IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 11- Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Detection of Cancer in Pap smear Cytological Images Using Bag of Texture Features
Country : India
Authors : Edwin Jayasingh.M, Allwin.S
: 10.9790/0661-1110107      logo

Abstract: We present a visual dictionary based method for content based image retrieval in cervical microscopy images using texture features. The nucleus region in each image is identified by a simple and reliable segmentation algorithm and texture features are extracted from blocks of the region. These features from the entire database are clustered to build a visual dictionary. The histogram of the visual words present in an image is used as the representation of the image. Histogram intersection serves as the distance measure to do content based image retrieval. Experiments were conducted for various block sizes and number of clusters and the results are presented. The task was to identify images of cancerous cells from normal ones. The method offers encouraging results to utmost 90% accuracy. A brief discussion of the results and possible future directions are given

Keywords - Cervical Images, Visual Dictionary, Bag of Features, Tamura Features.

[1] Hamakim AA, Lin PS, Wilczynski S, Nguyen K, Lynes B, Wakabayashi MT, Indications and Efficiency of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

[2] http://www.cervicalcanceraction.org/whynow/about.php, Accessed on 12th March 2013.

[3] H. R. Myler, and A. R. Weeks, "Computer Imaging Recipes in C.," 1993: Prentice Hall.

[4] Stephen O Hara, Bruce A. Draper, Introduction to the bag of features paradigm for Image Classification and Retrieval, Jan 2011
[5] H. P. Cai, F. Yan, and K. Mikolajczyk, "Learning weights for codebook in image classification and retrieval," in 2010 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2010, pp. 2320– 2327.

[6] Lewis DD. Naive (bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval. In: Nédellec C, Rouveirol C, editors. Proceedings of ECML-98, 10th European conference on machine learning, No. 1398. 1998. p. 4–15.

[7] Diamond J, Anderson NH, Bartels PH, Montironi R, Hamilton PW. The use of morphological characteristics and texture analysis in the identification tissue composition in prostatic neoplasia. Human Pathology 2004;35(9):1121–31.

[8] Kong J, Sertel O, Shimada H, Boyer KL, Saltz JH, Gurcan MN.Computer-aided evaluation of neuroblastoma on whole-slide histology images: classifying grade of neuroblastic differentiation. Pattern Recognition 2009;42(6):1080–92

[9] Orlov N, Shamir L, Macura T, Johnston J, Eckley DM, Goldberg IG. Wnd-charm:multi-purpose image classification using compound image transforms.Pattern Recognition Letters 2008;29(11):1684–93.

[10] Tang H, Hanka R, Ip H. Histological image retrieval based on semantic content analysis. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 2003;7(1):26–36.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Real Time Services for Cloud Computing Enabled Vehicle Networks
Country : India
Authors : G.sasikala, Dr.A.R. Deepti
: 10.9790/0661-1110814      logo

Abstract: Cloud computing technique is gaining more and more popularity recently. It can be applied to the vehicle applications to ensure real time performance as well as to improve accuracy and comfort degree for drivers. In this paper, we propose our novel vehicle cloud architecture which includes device level, communication level and service level. Each of these levels is explained in further detail with flow chart and taxonomy definition. Some innovative and real time vehicle cloud services are introduced to show the wide potential applications of vehicles and some discussion about research challenges, context classification is also provided.

Keywords- Vehicle cloud; Cloud computing, Real time service, Body area network, Healthcare

[1] "Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University," 2007.

[2] Intelligent Transportation Systems. http://www.its.dot.gov/.

[3] Francisco J. Martinez, Chai-Keong Toh, JJuan-Carlos Cano, Carlos T.Calafate, and Pietro Manzoni, Emergency Services in Future Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on Vehicular Communication Networks, IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, 2010, 2 (2), .

[4] Panos Papadimitratos, Knut Evenssen,Vehicular Communication Systems: Enabling Technologies, Applications, and Future Outlook on Intelligent Transportation, IEEE Communications Magazine, Nov. 2009, pp.84-95. [5] W. Kim, Cloud Computing: Today and Tomorrow, Journal of Object Technology, 8(1), January-February 2009, pp.65-72.

