IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Management (ICETEM-2016)

Volume-1 Issue-2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Approach to Detect Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Blood Microscopic Images
Country : India
Authors : Neena George || Lisha Kurian

Abstract:Acute Myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a specific kind of cancer where the blood cells, bone marrow
get affected. This is usually common among adults with an average age of 65 years. The current method for the
detection of Acute Myelogenous leukemia is inefficient, since it needs the manual examination of blood smear.
Its accuracy depends on the operator's ability and it is time consuming. This paper presents a simple approach
that automatically detects AML cells in the blood smear. The proposed approach mainly comprises of
preprocessing where the noise contents are removed and the conversion of RGB images into CIELAB color
space. This step is followed by segmentation which extracts the important information from an input image.
Classification and validation are performed based on feature extraction.
Keywords: Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Classification, Segmentation, Feature extraction

[1] Sos Agaian, Monica Madhukar, and Anthony T. Chronopoulos, ―Automated Screening System for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Detection in Blood Microscopic Images‖. [2] F. Scotti, ―Automatic morphological analysis for acute leukemia identification in peripheral blood microscope images,‖ in Proc. CIMSA, 2005, pp. 96–101. [3] V. Piuri and F. Scotti, ―Morphological classification of blood leucocytes by microscope images,‖ in Proc. CIMSA, 2004, pp. 103–108. [4] M. Subrajeet, D. Patra, and S. Satpathy, ―Automated leukemia detection in blood microscopic images using statistical texture analysis,‖ in Proc. Int. Conf. Commun., Comput. Security, 2011, pp. 184–187. [5] H. Ramoser, V. Laurain, H. Bischof, and R. Ecker, ―Leukocyte segmentation and classification in blood-smear images,‖ in Proc. IEEE EMBS, 2006, pp. 3371–3374. [6] C. Reta, L. Altamirano, J. A. Gonzalez, R. Diaz, and J. S. Guichard, ―Segmentation of bone marrow cell images for morphological classification of acute leukemia,‖ in Proc. 23rd FLAIRS, 2010, pp. 86–91.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Enhanced Secure Protocol For Spontaneous Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Nimisha paulose || Sindhu M P

Abstract: The main aspect of wireless ad hoc network communication is using of security so this paper proposing a secure protocol for spontaneous wireless ad hoc network. This protocol offers network creation, and management of communication within a spontaneous network. We introduce the notion of a spontaneous wireless network, created when a number of peoples come together for certain period of time, for collaborative activities. This protocol includes all functions need to operate without any external supports. Protocol runs on the basis of trust between the collaborating peoples in the network. It uses a hybrid symmetric and asymmetric key encryption schemes for user authentication. This paper describes a secure protocol with an intrusion detection mechanism for spontaneous wireless ad hoc network

[1] L.M. Feeney, B. Ahlgren, and A. Westerlund, "Spontaneous Networking: An Application-Oriented Approach to Ad-hoc Networking," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 176-181, June 2001.

[2] J. Lloret, L. Shu, R. Lacuesta, and M. Chen, "User-Oriented and Service-Oriented Spontaneous Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks," Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks, vol. 14, nos. 1/ 2, pp. 1-8, 2012.

[3] Xiao Y. Rayi V.K., Sun B., Du X., Hu F. and Galloway M. (Sept.2007)"A Survey of Key Management Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks," Computer Comm., vol. 30, nos. 11/12, pp. 2314-2341.

[4] Y. Xiao, V.K. Rayi, B. Sun, X. Du, F. Hu, and M. Galloway, "A Survey of Key Management Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks," Computer Comm., vol. 30, nos. 11/12, pp. 2314-2341, Sept.2007.

[5] V. Kumar and M.L. Das, "Securing Wireless Sensor Networks With Public Key Techniques," Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks, vol. 5, nos. 3/4, pp. 189-201, 2008.

