Nara, Aman Dureja
: 10.9790/0661-1120109      logo

Abstract: A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is one of the busy and public networks; Because of this the network suffers from the problems of different kind of attacks. In such attacks some malicious nodes are present that falsely claim itself as a valid node. It will accept the information and will not forward the information to next nodes. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) will be used to detect such kind of attacks, but these attacks slows down the performance of IDS. To improve the performance of IDS and to handle these attacks we have presented an attack avoidance scheme. In which a preventive path will be discovered in which not attacker node will be covered. The detected path may be wider than the shortest path but will provide the higher throughput and reduce the data loss over the network. In our present work we record an interconnection table to track the communication information over the network. The INVERTED TABLE APPROACH will be used to maintain this table. Once the table will be defined, the DATA MINING APPROACH will be used to identify the attacker nodes. The work will be implemented in NS2.35 and the result analysis will be driven based on throughput and the loss analysis.

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET), routing protocol, Black Hole Attack, AODV.

[1] SaurbhGoyal," An Improved Inverted table Approach to Detect Selfish Node In Mobile Ad Hoc Network", International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012)

[2] MonitaWahengbam," Intrusion Detection in MANET using Fuzzy Logic", 978-1-4577-0748-3/12 © 2012 IEEE [3] Xiao Yang Zhang," Proposal of a Method to Detect Black Hole Attack in MANET".

[4] Neelam Sharma," Layered Approach for Intrusion Detection Using Naïve Bayes Classifier", ICACCI'12, August 3-5, 2012, Chennai, T Nadu, India.Copyright 2012 ACM 978-1-4503-1196-0/12/08 (pp 639-644)

[5] G.V. Nadiammai," An Evaluation of Clustering Technique over Intrusion Detection System", International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI-2012) (pp 1054-1060)

[6] Rajib Das," Security Measures for Black Hole Attack in MANET: An Approach", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 3 No. 4 Apr 2011 (pp 2832-2838)

[7] K C Nalavade," Intrusion Prevention Systems: Data Mining Approach", International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2010) – TCET, Mumbai, India ICWET'10, February 26–27, 2010, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Copyright 2010 ACM 978-1-60558-812-4 (pp 211-214)

[8] Athira.M.Nambiar," Wireless Intrusion Detection Based on Different Clustering Approaches", A2CWiC 2010, September 16-17, 2010, India Copyright © 2010 978-1-4503-0194-7/10/0009

[9] Mehdi Kargar," Truthful and Secure Routing in Ad Hoc Networks with Malicious and Selfish Nodes", International Journal of Security and its Applications Vol. 3, No. 1, January, 2009 (pp 117-128)

[10] Daniela Brauckhoff," Anomaly Extraction in Backbone Networks using Association Rules", IMC'09, November 4–6, 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ACM 978-1-60558-770-7/09/11 (pp 28-34)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Secure Encryption Technique based on Advanced Hill Cipher For a Public Key Cryptosystem
Country : India
Authors : Suman Chandrasekhar, Akash H.P ,Adarsh.K, Mrs.Smitha Sasi
: 10.9790/0661-1121014      logo

Abstract: In the present era of Information Technology, Transmission of information in a secured manner is the primary concern of all agencies. Security is highly essential, as intruders are very keen to rob the information with all their might and intelligence. Cryptography, then, not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. The objective of this paper is to encrypt a text using a technique different from the conventional Hill Cipher. The Advanced Hill Cipher uses an involutory matrix and permuted key. In this paper, we implement a second level of encryption using permutation approach, which makes the cipher highly secure. This encryption scheme is highly reliable as it uses tamper detection of the cipher text ensuring successful decryption of the cipher. All of these functions and transformations that are introduced ensure that this cipher is a very strong one and it cannot be broken by any cryptanalytic attack.

Keywords - Advanced Hill Cipher, Decryption, Encryption, Public Key Cryptosystem, Permuted key, and Tamper detection.