[6] A. Thiagarajan, L. Ravindranath, K. LaCurts, S. Madden, H.Balakrishnan, S. Toledo, J. Eriksson, Vtrack: accurate, energy-aware road traffic delay estimation using mobile phones, in: Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2009, 85-98

. [7] A. Thiagarajan, J. Biagioni, T. Gerlich, J. Eriksson, Cooperative transit tracking using smart-phones, in: Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2010, pp.85-98.

[8] Ivan Corredor, Ana-B Garcia, Jose-F Martinez, Pedro Lopez, Wireless Sensor Network-based system for measuring and monitoring road traffic, the 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT 2010), pp.13-19.

[9] S.B. Eisenman, E. Miluzzo, N.D. Lane, R.A. Peterson, G.S. Ahn, A.T. Campbell, The BikeNet mobile sensing system for cyclist experience mapping, in: Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2007, pp. 87-101.

[10] S. Mathur, T. Jin, N. Kasturirangan, J. Chandrashekharan, W. Xue, M. Gruteser, W. Trappe, ParkNet: drive-by sensing of road-side parking statistics, in: Int'l Conf. on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, 2010, pp.123-136.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Overview of Steganography
Country : India
Authors : Sheelu , Babita Ahuja
: 10.9790/0661-1111519      logo

Abstract: The paper explore about an overview of steganography, different methods of steganography, its applications and how it is different from cryptography Digital communication has become an essential part of infrastructure. Nowadays, a lot of applications are Internet-based and demand of internet applications requires data to be transmitted in a secure manner. Data transmission in public communication system is not secure because of interception and improper manipulation by eavesdropper. So different techniques like cryptography and steganography are used to secure the communication. Steganography is the scheme of hiding the existence of secret information in the cover file.

Keywords : Steganography, Cryptography, Cover file, Stego file, key

[1] Jayaram P, Ranganatha H R, Anupama H S, " Information Hiding Using Audio Steganography – A Survey" in The International Journal of Multimedia & Its Applications (IJMA) Vol.3, No.3, August 2011

[2] Jammi Ashok, Y. Raju, S. Munishankaraiah, K. Srinivas "Steganography: An Overview" in International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(10), 2010

[3] K.P.Adhiya and Swati A. Patil, " Hiding Text in Audio Using LSB Based Steganography" in Information and Knowledge Management Vol. 2, No.3, 2012

[4] Pratap Chandra Mandal Modern "Steganographic technique: A survey" in International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET)

[5] Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay and Barnali Gupta Banik "Multi-Level Steganographic Algorithm for Audio Steganography using LSB Modification and Parity Encoding Technique" in International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Volume 1, Issue 2, July – August 2012

[6] R Sridevi, Dr. A Damodaram, DR. Svl. Narasimham "Efficient Method Of Audio Steganography By Modified LSB Algorithm And Strong Encryption Key With Enhanced Security" in Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology

[7] Vivek Jain , Lokesh Kumar, Madhur Mohan Sharma, Mohd Sadiq, Kshitiz Rastogi "Public-Key Steganography Based On Modified LSB Method" in Journal of Global Research in Computer Science Volume 3, No. 4, April 2012


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : OSN: Privacy Preserving Policies
Country : India
Authors : Shahina K, Anand Pavithran
: 10.9790/0661-1112030      logo

Abstract: Online Social Networks (OSN) have become enormously popular in recent years. OSN enable people to connect with their friends based on sharing details about their personal information, but they present a number of privacy risks to their users. There are di_erent privacy preserving policies or mechanisms to handle the privacy issues. The main such proposed policies are:  Safebook: A Privacy-PreservingOnline Social Network Leveraging on Real- Life Trust  Lockr: Better Privacy for Social Networks  fl yByNight: Mitigating the Privacy Risks of Social Networking  Persona: An Online Social Network with User-Defined Privacy.

Keywords - Integrity, Matryoshka, Insider attack, Time to live.

