IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

National Conference on Advances in Engineering, Technology & Management (AETM'15)

Volume 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Phishing-An Analysis on the Types, Causes, Preventive Measuresand Case Studies in the Current Situation
Country : India
Authors : Phirashisha Syiemlieh || Golden Mary Khongsit || Usha Mary Sharma || Bobby Sharma

Abstract: Phishing is a scam that has evolved many years ago and it has been growing ever since. In this study we have collected much information regarding its new and improvised way of scamming the users without their knowledge and concern. Some case studies are also included based on real life events. According to the report received from Home Depot Company, the United States and Canada had encountered a loss of $62 million where only $27million was covered by the insurance company but the rest is yet to be recovered. Our main aim is to let the users be informed of all the malicious crime created by the attackers. We have also listed out some of the preventive measures that a user should follow in order to prevent such crimes. Knowingly or unknowingly theusers are trapped by using this kind of attacks and the hackers always succeed to outsmart them by using new and different scams. This paper is an attempt to bring an awareness on the phishing types, causes and various preventive measures that can change the way how people reason about the hackers and their perception towards them.
Keywords: Phishing, Spoofing, Pharming, Spamming, Scams, Crook.

[1] phishing/
[3] Lorrie Cranor, Serge Egelman, Jason Hong, Yue Zhang, "Phinding Phish: An Evaluation of Anti-Phishing Toolbars,"Carnegie Mellon University, November 13th2006, CMU-CyLab-06-018,P:1-3.
[4] Anthony Elledge, "Phishing: An Analysis of a Growing Threat," GIAC Security Essentials Certification(GSEC) Practical. Version 1.4b, January 2007, P:3.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Bringing closer to the Cultural Roots through Cultural Computing: Detailed Analysis of movie 'Chaar Sahibzaade'
Country : India
Authors : Harkiran Kaur || Kawaljeet Singh || Tejinder Kaur

Abstract: Indian Cinema has transformed the mode of presenting the cultures and stories since 19th century and the journey still continues. Technology has supported the motive of Indian Cinema to a great extent. With its evolution, technology has offered intelligent access to cultural information for experiencing these cultures in an interactive and unadultered manner. The recent advancements declare it as Cultural Computing. One of the key objectives of cultural computing is the development of efficient tools to facilitate understanding of non computer people for their respective cultures. The proposed paper presents the cultural computing components used in the Indian Cinema to serve the quoted purpose. The idea has been detailed with the case study of 3 – D animated movie 'Chaar Sahibzaade', which is the portrayal for promotion of cultural objects among Punjabi Sikh Diaspora.
Keywords: augmented reality, cultural computing, Indian cinema, technology, virtual reality

[1] Rauterberg, M., From Personal to Cultural Computing: how to assess a cultural experience. Information nutzbar machen, 2006.
[2] Social Networking Websites and Teens. (2015, January). Retrieved from
[3] Rauterberg, M., HCI as an Engineering Discipline: to be or not to be!? African Journal of Information and Communication Technology , 2 (4), 2006, 163-184.
[4] Kaur, H. ,Enhancing Online Access to Sikh Cultural Heritage, master diss., Thapar University, Patiala, 2012.
[5] Srivastava, R. (n.d.). Magna Live Feed .

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Push-Pull Queue based Data Scheduling for VANETs
Country : India
Authors : Brij Bihari Dubey || Naveen Chauhan || Narottam Chand

Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have gained much more attention of the researchers these days because of its many important applications in transportation, to improve safety on roads, reduce traffic congestion, to enable efficient traffic management system etc. In VANETs data is disseminated from data center or RSU to the vehicles and simultaneously from vehicles to the data center or RSU too. Since this pushing and pulling of data from number of vehicles is the challenging job because the delay tolerance during dissemination of these kind of information is critical in nature. The main contribution of our work lies in the efficiency of the algorithm in aggregating and scheduling the information within minimum time. The time taken to gather the information by a vehicle is modeled analytically.
Keywords: VANETs, scheduling, dissemination, road side unit.

[1] ASTM E2213-03 - Standard Specification for Telecom. and Information Exchange Between Roadside and Vehicle Systems – 5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, available at advisory.htm.
[2] J. Zhao and G. Cao, "VADD: Vehicle-assisted data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks," IEEE Transaction Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 1910–1922, May 2008.
[3] N P. Deolasee, A. Katkar, A. Panchbudhe, and K. Ramamritham, "Adaptive push–pull: Disseminating dynamic web data," in Proc.WWWConf. pp. 265–274, 2001.
[4] G.Muhl, A. Ulbrich, K. Herrmann, and T.Weis, "Disseminating information to mobile clients using publish-subscribe," IEEE Internet Comput., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 46–53, May/Jun. 2004.
[5] V. Naumov, R. Baumann, and T. Gross, "An evaluation of inter-vehicle ad hoc networks based on realistic vehicular traces," in Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 108–119, 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of Intermediate Model for Source to Source Conversion
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Naziya Shaikh || Prof. Manisha Naik Gaonkar