[1] A Modern Advanced Hill Cipher Involving a Permuted Key and Modular Arithmetic Addition Operation, V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi and S.Udaya Kumar Journal of Global Research in Computer Science, Volume 2, No. 4, April 2011

[2] A Modern Advanced Hill Cipher Involving XOR Operation and Permuted Key,A Research paper by V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi and S.Udaya Kumar Journal of Global Research in Computer Science, Volume 2, No. 4, April 2011

[3] Advanced Hill Cipher Involving a Pair of Keys, V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi, S.Udaya Kumar," International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, Vol.2 No.1, pp 100-108, January2011
[4] A Novel Enhancement Technique of the Hill Cipher for Effective Cryptographic Purposes, 1A.F.A. Abidin, 1O.Y. Chuan and 2M.R.K. Ariffin, Journal of Computer Science 7 (5): 785-789, 2011ISSN 1549-3636© 2011 Science Publications

[5]A Modified Hill Cipher Involving Interweaving and Iteration. V. Umakanta Sastry, N. Ravi Shankar, and S Durga Bhavani, International Journal of Network Security, Vol.11, No.1,2010.

[5] A Modified Hill Cipher Involving Interweaving and Iteration. V. Umakanta Sastry, N. Ravi Shankar, and S Durga Bhavani, International Journal of Network Security, Vol.11, No.1,2010.

[6] Public key cryptosystem and a key exchange protocol using tools of non-abelian group, Dr. H.K. Pathak et. al./ International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol. 02, No. 04, 2010, 1029-1033

[7] A New Knapsack Public-Key Cryptosystem Based on Permutation Combination Algorithm, Min-Shiang-Hwang, Cheng-Chi Lee, and Shiang-Feng Tzeng, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 33 2009

[8] Recommendation for Cryptographic Key Generation,NIST Special Publication,July 2011.

[9] Advanced Hill Cipher Involving Permutation and Iteration", V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi, S.Udaya Kumar International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 141- 145, Nov-Dec. 2010.

[10] Image Encryption Using Advanced Hill CipherAlgorithm, Bibhudendra Acharya, Saroj Kumar Panigrahy, Sarat Kumar Patra, and Ganapati Panda, ACEEE International Journal on Signal and Image Processing Vol 1, No. 1, Jan 2010


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Concepts of Reactive Power Control and Voltage Stability Methods in Power System Network
Country : NIGERIA
Authors : Okwe Gerald Ibe, Akwuegbu Isdore Onyema MNSE
: 10.9790/0661-1121525      logo

Abstract: The intent of this paper is to present an analysis of reactive power control and voltage stability in power systems. It identifies a new model used to enhance voltage stability and exposes several key issues that had remained as research challenges in this area. The steady state voltage and reactive power control in distribution systems can be properly controlled by coordinating the available voltage and reactive power control equipment, such as on-load tap-changers, substation shunt capacitors and feeder shunt capacitors. It began with an overview of reactive power and voltage stability in transmission, distribution and load, and the importance of providing reactive power locally. The description of selected control features of shunt power systems such as SVC (Static Var Compensator) – static compensators of reactive power, STATCOM-type systems (Static Compensator) static reactive power generators and systems that combine both these solutions, which are referred to as SVC based on STATCOM where not left out. It explains the need to improve the voltage safety of Power system, as well as the increasing requirements for energy quality and security. It also discusses the techniques that were adopted in controlling and monitoring of the rate of power flow in the entire power system topology. This investigates the system to an optimal level in order to reduce losses and ensures sufficiency of reactive power control during normal and emergency conditions and to prevent voltage collapse.