[1] L.A.Cutillo,R.molva, and T.Strufe Safebook:A privacy-preserving online social network leveraging on real-life trust, Communications Magazine, IEEE,vol.47, no.12, pp.94-101, Dec. 2010

[2] Amin Tootoonchian, Stefan Saroiu,and Yashar Ganjali, Lockr: better privacy for social networks, CoNEXT '09.ACM Dec.2009

[3] Lucas Matthew M, Nikita Borisov, flyByNight: Mitigating the Privacy Risks of Social Networking, WPES Proceeding ACM 2009. [4] Randy Baden, Adam Bender, and Neil Spring, Persona: an online social network with user-defined privacy, SIGCOMM '09 Proceeding,Vol.39, pp.135-146, ACM 2009


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Adaptive check-pointing and replication strategy to tolerate faults in computational grid
Country : India
Authors : Subash Thapa, Abhijit bhowmick
: 10.9790/0661-1113138      logo

Abstract: We have considered both adaptive resource replication and adaptive check-pointing. Complete resource failure has been considered which was ignored in most of the previous works. We have proposed an efficient solution for scheduling as well as a fault tolerant method based on maintaining a balance between the overheads of replication and check-pointing. The selection of resource from available resource is done such that no partiality is done between jobs of equal priority. The fault tolerance method, i.e., resource failure has been resolved in our proposed solution with the help of replication, three replicas for each task and number of replicas will be increased by one on each permanent failure to maintain total replicas three and new replica start its execution from the last saved checkpoint .

Keywords: Grid, fault,tolerance, redundancy,replication,adaptive,check pointing, Grid Computing

[1] "Adaptive checkpointing strategy to tolerate faults in economy based grid" Babar Nazir · Kalim Qureshi · Paul Manuel Published online: 16 October 2008 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008
[2] "Using Replication and Checkpointing for Reliable Task Management in Computational Grids" Sangho Yi, Derrick Kondo INRIA, France {sangho.yi, derrick.kondo}@inria.fr

[3] H. Z. E. Tsiakkouri, R. Sakellariou and M. D. Dikaiakos, "Scheduling Workflows with Budget Constraints," in Proceedings of the CoreGRID Workshop "Integrated research in Grid Computing", S. Gorlatch andM. Danelutto, Eds., Nov. 2009, pp. 347-357.

[4] H. Topcuouglu, S. Hariri, and Min-you Wu, "Performance-Effective and Low-Complexity Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Computing," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 260-274, 2010.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Public Verifiability in Cloud Computing Using Signcryption Based on Elliptic Curves
Country : India
Authors : Jahnvi S. Kapadia, Prof. Mehul P. Barot
: 10.9790/0661-1113945      logo

Abstract: Cloud computing is a computing paradigm that involves outsourcing of computing resources with the capabilities of expendable resource scalability, on-demand provisioning with little or no up-front IT infrastructure investment costs. It has recently emerged as a promising hosting platform that performs an intelligent usage of a collection of services, applications, information and infrastructure comprised of pools of computer, network, information and storage resources. However along with these advantages, storing a large amount of data including critical information on the cloud motivates highly skilled hackers thus creating a need for the security to be considered as one of the top issues while considering Cloud Computing. In the cloud storage model, data is stored on multiple virtualized servers. Physically the resources will span multiple servers and can even span storage sites. We have proposed an effective scheme to ensure the correctness of user's data on cloud data storage and public verifiability without demanding user's time, feasibility or resources. Whenever data corruption is detected during the storage correctness verification, this scheme can almost guarantee the simultaneous localization of data errors and the identification of the misbehaving server(s).

Keywords - Elliptic Curves, Homomorphic, Signcryption, Unsigncryption.

[1] Keane an NTT DATA Company, "Cloud Computing".

[2] K. Kajendran, J.James Jeyaseelan J. Jakkulin Joshi, "An Approach For Secured Data Storage Using Cloud Computing", International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology, 2011.

[3] Cong Wang, Qian Wang, Kui Ren , Wenjing Lou, "Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing".

[4] Yuliang Zheng, "Signcryption or How to Achieve Cost(Signature & Encryption) << Cost(Signature) +Cost(Encryption)",1999.

[5] Yuliang Zheng, Hideki Imai, "How to construct efficient signcryption schemes on elliptic curves", Information Processing Letters 68 (1998) 227–233,1988.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Literature Review on Iris Segmentation Techniques for Iris Recognition Systems
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Sruthi.T.K , Ms. Jini.K.M
: 10.9790/0661-1114650      logo

Abstract: A biometric system offers automatic identification of a human being based on the unique feature or characteristic which is being possessed by the individual. The iris segmentation has its own major applications in the field of surveillance as well as in security purposes. The performance of the iris recognition systems depends heavily on segmentation and normalization techniques. A review of various segmentation approaches used in iris recognition is done in this paper. The survey is represented in tabular form for quick reference.