Abstract: This paper proposes the idea of conversion of source code from one programming language to another while maintaining the same correct functionality using a new form of intermediate language approach. The processing of such an intermediate language file can provide efficient conversion between two programming languages and can also be extensible to multiple languages. The proposed idea of a common intermediate file template is expected to perform better than other forms of intermediate language that have been used for conversion like xml file, style sheets or other methods like direct conversion methods.
Keywords: High Level Languages; Intermediate Approach; Java; PHP; Programming Languages; Source Code Conversion; Source to Source Translation

[1] Diego Ordonez Camacho, Kim Mens, APPAREIL: A tool for building Automated Program Translators Using Annotated Grammars, Proc. 23rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2008), pp. 489-490, 2008.
[2] P. J. L. Wallis, Automatic Language Conversion and Its Place in the Transition to Ada, Proc. 1985 annual ACM SIG Ada international conference on Ada (SIGAda '85), Vol. 5, No. 2, 1985, pp. 275-284.
[3] P. F. Albrecht, P. E. Garrison, S. L. Graham, R. H. Hyerle, P. Ip, B. Krieg-Brückner, Source-to-Source Trans- lation: Ada to Pascal and Pascal to Ada, Proc. ACM-SIGPLAN symposium on Ada Programming language (SIGPLAN '80), Vol. 15, No. 11, 1980, pp. 183- 193.
[4] David A. Plaisted, Source-to-source translation and software engineering, Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2013, 6, 30-40.
[5] Richard C. Waters, Program Translation via Abstraction and Reimplementation, IEEE transactions on Software Engineering, 1986.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Internet of Things: Design of a New Layered Architecture and Study of Some Existing Issues
Country : India
Authors : Indu Bala Thingom

Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) creates the existence of smart objects and the interactions amongst them and between humans and these objects for the development of the environment as a whole. Objects become smart/intelligent by using new technologies and connecting them through the internet. Not only objects but also buildings, vehicles and even cities have become smart by being connected using this technology called IoT. In this paper a new architecture of IoT is proposed and a brief discussion of the features of each layer is provided. In the later part of the paper a brief discussion on the different issues of IoT will be given.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), RFID tags, sensors, actuators, Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications.

[1]. < Accessed on 9th April 2014 >
[2]. S. Hachem, T. Teixeira, and V. Issarny, Ontologies for the Internet of Things, Proc. 8th Middleware Doctoral Symposium, ser. MDS '11, New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2011, 3:1–3:6.
[3]. O. Said, M. Masud, Towards Internet of Things: Survey and Future Vision, International Journal of Computer Networks (IJCN), 5(1), 2013, 1-17.
[4]. A. Bassi, R. Giaffreda and P. Vlacheas, A Common Architectural Approach for IoT Empowerment, Internet of Things- Converging Technologies for Smart Environments and Integrated Ecosystems (Denmark, River Publishers, 2013).
[5]. J. An, X. Lin Gui, X. He, Study on the Architecture and Key Technologies for Internet of Things, Proc. International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Advances in Biomedical Engineering, 11, 2012, 329-335.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Approach To Image Encryption
Country : India
Authors : Sneha Birendra Tiwari || Prof. Nagaraj Vernekar

Abstract: In information processing field image security and image storage space requirements are two of the most widely explored field. To provide security to the images many encryption algorithms have been designed which are different from the textual encryption algorithm. To reduce the image storage space requirement image compression algorithms like the JPEG and JPEG2000 algorithms have been proposed. All this year's research has been carried-out on these two fields separately. In this paper, we propose an image encryption technique which is preceded by enhancing the JPEG compression algorithm. The compression format decodes the image using only the compressed image file with a JPEG decoder, and also use small amount of code to perform compression if the quantization table is set to fine or remove the noise if the quantization table is set to coarse. To perform the aforementioned operation a prior pixel pre-processing step termed as JpegExt. coding is performed before performing the conventional JPEG compression steps. In JpegExt coding, first the image is transformed into YCbCr color space which is then segmented into n-number of 8*8 pixel block. For every pixel block we perform the column-wise permutation followed by the row-wise permutation by defining a prior mathematical condition which needs to be satisfied in-order to perform the mentioned permutation operations. Finally a header is generated in which the permutation values and the conditional values are encoded. The generated header is then added to the image file which then passes through the remaining steps of basic JPEG compression. The resultant compressed image is then encrypted using the AES encryption algorithm. On the decryption unit; the encrypted image is decrypted which is then followed by the JPEG decompression. On the Decoder unit, the JPEG Decoder decodes the image file by extracting the information from the header and performing the inverse transformation operation to decode the coded image so as to recover the uncompressed image.
Keywords: Conventional JPEG; Spatial Transformation, JpegExt. coding, Dicrete-Cosine Transformation, Coarse Quantization Table, Row-Permutation,Column-Permutation, Header Information.