Keywords: Reactive Power, Voltage stability, Voltage Collapse, Power system security, voltage control

[I] Proceedings of Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena- Voltage Stability and Security. Potosi, MO, September 19-24, 1988.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Adequacy Analysis and Security Reliability Evaluation of Bulk Power System
Country : NIGERIA
Authors : Okwe Gerald Ibe, Inyama Kelechi
: 10.9790/0661-1122635      logo

Abstract: Since the advent and integration of information technology into power industry, the complexity of modern power systems and advances in the power industry toward restructuring, the system models and algorithms of traditional reliability assessment techniques are becoming obsolete as they suffer from nonrealistic system models and slow convergence (even non-convergence) when multi-level contingencies are considered and the system is overstressed. To allow more rigor in system modeling and higher computational efficiency in reliability evaluation procedures, this paper proposes an analytically-based security-constrained adequacy evaluation (SCAE) methodology that performs bulk power system reliability assessment and gave an in depth analysis of the concept of the state of the art in bulk power system reliability assessment. Bulk power system reliability assessment is an important procedure at both power system planning and operating stages to assure reliable and acceptable electricity service to customers

Keywords: Bulk power system reliability, Adequacy, Contingency, Monte Carlo simulation, quality and security.

[1] M. P. Bhavaraju, R. Billinton, R. E. Brown, J. Endrenyi, W. Li, A. P. Meliopoulos, and C. Singh, IEEE Tutorial on Electric Delivery System Reliability Evaluation, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2005.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Technique for Image Stenography Based on coordinates of pixels
Country : India
Authors : S.Thenmozhli, Dr.M.Chandra sekaran
: 10.9790/0661-1123640      logo

Abstract: A novel data hiding scheme in digital images with the diamond encoding by pixel value adjustment is proposed. The proposed method is the extension of the diamond encoding embedding scheme. First, choosing the cropped region from given cover image select 4 pixel pairs from cropped region, and one secret k-ary digit is concealed into the diamond characteristic value. The diamond characteristic value is modified to secret digit and it can be obtained by adjusting pixel values in a block. Here embedding parameter k, and the block capacity is equal to log2(2k2 + 2k + 1). The diamond encoding provides an easy way to produce a more perceptible result than those yielded by simple least-significant-bit substitution methods. The embedded secret data can be extracted without disturbing the original cover image. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of hiding more secret data while keeping the stego-image quality degradation imperceptible.

Keywords – stegnography,pixel pair matching,lsb

[1] S.-H. Wang and Y.-P. Lin, ―Wavelet tree quantization for copyright protection watermarking,‖ IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 154–165, 2004.

[2] D.-C. Lou and J.-L. Liu, ―Steganographic method for secure communications,‖ Computers and Security, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 449–460, 2002.

[3] P. L. Lin, C.-K. Hsieh, and P.-W. Huang, ―A hierarchical digital watermarking method for image tamper detection and recovery,‖ Pattern Recognition, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2519–2529, 2005.

[4] P. W. Wong and N. Memon, ―Secret and public key image watermarking schemes for image authentication and ownershipverification,‖ IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1593–1601, 2001.

[5] C.-K. Chan and L. M. Cheng, ―Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution,‖ Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, no. 3,pp. 469–474, 2004.

[6] Y.-C. Tseng, Y.-Y. Chen, and H.-K. Pan, ―A secure data hiding scheme for binary images,‖ IEEE Transactions onCommunications, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1227–1231, 2002.

[7] A.Westfeld, ―F5—a steganographic algorithm,‖ in Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Information Hiding(IH '01), vol. 2137 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 289–302, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, April 2001.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Computer Based Human Gesture Recognition With Study Of Algorithms
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Kaushik I Manavadariya, Mr. Ankit J Faldu, Mr. Parag C Shukla, Mr. Deven J Patel
: 10.9790/0661-1124150      logo

Abstract: Gesture recognition is a technology of computer science with the goal of interpreting human gestures or human motion via mathematical algorithms. Gesture recognition begins from facial, voice, eye tracking, lip movement, ear etc. Also the identification and recognition of posture, walking style, and human behaviours is also the part of gesture recognition techniques. To interpret the sign language, the person is used a device like mobile, computer which is embedded with camera like Depth-aware cameras, stereo camera, single camera etc. It is a good way for building a connection between human and computer system. Gesture recognition enables humans to interface with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. There are two types of gesture: Online gesture, Offline gesture. Two different approaches in gesture recognition is related to 3D model and related to appearance-based.3D model is used to provide information related the body parts like thumb, position of palm, joint angles , etc.. In short, Appearance-based systems use images or videos for direct interpretation.