Index Terms—iris recognition, biometrics, iris segmentation

[1] J.G. Daugman, High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 15, p.1148, Nov 1993

[2] R.P. Wildes, Iris recognition: An emerging biometric technology, Proceedings of the IEEE, 85 p.1348, sep. 1997

[3] L. Masek, ―Recognition of Human Iris Patterns for Biometric Identification‖, M.S. Dissertation, the University of Western Australia, 2003

[4] H. Proença, L.A. Alexandre, ―Iris segmentation methodology for non-cooperative recognition‖, IEE Proceedings of Vision, Image and Signal Processing, pp. 199-205, 2006

[5] Z. He, T. Tan, Z. Sun, and X. Qiu, ―Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics,‖ IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1670–1684, Sep. 2009.

[6] T. Tan, Z. He, and Z. Sun, ―Efficient and robust segmentation of noisy iris images for non-cooperative iris recognition,‖ Image Vis. Comput., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 223–230, Feb. 2010.

[7] N.B. Puhan, N. Sudha, A. Sivaraman Kaushalram, Efficient segmentation technique for noisy frontal view iris images using Fourier spectral density, Signal, Image and Video Processing, 5, p. 105, 2011.

[8] Radman, A., Jumari, K., and Zainal, N, Iris segmentation in visible wavelength environment. Procedia Engineering, 41:743–748, 2012
[9] Tan, C. and Kumar, A., Unified framework for automated iris segmentation using distantly acquired face images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 21(9):4068–4079, S


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Review paper on performance analysis of AODV, DSDV, OLSR on the basis of packet delivery
Country : India
Authors : Ramandeep Kaur ( M. Tech Student), Chandan Sharma (Ph.D. Candidate),
: 10.9790/0661-1115155      logo

Abstract: The field of Adhoc Network has gained an important part of the interest of researchers and become very popular in last few years. Adhoc network can operate without fixed infrastructure and can survive rapid changes in the network topology. They can be studied formally as graphs in which the set of edges varies in time. In this paper, we analyse the performance of three protocols AODV, DSDV OLSR. The performance of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of packet delivery ratio with the help of NS-3 simulator. In this paper, OLSR shows better performance over the other two protocols, that is DSDV and AODV.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, OLSR and NS-3

[1] Kumar Manoj, Parmanand, S.C. Sharma & S.P. Singh," Peformance of QoS Parameter in Wireless Ad hoc Network(IEEE 802.11b)", October 2009.
[2] Priti Garg, Asma Tuteja, "Comparative Performance Analysis of Two Ad-hoc Routing Protocols",International Conference on Network and Electronics Engineering IPCSIT vol.11, 2011.
[3] C.M barushimana, A.Shahrabi, Comparative Study of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols Performance in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Workshop on Advance Information Networking and Application, Vol. 2, May, 2003, pp. 679-684,.
[4] C.E.Perkins and E.M.Royer, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, Feb, 1999, pp.90-100
[5] Md. Golam Kaosar, Hafiz M. Asif, Tarek R. Sheltami, Ashraf S.Hasan Mahmoud, Simulation-Based Comparative Study of On Demand Routing Protocols for MANET, International Conference on Wireless Networking and Mobile Computing, Vol. 1, December 2005, pp. 201 – 206.
[6] D. Johnson and D, Maltz, Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, 1996.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design Exploration of a Microcontroller Based RF Remote Control 13amps Wall Socket
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Aru, Okereke Eze ,Ihekweaba Gozie, Opara, F.K.
: 10.9790/0661-1115660      logo

Abstract: This research work presents the design and implementation of a microcontroller based RF remote control 13Amp wall socket. The project is designed to control electronic devices that are connected to an ac power supply through the RF remote wall socket by turning the wall socket ON/OFF using the RF remote control whose operation is independent of the direction/positioned, unlike the Infra red remote control which uses" line of sight" . The project consists of the 89c52 microcontroller interfaced with" KYL-500S" micro power wireless transceiver data module and connected with an electromagnetic relay which turns the switch OFF with open contact and turns it ON with closed contact. The remote control transmits radio frequency signals which are received by the receiver of the wall socket and decoded by the microcontroller which now turns the relay ON or OFF.