[1] Mohsen Ashourian, Amir Afzal, Payman Moallem, Using reversible variable-length codes for JPEG image transmission in a noisy channel, Analog Integr Circ Sig Process, Springer, 2012, 337-341.
[2] Ramesh Neelamani, Zhingang Fan, JPEG Compression History Estimation for Color Images, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, 15(06), 2006, 1365-1378.
[3] Gopal Lakhani, Modifying JPEG binary arithmetic codec for exploiting inter/intra-block and DCT coefficient sign redundancies, IEEE transaction, 2011.
[4] April Khademi, Sridhar Krishnan, Comparision of JPEG 200 And Other Lossless Compression Scheme for Digital Mammograms, Proc. IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Shanghai, China, 2005, 334-344.
[5] Mohammad Ali Bni Younes, Aman Jantan, An Image encryption approach Using a combination of permutation technique followed by permutation, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 08(04), 2008, 191-197.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Framework for Dynamic Software Analysis & Application Performance Monitoring
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Ashish Oberoi || Pallavi

Abstract: The objective of this research paper is to analyze software product that requires efficient measures to accurately monitor the internal software quality, based on modular design. During the course of software development life cycle, it involves defect avoidance rather than defect removal. Software metrics have been widely used to measure internal quality attributes such as coupling and cohesion for object-oriented software systems. The metrics available for coupling measurement is divided into two major categories i) Static metrics and ii) Dynamic metrics. Static metrics can only measure the expected coupling behavior of object-oriented software and not the actual behavior. Dynamic metrics can capture the actual coupling behavior as they are evaluated from data collected during runtime. Results are shown by using N-Crunch technique to measure software performance, dependency cycles between components to achieve higher code maintainability. Lines of Code, Cyclomatic Complexity, Coupling, Nesting Depth and Rank etc.
Keywords: Metrics, Object Oriented, Performance Monitoring, Software, Testing.

[1] L.C. Briand, V. R. Basili and W. L. Melo(October 1996), "A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 751–761
[2] S. R. Chidamber, and C. F. Kemerer(1991), "Towards a Metrics Suite for Object-Oriented Design", In Proceedings of the Conference on Object-Oriented Programming: Systems, Languages and Applications, (OOPSLA' 91),SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 26, no.11, pp. 197–211.
[3] H. Paques and L. Delcambre(1999), "A Mechanism for Assessing Class Interactions Using Dynamic Coupling During the Analysis Phase", In Proceedings of XVIII Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering - SBES'99, Florianopolis - Santa Catarina – Brasil.
[4] E. Schikuta, "Dynamic Coupling Metrics", 1993.
[5] Sherif M. Yacoub, T. Robinson, and H. H. Ammar(1999), "Dynamic Metrics for Object Oriented Designs", In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Software Metrics

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Recent Innovations in Cloud Computing
Country : India
Authors : Sujit Shome || Abhishek Mishra

Abstract: In the era of computing when the storage, deployment and accessing of resources are happening on the cloud there is a immediate need to look over the security, reliability and implementing new technologies that can focus on maximizing the use of cloud resources with clear focus on use of renewable resources and improved form of authentication for data transmission. In this paper we tried to introduce few recent trends & innovations that will change the way of deployment on the cloud devices and systems .The paper introduces with a new and improved way of password less authentication technique and later discussed the introduction of decentralization of power systems with the use of 'Smart Meters' in datacenters and storage units. The paper also discusses on the introduction of a newer idea of replacing the trend of 'Internet Service Providers' by 'Decentralized Peer to Peer Networks' that would further reduce the burden on individual servers and furthermore discussed the' Secure Push Notifications 'over mobile networks further enabling secure transactions over accepted terms and conditions between the third party network.
Keywords: Computing, Decentralization, Peer to Peer Networks, Secure Push Notifications, Third party Networks.

[1]. O.Nancy (2014 December10), FIDO Technical Glossary. FIDO Alliance Proposed Standard. K. Kane on (2014 April 8), Enabling secure notifications to mobile devices via the cloud.
[2]. New Smart Grid Cntrol Decentralizes electricity supply ( 2015 February 2). 2015 New J. Phys. 17 015002.
[3]. N. Owano We the Internet: Bitcoin developers seed idea for Bitcloud (2014 January 27 ).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : RSA Key Generation Using Combination of Fingerprints
Country : India
Authors : Sharda Singh || Dr. J. A. Laxminarayana

Abstract: The security of any encrypted data relies upon the cryptographic keys in use. The strong cryptographic key shall be lengthy, random and unique. A biometric feature such as fingerprint can provide the uniqueness factor, whereas randomness can be induced using different combinations of fingerprints. We propose a technique to generate the asymmetric key pair (for RSA) by making use of combination of fingerprints.
Keywords: Biometrics, Cryptography, Fingerprints, Key Generation, Minutiae.