[6] R. Lacuesta, J. Lloret, M. Garcia, and L. Pen˜ alver, "A Spontaneous Ad-Hoc Network to Share WWW Access," EURASIP J. WirelessComm. and Networking, vol. 2010, article 18, 2010.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Network Life Time Enhancing Protocols in Mobile WSN: A Survey
Country : India
Authors : Nimmi M K || Silpa Kamalan || Gayathry K V || Pratheesh K P,

Abstract:WSN consists of a collection of nodes where each node is connected to one or more sensors which are intended to function for years without any human intervention. Today WSNs play very important role in event sensing, information processing and data communication.WSNs have been replacing the traditional networks because of its ease of deployment, extended transmission range and self-organization. Many of the current routing protocols in WSN assumes that nodes and sink are static. Disadvantage of static WSN is that the neighbor nodes of sink consumes more energy and thus leads to network isolation(hotspot problem).This problem can be avoided by providing mobility to nodes thereby improving the network life time. In this paper we are conducting a comparative study on various protocols used in mobile WSN.

Keywords: Static wsn; mobile WSN; Network Life time; hot spot problem; sink Node;..

[1] S. K. Singh, M. P. Singh, and D. K. Singh, ―Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks—A survey,‖Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng. Surv., vol. 1, no. 2,pp. 63–83, Nov. 2010. [2] T.H. Kim, H. Adeli, ―Dynamic routing for mitigating the energy hole based on heuristic mobile sink in WSNs‖, AST/UCMA/ISA/CAN 2010, LNCS. 6059, Heidelbarg 2010, pp. 159-174. [3] J. Wang, Y. Yin, J. Kim, S. Lee, ―A mobile sink based energy efficient clustering algorithm for WSNs‖, IEEE-CIT, Chengadu, 2012, pp. 678-683 [4] Y.Yang,M.l.Fonoage,M.Cardei "Improving network lifetime with mobile wireless sensor networks,"ELSEVIER,ComputerCommunications,PP:409-419,2010 [5] Heinzelman,W.R., ―Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks,‖ Proc. of the 33 rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1-10, 2000 . [6] L.T. Nguyan, X. Detago, R. Beuran, Y. Shinoda, ―An energy efficient routing scheme for mobile WSNs‖, IEEE International Conference 2008, 978-1-4244-2489-4.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Color Image Based Data Security Technique Using SPKPCLS (Split Plaintext Key Pair Algorithm and Conditional LSB Substitution)
Country : India
Authors : Asst. Prof. Praseeda K Gopinadhan || Asst. Prof. Renjith P R

Abstract: The two important aspects of security that deal with transmitting data over a medium are steganography and cryptography. Cryptography defined as the science and study of secret writing, concerns the ways in which communications and data can be encoded to prevent disclosure of their contents through eavesdropping or message interception, using codes, ciphers and other methods, so that only intended people can see the real message [1]. Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video [2]. A method that integrates cryptography and steganography is highly robust.

[1] William Stallings, "Cryptography and Network Security" 4th Edition. Pearson Education Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2006.
[2] Wikipedia.org, "Steganography‟, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography. [Accessed 26-Oct-2015].
[3] Renjith PR, Anita John, Praseeda K Gopindhan, "SPKP (Split Plaintext Key Pair) Algorithm – A Novel Method for Symmetric Encryption", Special Issue of International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) on Advanced Computing and Communication Technologies for HPC Applications - ACCTHPCA, June 2012.
[4] Wikipedia.org, "Kerckhoffs's principle or Kerckhoffs's Desiderata of Cryptography‟. 2015 [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerckhoffs's_principle.[Accessed 11-Jun-2011]
[5] T. Morkel , J.H.P. Eloff, M.S. Olivier , "An overview of image steganography by. Information and Computer Security Architecture", (ICSA) Research Group Department of Computer Science University of Pretoria, 0002, Pretoria, South Africa.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancing Security in Broker-Less Publish/Subscribe Systems
Country : India
Authors : Reshma Rajan || Vidhya P M || Arun K Govind