Keywords - Computer Aided Design (CAD), Active Appearance Models (AAM), Hidden Markov Models (HMM), Sequence of the Most Informative Joints (SMIJ), Histogram-of-Motion Words (HMW), System for secure face identification (SCiFI), Point distribution model (PDM), Discrete cosine transform (DCT), Principal component analysis (PCA), Discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

[1] Blake, A., Isard,M.: Active Contours. Springer, Heidelberg (1998).
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[10] I. Cohen and H. Li, ―Inference of Human Postures by Classification of 3D Human Body Shape,‖ in Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, Nice, France, Oct. 2003.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Smart Data Server for Smart Shops
Country : India
Authors : Santhosh Kumar S, Sudarshan K, Aravind Naik, Athmaranjan K
: 10.9790/0661-1125156      logo

Abstract: The Now a day internet plays a very major role in business processes. The internet acts as the kind of the bonding between the customers and an organization (probably business), the customer can obtain the information of his desire by making the single click on organization's website. But, the major infrastructure to carry out this process demands the design, maintenance, hosting of website from the organization side, and it also demands the access to the internet from the customer side (in order to access the internet customer must have to have either personnel computer or any smart phone), but unfortunately we cannot find all the customers with above all mentioned requirements. Therefore, this paper focuses on the issue of building the portable smart data server for small scale business applications. This proposed concept in this paper eliminates the need of internet, hosting, website maintenance, and costly hardware from organization side. And it also eliminates the need of personnel computer, or internet enabled smart mobile phone from customer side. Thus the concept proposed in this paper provides the economic, efficient, smart data server for smart shops. To implement this proposed concept the cost involved will be too less, the only requirement is one smart mobile phone (here we used android mobile phone). The prototype has been demonstrated using the android smart mobile phone; this can further be extended to any available smart mobile phones in market.

Keywords - Broadcast receiver, manifest, SQLite, Context.

[1] Stockus, A. Lab. d'Informatique etd'Imagerie Industrielle, Univ. of La Rochelle Accessing to spatial data in mobile environment, Web Information Systems Engineering, 2001. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. [2] Li Ye-bai Coll. of Inf. Eng., North China Univ. of Technol., Beijing, China Zhang Bin ; Wang Hai-bin , Study and Design on Data Management Model of SQL Server CE for Mobile Application, in e-Education, e-Business, e- Management, and e-Learning, 2010. IC4E '10. International Conference on
[3] http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/BroadcastReceiver.html
[4] http://www.serverwatch.com/sreviews/article.php/3937296/11-Server-Apps-for-Android-OS-Devices.htm
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server_(computing) [6] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serve


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Interpretive Structural Modeling of the Prospects of Ict Enabled Process Control in the Industry.
Country : India
Authors : Jayalakshmi.B, Pramod.V.R
: 10.9790/0661-1125763      logo

Abstract: Optimization of process control systems is achieved by selection of appropriate control valves of various designs and functions. Information and communication technology (ICT) can be used for the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of a system that operates in multi-favor locations and instruments. Wireless technologies for closed loop control systems are not yet implemented in industries. In this paper authors make an attempt to analyze the feasibility of implementing ICT enabled control system in industries . The properties of ICT enabled process control systems can be analyzed and their correlations can be established effectively by ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling).This paper makes an attempt to unfold ISM using structural self-interaction matrix, Initial reach ability matrix, and final reach ability matrix. A diagraph is prepared and converted to ISM as the second phase of this research. Keywords: ICT, ISM, Structural self-interaction matrix, Initial reach ability matrix, final reach ability matrix.

[1] Heinz Hollenstein, Determinants of the adoption of ICT: An empirical analysis based on firm-level data for the Swiss business sector, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Volume 15, Issue 3, 2004, Pages 315–342.
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[3] Haydn A Thompson, Wireless and Internet communications technologies for monitoring and control, Control Engineering Practice, Volume 12, Issue 6, June 2004, Pages 781–791.