Key Words: microcontroller, input switch, RF transmitter, RF receiver, etc.

[1]. Avago Technologies , [2009] "Radio Frequency automation, applications" and Alternative Isolators for Providing Protection Against Electrical Hazards".Jakhavarh Publishers LTD USA.
[2]. Alan M. Davis,[2008] "wireless communications" A new Development Approach",IEEE Software, 2008. Morgan & Claypool Publishers[2004]
[3]. A Case Study, "Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Applications", [2010] : pp. 353-357.
[4]. Altet , J., Ivanov , A. And Wong, A. (2006). "Thermal Testing of Digital Integrated Circuits"
[5]. B. K. Precision, [2009] "Power Supply Handbook", Yorba Linda, CA92887,
[6]. Brain, Marshall (2000-12-07). "How Radio frequency Works". HowStuffWorks.com. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/radio8.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
[7]. C. Kuhnel, (2001); "BASCOM Programming of Microcontrollers with Ease." Berlin: Universal-Publishers.
[8]. Cosentino,C. & Bates,D. 2011." Electrical wall sockets, design and application". New York : CRC Press
[9]. Checkland, Peter B. (2001) "Soft Systems Methodology", in J. Rosenhead and J. Mingers (eds), Rational Analysis for a Problematic World Revisited. Chichester: Wiley
[10]. Hayes, John P. (1988), "Computer Architecture and Organization" (Second ed.), McGraw Hill Publishing Company, pp. 89–92, ISBN 0-07-027366-9


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Literature review on Facial Expression Recognition Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Ms.Aswathy.R
: 10.9790/0661-1116164      logo

Abstract: Automatic facial expression recognition has become a progressive research area since it plays a major role in human-computer-interaction. The facial expression recognition finds major application in areas like social interaction and social intelligence. A review of various techniques used in facial expression recognition like principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) etc is done in this paper. The survey is represented in tabular form for quick reference

Index Terms— Automatic facial expression recognition, Social Intelligence, Human-Computer interaction.

[1] L. Sirovich and M. Kirby, "Low Dimensional Procedure for Characterization of Human Faces," J. Optical Soc. Am., vol. 4, pp. 519-524, 1987.

[2] P. N. Belhumeur, J. P. Hespanha, and D. J. Kriegman,"Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: recognition using class specific linear projection," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 711–720, Jul. 1997.

[3] B.A. Draper, K. Baek, M.S. Bartlett, J.R. Beveridge, "Recognizing Faces with PCA and ICA," Computer Vision and Image Understanding: special issue on face recognition, in press.

[4] J. Yang, D. Zhang, A. F. Frangi, and J. Y. Yang, "Two-dimensional PCA: A new approach to appearance-based face representation and recognition," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 131–137, 2004.

[5] L.Torres, J. Reutter, and L. Lorente, "The importance of the color information in face recognition," in Proceedings. 1999 International Conference on Image Processing, 1999. ICIP 99., vol. 3. IEEE, 1999, pp. 627–631.

[6] Chen S., Sun Y. and Yin B., "A Novel Hybrid Approach Based on Sub-pattern Technique and Extended 2DPCA for Color Face Recognition," 11th IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, pp. 630-634, 2009.

[7] M. Thomas, C. Kambhamettu and S. Kumar, (2008), Face recognition using a color subspace LDA approach, Proceedings - International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence.