Abstract:Publish/subscribe system is a wide-area communication infrastructure which allows data distribution across unlimited number of publishers and subscribers. Both publishers and subscribers have the ability to express their interest in form of events, or a pattern of events by sending the subscription to the publish/subscribe network. The provisioning of basic security mechanisms such as authentication and confidentiality is highly challenging in a content based publish/subscribe system. This issue raises a challenging requirement for handling encrypted data for the purpose of routing based on protected content. The considerable data in publish/subscribe model needs to be disseminate accurately to the interested users quickly, so improving the match efficient is a very important method to solve this problem. This paper provides authentication and confidentiality in broker-less publish/subscribe systems, by using attribute set based encryption (ASBE) and improving event matching using Predicate Priority based Event Matching, All over system is seen to be efficient and guarantees good results.
Keywords: Attribute set based encryption, Broker-less, Content based publish/subscribe(CBPS), Predicate priority based event matching, Publish/Subscribe(pub/sub).

[1] Minakshi B. Shingan, Sanchika A. Bajpai, ―Review: Securing Broker-Less Public/Subscribe Systems Using Identity-Based Encryption‖, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2014. [2] M. Nabeel, N. Shang, and E. Bertino, ―Efficient Privacy Preserving Content Based Publish Subscribe Systems,‖ Proc. 17th ACM Symp, Access Control Models and Technologies, 2012. [3] H.-A . jacobsen, A.K.Y. Cheung, G . Li, B. Ma niymaran, V . Muthusa my, and R.S. Ka zemzadeh, ―The PADRES Publish/Subscribe System,‖ Principl es and Applications of Distributed Event-Based Systems. IGI Global, 2010 [4] Ying Liu Beth Plale, ―Survey of Publish Subscribe Event Systems‖, Computer Science Dept. Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47405-7104 [5] D Boneh, G.D. Crescenzo, R. Ostrovsky, and G. Persiano, ―Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search,‖ Proc. Int'l Conf. Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques on Advances in Cryptology (EUROCRYPT), 2004. [6] L.Opyrchal and A. Prakash, ―Secure distribution of events in contentbased publishsubscribe systems,‖ Proceedings of the 10th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2001 [7] L. Fiege, A. Zeidler, A. Buchmann, R. K.-Kehr, and G. M¨uhl, ―Security aspects in publish/subscribe systems,‖ Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Distributed Event-Based Systems, 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Improving Performance and Privacy in Location Based Service Applications Using Gps
Country : India
Authors : S. Sasidhar Babu || Yellepeddi Vijayalakshmi || Dr. A. Rama Murthy || Prof. J. Raj Kala

Abstract: Location based Services offer many advantages to the mobile users to retrieve the information about their current location and process that data to get more useful information near to their location. With the help of GPS in phones and through Web Services using GPRS, Location based Services. Advances in wireless communication technology have allowed affordable data service fees, and current smartphones are equipped with GPS; as a consequence, LBS applications are emerging as next-generations. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system. Nearest Location details intimates in Alert Message Service. Systems are known for accuracy in the range of several meters. In a retail scenario, this accuracy may be sufficient for so-called macro navigation (finding the right area in a shop of a specific item) but insufficient for micro navigation, i.e. finding an item in a shelf. Especially location-based services cannot be established due to the inaccuracy of the positioning.