[4] S.H. Yang, X. Chen, L.S. Tan and L. Yang, Time delay and data loss compensation for Internet-based process control systems, Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control 27, 2 (2005) pp. 103_/118
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[6] Kosuke Nagaya, Hiroyuki Kobayashi and Kazuya Koike : Valve timing and valve lift control mechanism for engines, Mechatronics ,vol16, issue2, march2006, pages121-129.

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[10] Faizal,M.N; Banwet.D.K and Shankar.R,"Supply chain risk mitigation: modeling the enablers ",Business process Management Journal, Vol 12,no:4, 2006, pp.535-552.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Simulation of Quantum Cryptography and use of DNA based algorithm for Secure Communication
Country : India
Authors : Sharvari Gogte, Trupti Nemade, Shweta Pawar, Prajakta Nalawade
: 10.9790/0661-1126471      logo

Abstract: Quantum Cryptography (QC) is an emerging security technique in which two parties communicate via a quantum channel. The fundamentals of quantum cryptography are No-cloning theorem and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. This research paper proposes a simulation of quantum key exchange and authentication followed by an implementation of DNA based algorithm for secure message exchange.

Keywords: BB84 protocol, DNA based algorithm, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Secure key exchange by simulation

[1] Karen Hunter, QuantumCryptography, SCI 510, Quantum Todd Duncan
[2] Sheila Cobourne , Quantum Key Distribution Protocols and Applications, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, England
[3] Kelly Koenig, Bleeding edge: Nano-technological application in Quantum Cryptography, CSC grants, December 2008
[4] Serge Massar, Fiber Optics Protocols for Quantum Communication, Quantum Information Processing, Vol. 5, No. 6, December 2006
[5] Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_dogma_of_molecular_biology
[6] Souhila Sadeg , Mohamed Gougache, Nabil Mansouri, Habiba Drias, An encryption algorithm inspired from DNA,IEEE , 978-1-4244-8611-3/10, 2010
[7] Charles H. Bennett, Gilles Brassard, Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing, International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, Banglore, India, December 10-12, 1984
[8] Mehrdad S. Sharbaf, Quantum Cryptography: A New Generation of Information Technology Security System, 2009 Sixth International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations
[9] Mehrdad S. Sharbaf, Quantum Cryptography: An Emerging Technology in Network Security, IEEE, 978-1-4577-1376-7/11, 2011
[10] Marcin Sobota, Adrian Kapczy_ski, Arkadiusz Banasik, Application of Quantum Cryptography protocols in Authentication process, The 6th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, 15-17 September 2011, Prague, Czech Republic


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 3D Spherical Harmonics Deformation Visualization of Intraoperative Organ
Country : India
Authors : Greeshma Jacob, Reshma V. K
: 10.9790/0661-1127276      logo

Abstract: This paper gives a literature review on the recent experiments on real time 3D visualization of intraoperative organ deformations. Restricted visualization is major challenge in minimal invasive surgery (MIS). For MIS procedures to be safe clear visualization of the surgical scene is required. This can be done based on limited field-of-view and a pre-operative image. This paper presents a review on various visualization techniques emerged recently. The survey is represented in tabular form for quick reference. Index Terms—Deformations, minimal invasive surgery (MIS), surface reconstruction.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Approach to Improve Brain Disorder Using Machine Learning Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Swati Sharma, A Kulothunghun
: 10.9790/0661-01127784      logo

Abstract: Machine learning is the important part of the artificial intelligence which plays an important role in medical diagnosis. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and continues through adolescence and adulthood. ADHD is a complex brain disorder which is usually difficult to diagnose. The study of different literature reports gives the analytical feature of the disorder as the ADHD has been misdiagnosis with other type of the brain disorders. Here in this report propose a decision system support system in diagnosis of ADHD disorder through brain Electroencephalographic signals. The main goal of this study is to provide different machine learning algorithms that may cure disorder and analysis with different methods of machine learning using MATLAB features. With the input of EEG signals from dataset of patient we apply machine learning techniques like SVM, NAÏVE BAYES, KNN etc and using these algorithms methods, EEG can be decomposed into functionality different components, and this study analysis find the appropriate method is better for brain disorder problem that can reduce the contaminates using MATLAB feature and tools.