[8] M. A. O. Vasilescu and D. Terzopoulos, "Multilinear image analysis for facial recognition," in Proc. Int. Conf. Pattern Recognit., Quebec City, QC, Canada, Aug. 2002, pp. 511–514

[9] Barbu, T, Gabor filter-based face recognition technique, Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, vol.11, no. 3, pp. 277 – 283, 2010. [10] S. Moore and R. Bowden, "Local binary patterns for multi-view facial expression recognition," Comput. Vis. Image Understand., vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 541–558, 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Novel Iterative Back Projection Approach
Country : India
Authors : Patel Shreyas A.
: 10.9790/0661-1116569     logo

Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of recovering a super-resolved image from a single low resolution input. This is a hybrid approach of single image super resolution. The technique is based on combining an Iterative back projection (IBP) method with the edge preserving Infinite symmetrical exponential filter (ISEF). Though IBP can minimize the reconstruction error significantly in iterative manner and gives good result, it suffers from ringing effect and chessboard effect because error is back-projected without edge guidance. ISEF provides edge-smoothing image by adding high frequency information. Proposed algorithm integrates ISEF with IBP which improves visual quality with very fine edge details. The method is applied on different type of images including face image, natural image and medical image, the performance is compared with a number of other algorithms, bilinear interpolation, nearest neighbor interpolation .The method proposed in the paper is shown to be marginally superior to the existing method in terms of visual quality and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

[1] R.Y. Tsai and T.S. Huang, "Multiple frame image restoration and registration", Advances in Computer Vision and Image Processing, Greenwich, CT;JAI Press Inc., 1984, pp. 317-339.

[2] Michal Irani, Shmuel Peleg, "Improving resolution by image registration", CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing, vol. 53, no. 3, May 1991.

[3] S. Park, M. K. Park and M.Kang, "Super resolution image reconstruction: A technical overview", IEEE signal processing magazine no.20, pp 2136, 2003 [4] Poth Miklos, Image Interpolation Techniques, www.bmf.hu/conferences/sisy2004/Poth.pdf

[5] S. Dai, M. Han, Y. Wu, and Y. Gong, "Bilateral Back-Projection For Single Image Super Resolution", IEEE Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 2007, pp. 1039-1042

[6] W. Dong, L. Zhang, G. Shi, and X. Wu, "Nonlocal back projection for adaptive image enlargement", IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 349-352, November 2009.

[7] J. Wang, K. Liang, S, Chang, and P. Chang, "Super-Resolution Image with Estimated High Frequency Compensated Algorithm", IEEE Conf. Communication and Information Technology, 2009, pp. 1039-102.

[8] Fengqing Qin, "An Improved Super Resolution Reconstruction Method Based on Initial Value Estimation", 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, CISP, 2010 .
[9] Xiuju Liang and Zongliang Gan, "Improved Non-Local Iterative Back Projection Method for Image Super-Resolution", Sixth International Conference on Image and Graphics, ICIG, 2011.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : HCI for Real world Applications
Country : India
Authors : Sreeji C, Vineetha G R, Amina Beevi A, Nasseena N, Neethu S S
: 10.9790/0661-1117074      logo

Abstract: Human-computer interaction (HCI) is necessary for different real world applications. Swarm robotics is an emerging technology in the real world. This paper presents navigation of swarm robot through hand gestures. The interaction of Human-robot is needed for controlling the swarm robots. The communication between multiple robots possible through sending messages. For sending messages Bluetooth technology can be used. Our goal is to make swarm robot to work effectively based on the gesture given. Background noise and dynamic environments are the key issues in the gesture recognition process. The background objects will affect the system performance and accuracy. Hand tracking along with feature extraction is used in this paper to dealing these issues. The robot used is the foot-bot robot developed in swarmanoid projects. Webcam is used as visual interface. Collaboration of robot with human has great importance in the field of service robotics.

Keywords—Swarm robots, hand detection, Gabor filter, gesture identification, navigation of swarm robots, Bluetooth, human-computer interaction.