[1] R. Dewri and R. Thurimella, "Exploiting Service Similarity for Privacy in Location-Based Search Queries," IEEE Transactions On Parallel And Distributed Systems, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 374 - 383, FEBRUARY 2014.
[2] http://developer.android.com/reference/android/locatio n/LocationManager.html
[3] R. Kato, M. Iwata, T. Mayu, A. Suzuki and Y. Arase, "Dummy-based Anonymization Method Based on User Trajectory with Pauses," in ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS'12, 2012.
[4] Baek, J., S. Park, and C.C. Lee, ―Identifying Drivers for Continual Usage of Wireless Broadband,‖ International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 9, No. 4: 317-340, 2011.
[5] Manav Singhal1, Anupam Shukla‖ Implementation of Location based Services in Android using GPS and Web Services‖ IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 1, No 2, January 2012.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : AN EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR SECURED AND SCALABLE DATA STORAGE AND DATA RETRIEVAL IN CLOUD COMPUTING
Country : India
Authors : Sachu.P.Sahi || Silpa Kamalan || Dr. Suvanam Sasidhar Babu

Abstract: Cloud computing is an important interactive1. Introductionparadigm to store user's data remotely in an online Cloud computing is emerging due to the cloud server. Privacy, Data security and storageare top concerns for the cloud environments. Thereprovisioning of elastic, flexible, and on demandare so many security and storage concerns regardsstorage and computing services for customers. with the cloud. So here propose a MediatedOrganizations with a low budget can now utilize certificateless public key encryption along with thecloud storage services without heavily investing in data deduplication technique and query servicesinfrastructure and maintenance.

[1] SeungHyun Seo, Mohamed Nabeel, Xiaoyu Ding, and Elisa Bertino,"An Efficient Certificateless Encryption for Secure Data Sharing in Public Clouds, "Ieee Transactions On Knowledge And Data Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 9, September 2014.
[2] Jin Li, Yan Kit Li, Xiaofeng Chen, Patrick P. C. Lee, Wenjing Lou,"A Hybrid Clou Approach for Secure Authorized Deduplication", Ieee Transactions On Parallel And Distributed System Vol:Pp No:99 Year 2014
[3] Qin Liu, Chiu C. Tan, Jie Wu, and Guojun Wang, "Towards Differential Query Services in CostEfficient Clouds", Ieee Transactions On Parallel And Distributed Systems, Vol. 25, No. 6, June 2014
[4] ChengKang Chu, Sherman S.M. Chow, WenGuey Tzeng, Jianying Zhou, and Robert H. Deng,"KeyAggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud Storage" IEEE Transactions On Parallel And Distributed System, Vol 25, No. 2 February 2014.
[5] Rivest, R.L., Shamir, A., Adleman, L.: A method for obtaining digital signatures and publickey cryptosystems. Communications of the ACM 21, 120–126 (1978)


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficiency of Intelligent Agents in Anti-Tabnabbing
Country : India
Authors : Sarika S || Dr.Varghese Paul

Abstract: Internet phishing has become a continual threat that keeps growing day by day. Phishing takes advantage of the user's trust and use social engineering techniques to deceive users. Despite having several anti-phishing strategies, the threat of phishing is not mitigated as modern types of attack keeps coming to the fore. Tabnabbing is a sophisticated phishing attack which tricks users to submit their personal information and credentials by leveraging the facilities tabs offer to web browsers. Existing anti-phishing techniques are still struggling for the detection and prevention of this dominant phishing attack as the attack takes action in inactive browser tabs. This paper explains the effectiveness of software agents in detecting Tabnabbing attack by making a comparison with existing methods Keywords: Distributed software agents; tabnabbing; multiagent system; antiphishing

[1] Seckin Anil Unlu, Kemal Bicakci. NoTabNab: Protection Against The Tabnabbing Attack, IEEE. 2010.
[2] R. K. Suri, D. S. Tomar, D. R. Sahu. An Approach to Perceive Tabnabbing Attack. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research.90-94,2012
[3] De Ryck, Nick, L Desmet, Joosen. TabShots: Client- Side Detection of Tabnabbing Attacks. Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGSAC Symposium on Information. 2013.B. Newman and E.T. Liu, Perspective on BRCA1, Breast Disease 10 (1998), 3–10.
[4] A. Raskin. Tabnabbing: A new type of phishing attack.2010, http://www.azarask.in/blog/post/a-new-type-of-phishing-attack/.
[5] Bradshaw. Software Agents. MIT Press. Cambridge: MA USA,2002.
[6] JADE (Java Agent DEvelopment Framework), http://jade.tilab.com/index.html