[1] Abhishek Nagar and Santanu Chaudhary, Biometrics based Asymmetric Cryptosystem Design using Modified Fuzzy Vault Scheme, Proc. 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition(ICPR-06), Hong Kong, Aug 20-24, 2006, 537-540,.
[2] R. K. Sharma, Generation of Biometric Key for Use in DES, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 9(6), 2012, 312-315.
[3] Umut Uludag, Sharath Pankanti, Salil Prabhakar and Anil K.Jain , Biometric Cryptosystems Issues and Challenges, Proceedings of the IEEE, 92(6), 2004, 948-960.
[4] P. Balakumar and R. Venkatesan, Secure Biometric Key Generation Scheme for Cryptography using Combined Biometric Features of Fingerprint and Iris , IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, 8(5), 2011, 349-356.
[5] R.K. Nichols, Chapter 22, ICSA Guide to cryptography (McGraw Hill New York 1999), 649-675.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Robust Color-Based Multi-Face Detection Using Skin Color Segmentation
Country : India
Authors : Sneha Tiwari Birendra || Prof. Nagaraj Vernekar

Abstract: Human face detection is the first step for face recognition. Variation of illumination, the existence of occlusion and orientation effect on the performance of the face-detection algorithms. Using the skin-color segmentation technique we can overcome the above referred problem. In this paper we propose a novel color-based multiple face detection approach which is based on the color-features and skin-color segmentation. At first the image is converted into YCbCr and HSV color model. Next the resultant image is converted into skin and non-skin regions using the designed HSCbCr color model. Next the segmented image is morphed and then skin-regions are constructed. Finally the face is detected by drawing the bounding box around the faces. The proposed approach is able to localize the occluded facial features.
Keywords: Color-model, Morphological operation, Multiple-Face-Detection, Region-labeling, Skin Segmentation.

[1] H C Vijay Lakshmi, S. PatilKulkarni, Face Detection and Localization in Skin Toned Color Images Using Wavelet and Edge Detection Techniques, International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, IEEE Transaction, 2010, 231-234.
[2] Anima Majumdar, L. Behera and Venkatesh K Subramanian, Automatic and Robust Detection of Facial Features in Frontal Face Images, 13th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, IEEE Transaction, 2011, 331-336.
[3] Prashant Kumar G, Shashidhara M, Skin Color Segmentation for Detecting Human Face Region in Image, International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, IEEE Transaction, 2014, 001-005.
[4] S. Chitra, G. Balakrishnan, Comparitive Study of Two Color Spaces HSCbCr and YCbCr in Skin-Color Detection, Applied Mathematical Sciences, 6(85), 2012,4229-4238.
[5] Ali Atarifard, Sedigheh Ghofrani, Robust Component-based Face Detection Using Color Feature, Proc. World Congress on Engineering, WCE, 2(8), 2011, 978-988.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Genetic Based Task Scheduling Strategy for Distributed Environment
Country : India
Authors : Sunil Kumar || Sumit Mittal || Manpreet Singh

Abstract: With the emergence of Cloud computing and Grid Computing, Distributed Scheduling (DS) problems have attracted attention by researchers in recent years. Distributed scheduling requires an uneven distribution of tasks on individual processors. Different heuristic based algorithms to perform the task scheduling have been proposed by the various researchers. This paper offers a new strategy for task scheduling which is based on genetic algorithm. The final results show that proposed algorithm is an improvisation over Standard Genetic Algorithm in terms of makespan and resource utilization.
Keywords: Distributed Scheduling, Genetic Algorithm, Meta- Heuristic, Makespan.

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[2] J. Naik k, V. Kumar and N. Satyanarayana, Scheduling Tasks Most Suitable Fault tolerant Resource for Execution in Computational Grid, International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing, 5, 2012, 121-131.
[3] J. Blythe, S. Jain, E. Deelman, Y. Gil, K. Vahi, A. Mandal and K. Kennedy, Task Scheduling Strategies for Workflow-based Applications in Grids, International Symposium on Cluster Computing and Grid (CCGrid), IEEE, 2005, 759-767.
[4] M. Maheswaran, S. Ali, H.J. Soegel, D. Hensgen, and R Freund, Dynamic Matching and Scheduling of a class of Independent Tasks onto Heterogeneous Computing Systems, 8th Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, San Juan 1999,30-44.
[5] M. Singh and P. K. Suri, QPS Max-Min<>Min-Min: A QoS Based Predictive Max-Min, Min-Min Switcher Algorithm for Job Scheduling in a Grid, Information Technology Journal, 7(8) , 2008 1176-1181.

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