[1] C.C.Wang, K.C.Wang.: Hand Posture Recognition Using Adaboost with SIFT For Human Robot Interaction, in Robotics: Viable Robotic Service to Human, Springer-2009.
[2] M. Kolsch and M. Turk.: Robust hand detection, in IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2004.
[3] Cristina Manresa, Javier Varona, Ramon Mas and Francisco J.Perales: Hand Tracking and Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Interaction, Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis 5(3):96-104, 2005.
[4] Alessandro Giusti, Jawad Nagi, Luca M. Gambardella, Gianni A. Di Caro: Distributed Consensus for Interaction between Humans and Mobile Robot Swarms (Demonstration).
[5] Ihab Zaqout, Roziati Zainuddin, Sapian Baba: Pixel-Based Skin Color Detection Technique, in Machine Graphics and Vision, 2005. FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996.
[6] Qiu-yu Zhang, Mo-yi Zhang, Jian-qiang Hu,.: Hand Gesture Contour Tracking Based on Skin Color Probability and State Estimation Model, Journal of Multimedia, Vol. 4, No. 6, December 2009.
[7] Low-Cost Dual Rotating Infrared Sensor for Mobile Robot Swarm Applications Geunho Lee, Member, IEEE, and Nak Young Chong, Member, IEEE.
[8] G. Lee and N. Y. Chong, "Decentralized formation control for small scale robot teams with anonymity," Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp.85–105, 2009.
[9] G. Lee and N. Y. Chong, "A geometric approach to deploying robot swarms," Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. vol. 52, no. 2–4, pp. 257–280, 2009.
[10] E. Sahin, "Swarm robotics: From sources of inspiration to domains of application," in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (LNCS), 2005, vol.3342, pp.10–20.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Firefly Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization
Country : India
Authors : Adil Hashmi, Nishant Goel, Shruti Goel, Divya Gupta
: 10.9790/0661-1117578      logo

Abstract: Meta-heuristic algorithms prove to be competent in outperforming deterministic algorithms for real-world optimization problems. Firefly algorithm is one such recently developed algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. In this work, a detailed formulation and explanation of the Firefly algorithm implementation is given. Later Firefly algorithm is verified using six unimodal engineering optimization problems reported in the specialized literature.

Keywords - Benchmark functions, Firefly Algorithm, Swarm Intelligence, Unconstrained Optimization.

[1] E. Bonabeau, M. Dorigo, G. Theraulaz, Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems (Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999).
[2] Ausiello, Giorgio; et al. (2003), Complexity and Approximation (Corrected ed.), Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-65431-5.

[3] Xin-She Yang and Amir H. Gandomi, Bat Algorithm: A Novel Approach for Global Engineering Optimization, Engineering Computations, Vol. 29, Issue 5, pp. 464--483 (2012).

[4] MA Sasa, Xue Jia, Fang Xingqiao, Liu Dongqing, "Research on Continuous Function Optimization Algorithm Based on Swarm Intelligence", 5th International Conference on Computation, 2009, pg no. 61-65.

[5] X. S. Yang, Firefly Algorithm: Stochastic Test Functions and Design Optimisation, Int. J. Bio- Inspired Computation, 2010, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.78–84.
[6] Oldenhuis, Rody, Many test functions for global optimizers, Mathworks, 1 November 2012.

[7] R. Poli, J. Kennedy, T. Blackwell, Particle swarm optimization: An overview (Springer Science and Business Media, LLC 2007).

[8] Pei-Wei TSai, Jeng-Shyang Pan, Bin-Yih Liao, Shu-Chuan Chu, Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Optimization , International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Volume 5, Number 12, December 2009.

[9] Yang, X. S. (2008), Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms ( Luniver Press).

[10] X. S. Yang, Firefly algorithms for multimodal optimization, Stochastic Algorithms: Foundations and Applications (SAGA 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences, Vol. 5792, 2009)169-178.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : MDSR to Reduce Link Breakage Routing Overhead in MANET Using PRM
Country : India
Authors : N.Lalitha, L Surya Prasanthi Latike
: 10.9790/0661-1117986      logo

Abstract: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) algorithm is simple and best suited for high mobility nodes in wireless ad hoc networks. Due to high mobility in ad-hoc network, route may not exit for long time. Hence, DSR algorithm finds an alternative route when the existing communicating route goes down. It becomes a time consuming process if the communicating route fails frequently. In order to avoid this, we propose a modification to the existing DSR protocol named as Modified Dynamic Source Routing (MDSR) Protocol. In this paper, we add a link breakage prediction algorithm to the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. The mobile node uses signal power strength from the received packets to predict the link breakage time, and sends a warning to the source node of the packet if the link is soon-to-be-broken. The source node can perform a pro-active route rebuild to avoid disconnection. Intermediate nodes in the route continuously monitor the signal strength at the time of communication, based on a predefined threshold signal value. Intermediate node sends a message to the source node that the route is likely to be disconnected, if signal strength falls below the threshold value. If source receive this message it starts using backup route and if back route also fails then it finds alternative route. The backup route will minimize the time consuming process of finding an alternative route to some extent. Addition of link breakage prediction to DSR can significantly reduce the total number of dropped data packets (by at least 25%). Security to the packets in the MANET is provided by employing a message encryption technique using the concept of deceptive text which ensures confidentiality and authentication to the data. KeyWords- Ad-Hoc Networks, Preemptive, Dynamic Source Routing, Proactive, Deceptive text, Randomized hashing.