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Secure Wireless Transport Layer for MANET
Country : India
Authors : Mr. P.S. Sujith Kumar || Dr. J. Frank Vijay

Abstract:MANETs is a type of ad hoc networks that can change the locations and configure itself on the fly. Main unique features are open communication channels, dynamic network topology, limited device capabilities bandwidth and lack of infrastructure or central administration support etc have made secure efficient and reliable end-to-end operation in manet is a challenging task. The primary focus of this paper is to provide transport layer security for end-to-end communication through data encryption. The proposed model provides, authentication, privacy, integrity and also to protect against denial of service(DoS) attacks. Hence this is found to be a good security solution in the networks.

[1] Y. Hu, A. Perrig and D. Johnson, ―Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,‖ Proceedings of the 8th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, September 2002, pp. 12-23. doi:10.1145/570645.570648. [2] K. Sanzgiri, B. Dahill, B. Levine, Shields and E. Belding-Royer, ―A Secure Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,‖ The 10th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), 12-15 November 2002, pp.78-87.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Decision Support System for Managing Electricity Demand Using an Incrementally Optimized Very Fast Decision Tree Ensemble
Country : India
Authors : Surya S || Sangeeta Srinivas

Abstract: Electric utilities such as Smart Grids incorporate intelligent methods to efficiently manage the day to day operations. The consumption behavior of consumers can be classified from streaming consumption data and abnormal consumption behavior patterns can be obtained which can be utilized for fine-grained management of power demand. Mining streaming data is a challenging task owing to the highly resource constrained setting in terms of memory and learning time. Incrementally Optimized Very Fast Decision Tree (iOVFDT) is an efficient method for Streaming Data Classification.

[1] Domingos, P., &Hulten, G. (2000). Mining high-speed data streams. In Proceedings ofthe sixth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and datamining (pp. 71–80).
[2] Hang Yang, Simon Fong, Yain-Whar Si, "Multi-objective Optimization for Incremental Decision Tree Learning" 14th International Conference on Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery, Springer LNCS, Vienna (Austria) September 3 - 6, 2012
[3] Bifet, A., Gavald`a, R.: Adaptive learning from evolving data streams. In: IDA (2009).
[4] L. Breiman. "Random forests". Machine Learning, 45(1):5–32, 2001
[5] H. Abdulsalam, D. B. Skillicorn, and P. Martin. Streaming random forests. In IDEAS '07: Proceedings of the 11th International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium, pages 225{232, Washington, DC, USA, 2007. IEEE Computer Society.
[6] Albert Bifet, Geoffrey Holmes, Bernhard Pfahringer. Leveraging Bagging for Evolving Data Streams Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases, European Conference, ECML PKDD, 2010


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Personalized Document Similarity and Search
Country : India
Authors : Vaibhav Khatavkar || Rohan Karhadkar || Trupti Pimparkar || Shivraj Wabale

Abstract: In todays world with ever increasing volume of text resources over digital libraries and internet, organizing these resources with one's likes and interests have become a practical need. This paper will experiment two well known algorithms for calculating text similarity along with personalizing it to user specific interest and representing it in graphical format. To make user comfortable with the software, similar documents are represented as a node in a graph. Key contributors in finding similarity between the documents in this software are cosine similarity and concept similarity measures. Along with measuring similarity, the software modifies user concepts' weight from user submitted documents. This makes it easy to read and explore the similar documents guiding the user to widen the knowledge. Accordingly, history of the user's interest is maintained, modified and is eventually used in subsequent tasks of calculating correspondence for that particular user. Keywords: Document Similarity, Bag of Words, Bag of Concepts, Personalization, Graph Theory