Keywords: - SVM, KNN, algorithms, EEG signals, supervised learning, neural network, ADHD, feature selection.

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[2] World Health Organization, ―classification of mental & behavioral disorder‖, 2010

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Two Factor Authentication Using Smartphone Generated One Time Password
Country : India
Authors : Sagar Acharya, Apoorva Polawar, P.Y.Pawar
: 10.9790/0661-1128590      logo

Abstract: This paper explains a method of how the two factor authentication implemented using SMS OTP or OTP generated by Smartphone- One Time Password to secure user accounts. The proposed method guarantees authenticating online banking features are secured also this method can be useful for e-shopping & ATM machines. The proposed system involves generating and delivering a One Time Password to mobile phone. Smartphone can be used as token for creating OTP or OTP can be send to mobile phone in form of SMS. The generated OTP is valid for only for short period of time and it is generated and verified using Secured Cryptographic Algorithm. The proposed system has been implemented and tested successfully.

Keywords - OTP, Authentication, SHA-1, Cloud, token, Android

[1] Jøsang and G. Sanderud, "Security in Mobile Communications: Challenges and Opportunities," in Proc. of the Australasian information security workshop conference on ACSW frontiers
[2] D. de Borde, "Two-Factor Authentication," Siemens EnterpriseCommunications UK- Security Solutions, 2008. Available at http://www.insight.co.uk/files/whitepapers/Twofactorauthentication(Whitepaper).pdf
[3] Fadi Aloul, Syed Zahidi, "Two Factor Authentication Using MobilePhones," in Proceedings Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, pg. 641-644, 2009.
[4] Nandagopal, Thyagarajan "Authentication and Verification for third party vendors using mobile devices", International Application No.: PCT/US2007/002996, Publication Number: WO/2007/092366. Publica-tion Date: 16.08.2007
[5] Sagar Acharya, Apoorva Polawar, Priyashree Baldawa, Sourabh Junghare, P.Y. Pawar " Internet Banking Two Factor Authentication Using Smartphone" , IJSER, IJSER, Volume 4, Issue 3, March Edition, 2013, (ISSN 2229-5518)
[6] Aladdin Secure SafeWord 2008. Available at http://www.securecomputing.com/index.cfm?skey=1713
[7] The mobile phone as multi otp device using trusted computing http://eprints.qut.edu.au/37711/
[8] H. Wang, "Research and Design on Identity Authentication System in Mobile-Commerce", In: Beijing Jiaotong University, 2007, pp. 18-50.
[9] S. Hallsteinsen, I. Jorstad, D-V., Thanh, "Using the mobile phone as a security token for unified authentication", Systems and Networks Communication. In: International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications, 2007, pp. 68-74.
[10] N. Mallat, M. Rossi, and V. Tuunainen, "Mobile Banking Services,"Communications of the ACM, 47(8), 42-46, May 2004.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Spatio-Temporal Database and Its Models: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Rainu Nandal
: 10.9790/0661-11291100      logo

Abstract: This paper focus on the study of spatial temporal database and its models and different types of applications where dynamic modeling of spatial temporal database can be used, this is an emerging field which places lot of contribution in DBMS with the aspects of the real world. Spatio-Temporal data models are the heart of a Spatio-Temporal Information System (STIS); they describe object data types, relationships, operations and rules to maintain database integrity. A rigorous data model must anticipate spatio-temporal queries and analytical methods to be performed in the STIS. Spatio-temporal database models are proposed to deal with real world applications, where spatial changes occur over the time line. A serious weakness of existing models is that each of them deals with few common characteristics found across a number of specific applications. Thus the applicability of the model to different cases, fails on spatio-temporal behaviors not anticipated by the application used for the initial model development.

Keywords– Land Information System (LIS), Geographical Information System (GIS), Spatial-temporal databases, STIS.

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