[1] Hongbo Zhou, "A Survey on Routing Protocols in MANETs," Technical. Note March 2003.

[2] Siva Ram Murthy, B.S, Manoj, "Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc wireless Networks," in Ad Hoc wireless networks: Architectures and Protocols, Chapter 7. Pearson Publication.

[3] T. Goff, N.B. Abu-Ghazaleh, D.S. Phatak and R. Kahvecioglu, "Preemptive Maintenance Routing in Ad Hoc Networks", journal of parallel and Distributed Computing, Special Issue on Wireless Mobile Communication and Computing 2003.

[4] Mohammad Al-Shurman and Seong-Moo Yoo, Seungjin Park, "A Performance Simulation for Route Maintenance in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", ACM,2004 [5] William Stallings,"Network Security Essentials".

[6] Quynh Dang,"Randomized Hashing for Digital Signatures".

[7] Chu-Hsing Lin and Tien-Chi Lee,"A Confused Document Encryption Scheme and Its Implementation".

[8] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat. Highly dynamic destination sequenced distance vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers, In ACM SIGCOMM, pages 234-244, 1994.

[9] X. Hong, T. Kwon, M. Gerla, D. Gu and G. Pei.A Mobility Framework for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of ACM Second International Conference on Mobile Data Management (MDM '2001), Hong Kong, Jan. 2001.

[10] A Group Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks X. Hong, M. Gerla, G. Pei, and C.-C. Chiang. In Proceedings of ACM/IEEE MSWiM'99, Seattle, WA, Aug. 1999.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Linux-Based Data Acquisition and Processing On Palmtop Computer
Country : India
Authors : Mr. Yogesh P Murumkar, Prof. N. D. Kale,
: 10.9790/0661-1118794      logo

Abstract: This paper presents an original implementation of a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association data acquisition card on a palmtop computer. The acquisition system is based on the Linux operating system and free drivers for the Acquisition board. The system has been used to develop a demo application Consisting in a phonometer able to sample 1024 samples at 100 ksamples/s and compute the fast Fourier transform of the signal at a maximum rate of 6 frame/s.

[1] Massachussets Institute of Technology. Research Home Page, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, MA. [Online]. Available: http://web.mit.edu/ research

[2] A. Hanef and A. Ganz, ―MANAS—The soul of mobile,‖ in Proc. World Multi-Conf. Systemics, Cybern. and Informatics, Jul. 2001.

[3] Sotto Voce, Electronic Guidebooks, Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA. [Online]. Available: http://www2.parc.com/csl/projects/guidebooks

[4] A. M. Sabatini, V. Genovese, and E. S. Maini, ―Portable system for data acquisition and transmission based on handheld PC technology,‖ Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 1635–1637, Dec. 2002.

[5] P. Lukowicz, U. Anliker, J. Ward, G. Troster, E. Hirt, and C. Neufelt, ―AMON: A wearable medical computer for high risk patients,‖ in Proc. 6th ISWC, Oct. 7-10, 2002, pp. 133–134

[6] National Instruments Measurement and Automation. Research Home Page, Measurement and Automation, National Instruments Corp. Austin, TX. [Online]. Available: http://www.ni.com

[7] H. Goldberg, ―What is virtual instrumentation?‖ IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 10–13, Dec. 2000.

[8] Home Page for handhelds.org, Open Source Operating System for Handheld Devices. [Online]. Available: http://www.handhelds.org

[9] COMEDI—The Linux Control and Measurement Device Interface. [Online]. Available: http://www.comedi.org

[10] A. Lennon, ―Embedded systems—Embedding Linux,‖ IEE, Rev., vol. 47,no. 3, pp. 33–37, May 2001.




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