[1] Mausam and Based on slides of W. Arms. Document similarity in information retrieval. https://courses.cs.washington.edu/courses/cse573/12sp/lectures/17-ir.pdf.
[2] Shady Shehata, Fakhri Karray, and Mohamed Kamel. A concept-based model for enhancing text categorization. In Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 07, pages 629637, New York, NY, USA, 2007. ACM.
[3] Edward Grefenstette and Stephen Pulman. Msc computer science disser-tation analysing document similarity measures. 2010.
[4] Timothy J Hazen. Direct and latent modeling techniques for computing spoken document similarity. In Spoken Language Technology Workshop (SLT), 2010 IEEE, pages 366371. IEEE, 2010.
[5] Thomas Hofmann. Learning the similarity of documents: An information-geometric approach to document retrieval and categorization. 2000.
[6] Anna Huang. Similarity measures for text document clustering. In Pro-ceedings of the sixth new zealand computer science research student conference (NZCSRSC2008), Christchurch, New Zealand, pages 4956, 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient and secure time synchronization for mobile Underwater Sensor Network
Country : India
Authors : Vani Sreekumar || Anil C B.

Abstract: Time synchronization plays a critical role in distributed network systems. In this paper, we investigate the time synchronization problem in the context of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). A synchronization algorithm for UWSNs must consider additional factors such as long propagation delays from the use of acoustic communication and sensor node mobility. These unique challenges make the accuracy of synchronization procedures for UWSNs even more. This paper modifies Mobi-Sync, a novel time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks for developing secure time synchronization method. Mobi-Sync distinguishes itself from previous approaches for terrestrial WSN by considering spatial correlation among the mobility patterns of neighboring UWSNs nodes. Simulation results show that Mobi-Sync outperforms existing schemes in both accuracy and energy efficiency, but mobi-Sync doesnt consider the security aspetcs. Simulation results show that our method outperforms existing synchronization schemes in both accuracy and energy efficiency. Keywords:Underwater Sensor Networks, Time Synchronization, Security, Mobi-sync,

[1] J. Elson, L. Girod, and D. Estrin, "Fine-grained network time synchronization using reference broadcasts," in Proc. of the 5th
Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, pp. 147–163, 2002.
[2] S. Ganeriwal, R. Kumar, and M. B. Srivastava, "Timing-sync protocol for sensor networks," in Proc. of the 1st International
Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp. 138–149,Nov. 2003


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Trust Based Routing Protocol
Country : India
Authors : Asst Prof. Vidhya P M || Ambily Mohan

Abstract: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of set of independent mobile nodes communicate via radio waves. The nodes in the MANET are constantly moving and have no fixed topology. The proposed system calculates the global trust value of each node in the network using direct and indirect method. The malicious nodes in the network can be identified and eliminated. The communication between the nodes must take place only through the most trusted path in the network. It then monitor single node failure in the trusted path during data communication and finds most trusted next node of the failed node in the route through an alternate path. When a new node enters into the network the key server verifies the validity of the requesting node by checking for its trust value with the neighbors. If it is valid then authenticate it by the key server otherwise discard it from the network. Keywords: Direct Trust, Indirect Trust, MANET, PDR

[1] Zhexiong Wei, Helen Tang, F. Richard Yu, Maoyu Wang, and Peter Mason, "Security Enhancements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Trust Management Using Uncertain Reasoning", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 63, No.9, November 2014.
[2] G.Rajkumar, K.Duraiswamy, "Streamlined Short Alternate Path Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks", 2013 IEEE International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing, Communication and Nanotechnology (ICECCN 2013).
[3] Pallavi Khatri, "Using Identity and Trust with Key Management for achieving security in Ad hoc Networks", IEEE 2014.
[4] Aarti, Dr. S. S. Tyagi, "Study of MANET: Characteristics, Challenges, Application and Security Attacks", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013.
[5] Nikola Milanovic Miroslaw Malek, "Routing and Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Published by the IEEE Computer Society, February 2004.




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